3rd International Conference and Exhibition on
Traditional & Alternative Medicine
August 03-05, 2015 Birmingham, UK
In Association with
Presented By
Léia Fortes Salles
The sign of the Cross of Andreas in the iris
and Diabetes Mellitus: a longitudinal study
Léia Fortes Salles
Maria Júlia Paes da Silva
3rd International Conference
Traditional & Alternative Medicine
Birminghan, 2015
Diabetes is a disease of
multiple action, considered one
of the major public health
problems in the world given its
high prevalence and high rate
of mortality and morbidity.
Type 2 diabetes has a
genetic component, but is
linked to obesity and
The International Diabetes
Federation estimated that 386
million people had diabetes
worldwide and in 25 years the
number of people affected by the
disease will pass to 592 million.
International studies suggest that the
cost of care related to diabetes is about
two to three times higher than costs of
care provided to non-diabetic patients.
Iridology is a science that allows identifying physical, emotional
and mental aspects of individuals by their iris. The purpose of
this method is to detect evolving disturbances and intervene
early to prevent illnesses.
Iridology does not diagnoses, but only indicates the
shock organs of the body and thus, the
predisposition to sickness.
According to Iridology professionals, the Sign of the Pancreas and
the Cross of Andreas are two signs in the iris suggestive of
predisposition for diabetes.
Map of Iridology
Sign of the Pancreas
Figure 1. Condensed map of Iridology and Sign of the Pancreas.
Source: Battello CF. Iridologia e irisdiagnose: o que os olhos podem revelar (Iridology and iridiagnosis: what the eyes can
reveal – still not published in English). Ground Pub.; 1999.
Cross of Andreas
Figure 2. Cross of Andreas. Source: Battello CF. Iridiologia total (Total iridology – still not published in English). Ground
Pub.; 1996.
Studies about iridology and diabetes
Master study: Participation of 97 individuals
with diabetes Mellitus. The aim was to
determine the prevalence of iridologic signs,
such as the Sign of the Pancreas and the
Cross of Andreas. After their iris analysis, it
was found that the adjusted prevalence of
the Sign of the Pancreas and the Cross of
Andreas were, 98% and 89%, respectively.
There were significant associations
(p<0.001) among the three risk factors
for diabetes (obesity, sedentary lifestyle
and heredity) with both studied signs.
The doctoral study aimed to determine the
prevalence of the same signs in individuals
with and without diabetes and its heritability.
Data collection took place between 2010
and 2011, and 410 individuals aged over 30
years participated. People with diabetes had
a higher prevalence of the studied iridologic
signs. The Student’s t test revealed a
statistically significant difference in the
prevalence of these signs among patients
with and without diabetes and in those with
and without family history of the disease.
The chi square test showed that having both
signs increases the chance of developing
diabetes and only the Sign of the Pancreas
alone is not sufficient to develop the
Justification of the study
The genetic predisposition to diabetes is not sufficient
for the clinical manifestation of the disease.
Type 2 diabetes usually begins in adulthood or old age.
In these stages of life, habits formed over many years
are difficult to change.
Habits acquired in childhood are easier to keep. With early
identification of signs in the iris indicating pancreatic
commitment, we can take preventive measures to avoid the
emergence of diabetes and the installation of its sequels.
The main objective of this study was to compare during a four-year
period, the development of diabetes mellitus, glucose intolerance
and metabolic syndrome in individuals without the disease, and
with and without the Cross of Andreas sign in the iris.
The specific objective was to correlate the studied iris sign with
family history of the disease.
The hypothesis was that individuals with the sign of the
Cross of Andreas in the iris will develop diabetes,
glucose intolerance and metabolic syndrome
more frequently.
Type of study:
A prospective, descriptive cohort study of quantitative
Study location:
The study was carried out at the Teaching Health Center
Geraldo de Paula Souza of the Public Health School,
University of São Paulo.
 The sample was taken from part of a doctoral research database
collected in 2010, consisting of 215 individuals without diabetes.
 This sample comprised 108 volunteers divided into two groups: 54
individuals with the Cross of Andreas and 54 without the sign in the
 The inclusion criteria were the following: being enrolled and in
treatment at the Teaching Health Center, adults aged over 40 years,
and knowledge about family history of diabetes. The exclusion
criteria were presence of prosthetic eye, scar and pterygium
covering more than two quadrants of the iris in both eyes and
difficulty with keeping the eyes open.
