GÊNEROS TEXTUAIS - Gêneros textuais são tipos específicos de textos de qualquer natureza, literários ou não-literários. São textos que circulam no mundo, que têm uma função específica, para um público específico e com características próprias. Além das características próprias, os gêneros textuais caracterizam-se por organização, estrutura gramatical e vocabulários específicos. 5 October, 2000 Mr. Bill Symes 1234 SE Beavercreek Road Oregon City, OR 97045 Dear Mr. Symes: My name is Anna Alway, and I am writing to apply for your class, BA205. I understand that you are looking for students who want to improve their business communication skills, and I am one of those students. I would like to express three ways that you will benefit from having me in your class. COGNATOS - São palavras que têm a mesma origem e, portanto, ortografias semelhantes. Exemplos: Nome – nombre (espanhol), name (inglês). Setembro – September (inglês), septiembre (espanhol). FALSOS COGNATOS - Attend: assistir a, frequentar - Atender: answer, consider - College: faculdade - Colégio: high school - Parents: pais - Parentes: relatives IDENTIFICANDO COGNATOS - English is used for many different kinds of communication. Politics and business are often carried out in English. Most medical and scientific studies are written in English. English is the language of much of the world`s pop music and films. On the Internet and in the computer industry, English is used much more than in other languages. The `languages` of international sea and air traffic control, known as `Seaspeak´ and `Airspeak´, use English. ARTICLES – A, AN, THE - Antes de substantivos singulares: a bicycle an apple the teacher - Quando falamos do trabalho de alguém: John is a teacher. Diane is an actress. - Quando está claro sobre o quê ou quem estamos falando – THE: It´s dark in here. Turn on the lights, please. PERSONAL PRONOUNS Personal Pronouns I YOU HE SHE IT WE YOU THEY Object Pronouns ME YOU HIM HER IT US YOU THEM SUBJECT PRONOUNS Tony isn´t at work. He is at work. Diana is my boss. She is very nice. Computers aren´t cheap. They´re expensive. The machine is not working. It is broken. OBJECT PRONOUNS Joe is there. Can you see him? Those people are very nice. I like them. The computer is free. Can I use it? Susan is there. Can you call her. QUIZ Qual alternativa abaixo completa a frase de forma correta? David is at work. ______ is very busy. Please, don´t disturb _______. a. b. c. d. She – her He – him Her – she Him - He INFERÊNCIA TEXTUAL - O carro ficou completamente destruído depois do _______________. - Está tão frio hoje. Vou tomar um ___________ para esquentar. - Open your __________ at page 59. - The __________ is very good. I like Ford. - I am ___________. Let´s go to Pizza hut ? ESGROMELHO NO AR - Naquele dia, o rodopial estava lotado como de ladranha. Muitos piniqueiros, vários plins e diferentes pitos. O plim 253 esborofou pontualmente com pito à Patagônia. Logo após a esborofagem o draivão dá aos piniqueiros as boas vindas e informa que enfrentarão uma forte tempestade. O rodo começa a mexilhar. As rodopufas tentam distrair os piniqueiros oferecendo-lhes glutes e tapicos. O esgromelho aumentava e os piniqueiros gritavam. As luzes do rodo se fricaram e a situação ficou esmérida. Até hoje não se sabe o pito final deste plim. SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE – TO BE I AM --------------- I AM NOT --------------- AM I? YOU ARE --------- YOU ARE NOT -------- ARE YOU? HE IS --------------- HE IS NOT ---------- IS HE? SHE IS ------------- SHE IS NOT --------- IS SHE? IT IS --------------- IT IS NOT ----------- IS IT? WE ARE ------------ WE ARE NOT -------- ARE WE? YOU ARE ----------- YOU ARE NOT ------ ARE YOU? THEY ARE ---------- THEY ARE NOT ---- ARE THEY? EXAMPLES: - I am not British. I am Brazilian. - Joseph is a teacher. He is not a pilot. ISN´T - They are not programmers. They are engineers. AREN´T - Are you a telephone operator? COMPLETE WITH AM, IS OR ARE: My name __________ Frank Taylor. I ______ 23 years old and I ________ an engineer. I _________ from San Diego, California. I have one sister and one brother. Their names _________ Monica and James. Monica _______ 19 years old. She _______ a student. James _______ 27 years old. He _______ a fireman with the Los Angeles Fire Department. QUIZ Escolha a alternativa em que o verbo TO BE está empregado corretamente. a. b. c. d. Roger are a computer expert. Julia and I am secretaries. Cathy and Mary are good friends. Bianca not is an operator. SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE AFFIRMATIVE I drink You drink He drinks She drinks It drinks We drink You drink They drink coffee in the morning. EXAMPLES: - I live in Mogi das Cruzes. - My brother studies Business Administration. - The managers travel every month. SPELLING OF ENDINGS - Words ending in –ch, -sh, -s, -x or –z: watches fixes +es passes - Words ending in a consonant + y : y + -ies/ied/-ier/-iest/-ily fly – flies cry – cries study - studies SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE NEGATIVE - Auxiliaries – DO and DOES: I / You / We / They do not speak German. don´t He / She / It does not speak German. doesn´t EXAMPLES: - You don´t understand the situation. - The client doesn´t want an explanation. - The Millers don´t check their accounts every day. SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE INTERROGATIVE - Auxiliaries - DO and DOES - DO - DOES I / you / we / they he / she / it go to work by car? read the newspaper? EXAMPLES: - DO you know Mr. Brown? - DOES your wife cook? - DO we need a password? - DOES Laura have a car? LET´S PRACTICE! He often (wait / waits) for me. The boys (swim / swims) every day. We (buy / buys) apples at the supermarket. You always (take / takes) the wrong bus. She (eats / eat) fruits in the morning. I (wash / washes) my hair every day. My son (go / goes) to the park on Sundays. The children (play / plays) in the park every morning. The girl (speak / speaks) French very well. QUIZ Qual é a forma interrogativa correta? a. b. c. d. James take the subway every day? Does Henry and Jim study at UBC? The Silva´s does live in a big house? Do they read the newspaper in the morning?