Present Perfect Pr e se n t Pe r fe ct To have + particípio do verbo principal normal form I have traveled You have worked He has gone She has prepared It has jumped We have waited You have planned They have tried contracted form I‘ve traveled You’ve worked He’s gone She’s prepared It’s jumped We’ve waited You’ve planned They’ve tried Forma interrogativa I have tried. You have done. Have I tried ? Have you done ? He has gone. She has prepared. Has he gone ? Has she prepared ? Forma negativa I have tried You have done. I have not tried. You have not done. He has gone. She has prepared. He has not gone . She has not prepared . Formas abreviadas have not = haven’t has not = hasn’t Aplicações 1 Para indicar uma ação passada sem tempo definido. I have tried ... You have worked... He has gone... mas I tried yesterday . You worked last night . He went to London two days ago . Aplicações 2 Para representar uma ação que tem se repetido recentemente. She has done that exercise many times several times more than twice more than three times (a ação se repetiu várias vezes) Aplicações 3 O "Present Perfect" também é usado quando uma ação que iniciou no passado se prolonga até o momento presente. John has written reports since 1980 . (ele começou escreve-los em 1980 e até hoje os escreve) Susan has observed birds for five years . (Susan começou a observar há cinco anos atrás e ainda hoje observa) Aplicações 4 Advérbios usados com o “Present perfect”. Already Yet Just Never Ever Lately Recently So far Up to now ALREADY Significa "já" e aparece nas formas afirmativa e interrogativa . He has already sent those samples . They have already gone to England . Has he already sent those samples ? Have they already gone to England? YET Significa "ainda" e "já" e aparece nas formas interrogativa e negativa . He hasn't written the article yet . (ainda ) They haven't gone there yet . (ainda ) Has he written the article yet ? (já ) Have they gone there yet ? (já ) JUST Significa "exatamente, precisamente ou acabar de" e aparece entre o verbo "to have" e o “verbo principal no particípio” . (O advérbio "just" indica que a ação aconteceu recentemente) He has just eaten the sandwich . They have just fixed the problem. NEVER Significa "nunca" e aparece entre o verbo "to have" e o verbo principal no particípio . He has never sung that song . They have never talked to her . EVER Significa "alguma vez" e aparece entre o verbo "to have” e o verbo principal no particípio. Has she ever tested you with those silly questions ? Have you ever heard about bad cops in NYPD ? LATELY / RECENTLY Significam "ultimamente" e “recentemente” e aparecem no final da frase. He has worked a lot lately . They haven’t gone anywhere lately . He has studied Math recently . They haven’t given any help recently . SO FAR / UP TO NOW Significam “até aqui” ou “até agora” e geralmente aparecem no final da frase. The children have done eleven exercises so far . Sam has saved a lot of money up to now . Exercise 1 Complete the sentences using the verbs in the present perfect tense: 1.I___________to Boston many times. (to go) have gone 2.My two sisters_____________too much. (to work) have worked 3.My brother____________ has traveled a lot. (to travel) 4.Bill and that girl _______just________ have decided to live in London. (to decide) 5.Becky ___________for a new job. (to look) has looked 6. Jane ________to has tried send the message. (to try) 7. Meg and I _____just______up smoking. (to give) have given 8.It ___________in Southern California. (to rain) has rained 9.Your sister__________ has spent money on silly things . (to spend) has sung 10.George _________“Love for sale” all the time. (to sing) Exercise 2 In the following sentences, supply either the past tense or the present perfect tense of the verbs in parentheses. 1. I __________ have tried everything so far. It’s useless! (to try) 2. Her boss_____to went New York city last night. (to go) 3.They _________the report several times. (to read) have read met 4. I_____that woman in Berlin in 1990. (to meet) 5.They_____ have just _____ read the report about UFOs . (to read) 6.I ______to talked him a few days ago. (to talk) 7.He____ has never _____to been Seattle. (to be) Have you ever _____ 8.______ seen the rain? (to see) 9.They ________to traveled Paris last Winter. (to travel) 10.We____that movie last year. (to see) saw Test 1 Check the right alternative; I___________him many years ago. We________good friends since then. a) met; were b) met; have been c) have met; have been d) have met; were e) met; are Test 2 (UEPG) - My friend__________her grandparents since Christmas. a) saw b) hasn’t seen c) doesn’t seen d) haven’t seen e) were seen Test 3 (UNESP) - Assinale a alternativa correta. We're still waiting for Bill. He ______ yet. a) hasn't come b) haven't come c) didn't come d) doesn't come e) hadn't come Test 4 (ITA-SP) - Sarah_________classes lately , has she? a) didn’t attend b) haven’t attend c) attended d) hasn’t attended e) doesn’t attend Test 5 (UNESP – SP) - Fill in the blanks with the correct verb forms: He_________ learning English five years ago but he________ it yet. a) has started - does not learn; b) started - has not learned; c) has started - learned; d) started - have not learned; e) have started - did not learn.