Period of data collection:
 The database used in this study was collected in 2010. This study period
was between October 2012 and August 2014.
Data collection procedures:
Clarification about the research and signature of the Informed Consent.
First interview (identification and medical records ).
Taking notes on data of the medical records: diagnoses, test results of
blood glucose and/or glycosylated hemoglobin, total cholesterol and
fractions, as well as blood pressure.
Photography of both iris.
Three more reviews of the medical chart.
Data processing
 Data were processed by number and percentage, and the
Pearson’s chi-squared test was the statistical test used.
Ethical issues
 The study was submitted to the Plataforma Brasil (Brazilian
government electronic system for approval of studies involving
human beings) and approved by the CEP (Ethics Committee) of
the School of Nursing, University of São Paulo (under number
CAAE 05654712.4.0000.5392).
N (90) + 20% = 108
With Cross of Andreas (54)
Without Cross of Andreas (54)
Transfer (6)
No return (8)
Lack of recent exam (3)
Results - charateristic of the sample
Female – 76.9%
Male – 23.1%
Age group
42 - 79 years
Mean age – 61.5 years
Results – characteritics of the sample
Table 1. Sample characterization of both groups. São Paulo, 2014.
With Cross of
Without Cross of
63 years
60 years
Family history of DM
Presence of the Sign of
Mean age
the Pancreas
Table 2. Comparison of the prevalence of diabetes, glucose intolerance and
metabolic syndrome between groups at the end of four years. São Paulo, 2014.
With Cross of Andreas
Without Cross of Andreas
Glucose intolerance
Metabolic syndrome
The Pearson’s chi-squared statistical test showed that the
differences between the groups regarding the development of
diabetes (p = 0.002), glucose intolerance (p = 0.004) and
metabolic syndrome (p = 0.007) were statistically significant.
The sign of the Cross of Andreas had statistically significant
association with family history of diabetes (p< 0.001).
At the end of four years, the group of volunteers with the
sign of the Cross of Andreas in the iris developed more
diabetes, glucose intolerance and metabolic syndrome than
the group of volunteers without the sign.
The Cross of Andreas had statistically significant
association with family history of diabetes.
The Cross of Andreas indicates predisposition to diabetes.
Acknowledgement: The present study was
carried out with the support of CNPq, Conselho
Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e
Tecnológico (National Council for Scientific and
Technological Development) - Brazil.
Salles LF, Silva MJP. Enfermagem e as Práticas Complementares em Saúde. São Caetano do Sul (SP):
Yendis; 2011
World Health Organization (WHO). Prevalence of diabetes worldwide [Online]. Geneva: WHO; 2011.
[cited 2011 jul. 13]. Available from: http://www.who.int/diabetes/en/.
American Diabetes Association. Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care,
Alexandria, 2010, 33, Suppl. 1: S62–69.
Brasil. Ministério da Saúde. Secretaria de Atenção à Saúde. Departamento de Atenção Básica.
Estratégias para o cuidado da pessoa com doença crônica : diabetes mellitus / Ministério da Saúde,
Secretaria de Atenção à Saúde, Departamento de Atenção Básica. – Brasília (DF): Ministério da Saúde,
2013. 160 p. Cadernos de Atenção Básica, n. 3.
International Diabetes Federation. Epidemiology and prevention [online]. Available from:
Batello CF. Iridologia e irisdiagnose: o que os olhos podem revelar. 3ª ed. São Paulo: Ground; 2009.
Kalsa GS. Iridologia integrada: a ciência e a arte da revelação do holograma humano. São Paulo:
Mandras; 2009.
Battello C. Iridiologia total. São Paulo: Ground; 1996.
Salles LF. Avaliação da prevalência e da herdabilidade de sinais iridológicos nos indivíduos com
Diabetes Mellitus em indivíduos com e sem a doença [tese]. São Paulo (SP): Escola de Enfermagem da
USP; 2012.
Thank you for your attention
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Sinais pré-clínicos do Diabetes mellitus detectados através da íris