EUROPEAN SOLAR CITIES PROJECT
Good Practice Guide
PROJECT COORDINATOR:
International Solar Energy Society (ISES)
PARTNERS:
Esbensen Consulting Engineers A/S
Cenergia Energy Consultants ApS
DHV Building and Industry
RESET G.E.I.E.
This project was financially supported by the European Community
‘Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development (EESD)’ Programme
December 2004
Solar Cities - Good Practice Guide
GOOD PRACTICE GUIDE
CONTENTS
0.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Executive Summary ................................................................................................................... 3
User guidelines........................................................................................................................... 5
1.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 5
1.2 How to use this guide .......................................................................................................... 6
City good practices .................................................................................................................... 7
2.1 Rating system ...................................................................................................................... 8
2.2 Overview of city good practices, incl. rating ........................................................................ 9
2.2.1
Rating – Bruck an der Leitha........................................................................................ 9
2.2.2
Rating - Toftlund......................................................................................................... 10
2.2.3
Rating - Copenhagen ................................................................................................. 11
2.2.4
Rating – Salzburg....................................................................................................... 12
2.2.5
Rating – Zonnige Kempen ......................................................................................... 13
2.2.6
Rating – Turin............................................................................................................. 14
2.2.7
Rating – Lyon ............................................................................................................. 15
2.2.8
Rating – Freiburg........................................................................................................ 16
2.3 Elaboration of good practice concepts .............................................................................. 17
2.4 Detailed city good practices............................................................................................... 22
2.4.1
Bruck an der Leitha (Austria) ..................................................................................... 22
2.4.2
Toftlund (Denmark) .................................................................................................... 36
2.4.3
Copenhagen (Denmark)............................................................................................. 53
2.4.4
Salzburg (Austria)....................................................................................................... 65
2.4.5
Zonnige Kempen (Belgium) ....................................................................................... 73
2.4.6
Turin (Italy) ................................................................................................................. 85
2.4.7
Lyon (France) ........................................................................................................... 104
2.4.8
Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany).............................................................................. 119
City network overview............................................................................................................ 133
3.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................................... 133
3.2 Comparative framework used.......................................................................................... 133
3.3 City networks in brief – table format ................................................................................ 134
City network good practices ................................................................................................. 138
4.1 Overview of city network good practices ......................................................................... 138
4.2 City network good practices in detail ............................................................................... 141
4.2.1
Brundtland City Energy Network (BCEN) ................................................................ 141
4.2.2
European Green Cities Network (EGCN)................................................................. 157
4.2.3
Renewable Energy Strategies for European Towns (RESETnet) ........................... 166
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Solar Cities - Good Practice Guide
ANNEXES
Annex 1:
Renewable Energy Sources (RES)
Annex 2:
Study Methodology
Annex 3:
City Network Details
Annex 4:
Additional Details on Eight Good Practices from RESETnet
Additional information is available on the project website:
Report B - Guide on CO2 Reduction Potential in Cities
Annex 5:
Useful Weblinks
Annex 6:
EGCN Managenergy Report
Annex 7:
Salzburg Energiepunkte Novelle 2003 (German)
Annex 8:
Salzburg Handlunsgsanleitung e5 (German)
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Solar Cities - Good Practice Guide
0.
Executive Summary
It is generally agreed that the reduction of CO2 emissions from cities in the industrialised part of the
world is one of the most important challenges to be met in future years by modern society. Emissions
from these cities are two to six times the ‘acceptable’ sustainable rate of 3.3=tons/capita 1. However, in
addition to this many cities are also growing at a rapid tempo and a considerable number of large cities
in the developing countries are increasing the standard of living for their citizens - with increased CO2
emissions as an almost inevitable consequence.
The problem is vast and has to be addressed by using a broad range of approaches, ranging from
overall planning and policy programs for whole cities, to energy conservation measures undertaken by
individual citizens and collective groups (‘think globally – act locally’). Policies and targets have to be
set at an international level, such as by the Kyoto Protocol, but also at national and local (municipal)
level.
In this document the reader will find the results of the European Solar Cities Project - a study that
addresses the planning and application of technologies for utilising Renewable Energy Sources (RES)
2
and the rational use of energy (RUE), also referred to as energy efficiency (EE), in an urban context,
and their relevance for reducing CO2 emissions.
The project results encompass a range of informative materials, with recommendations for replication to
city actors and local governments. In this way the project team aims to provide general encouragement
to cities to move towards sustainable energy provision and initiating the ‘Solar City’ 3 transformation
process.
Within the scope of this project several activities were conducted:
•
The collection and assessment of information about different activities and programmes of
selected cities and city networks, with a description on their implementation and an assessment
of their impact.
•
The examination of these activities assisted in the development of 2 guide books for city actors,
namely the ‘Good Practice Guide’ (GPG) and the ‘Guide on CO2 Reduction Potential in Cities’.
The Good Practice Guide (Report A of the project) has as primary objective the support of different
actors in identifying environmental actions and sustainable technologies to be implemented at city level.
The Guide focuses on energy-related aspects, such as the reduction of harmful emissions, the
sustainable use of local resources, the provision of a reliable, secure and economic energy supply, and
flexible options for the sound diversification of energy sources in cities. The Good Practice Guide is
useful for all cities that require ideas and information for planning their own activities and strategies to
implement clean energy sources and promote the reduction of harmful emissions. A set of ‘generic’
good practices have been identified, which may be a good starting point for cities that require an
introduction to the concept of implementing RES and RUE strategies and activities.
The second guide (Report B of the project) addresses CO2 reduction potential assessment and CO2
balances, with reduction targets and baseline studies in particular useful to guide cities interested in
implementing a strategy, with basic steps identified to assist this process. There are many different
approaches that are, and can be, used by cities, with different baselines and varied ways of presenting
emissions reduction results. Although scientists are not unanimous in agreeing to the ‘best way’ to
measure emissions, or the most effective way to calculate emissions reduction, the project team has
the view that a delay in implementing strategies and activities that will adequately reduce harmful
emissions, is in itself the most damaging approach.
The results of the project confirm that activities and comprehensive strategies, addressing the wider
integration of RES into local energy systems, have real and promising results for CO2 reduction.
1
As identified by Prof. John Byrne, Center for Energy and Environmental Policy, U.S.A - with reference
to a range of scenarios, where 3.3 tons/capita reflects the ‘ideal case’ scenario if countries reduce their
energy demand as from now.
2
An overview of Renewable Energy Sources is available in Annex 1.
3
A ‘Solar City’ is seen a city that has made a firm commitment to clear and ambitious emissions
reduction targets, also recognising that RES can contribute to this in a substantial manner.
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Solar Cities - Good Practice Guide
There is also a clear impact on different levels including:
-
an improvement in the local environment,
improved quality of life for local inhabitants,
greater support of and interest in local resources and sustainability,
-
economic spin-offs, such as new employment opportunities and increased eco-tourism.
Despite the complexity of the problems facing cities, there is a clear recognition from all sides that
action must be taken without delay to address the reduction of harmful emissions – also those resulting
from local activities, whether from inhabitants, industries and other actors - based within the local
boundaries or interlinked to the city activities.
‘Today, it is public policy and political leadership, rather than either technology or economics, that are
required to move forward with the widespread application of the renewable energy technologies and
methodologies. The technologies and economics will all improve with time, but they are sufficiently
advanced at present to allow for major penetrations of renewable energy into the mainstream energy
and societal infrastructures. Firm goals for penetrations of renewable energy into primary energy and
electrical energy production can be set by governments with confidence for the next 20 years and
beyond, without resource limitations’4.
The project partners herewith extend their thanks for the financial support from the European
Commission, Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development (EESD) – Part B (Energy)
Programme.
4
ISES White Paper ’Transitioning to a Renewable Energy Future’ was written for governments to
provide an insight into the available clean energy technologies, their application potential and policy
options. Electronic versions in several languages can be found on http://whitepaper.ises.org.
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Solar Cities - Good Practice Guide
1.
User guidelines
1.1
Introduction
The intention of the Good Practice Guide 5, hereafter called the GP guide, is to present the identified
good practices (GPs) in such a way that it is straightforward and accessible for the reader. It provides a
concise overview of selected GPs from individual cities and from European city networks, as selected
and concentrated on by the project team.
As many as 63 city good practices from seven cities and one housing association (from six different
European countries), and 22 city network good practices from three networks have been identified,
presented and rated in this guide.
These practices are presented in two ways to assist the reader:
-
Firstly, an overview is provided to give a general idea about the range of GPs, allowing quick
search and comparison possibilities.
-
Secondly each GP is presented in more detail, briefly explaining the objective, describing the
activity and providing useful addition information. Matrixes for each city actor studied recap the
GPs in the different sectors.
Why study these good practices?
Every city needs to consider the result of its actions in terms of energy used and the effect it has on the
environment. Cities are in an excellent position to formalise a strategy that aims for realistic yet
ambitious CO2 reduction goals, with great effect – as it is implemented over a large area and by a
collective or by groups of individuals. Good practices for the reduction of CO2 emissions at city level can
have a tremendous impact and a spill-over effect, not only to other cities but also to the national level.
This GP guide is a useful tool for all actors in cities who are interested in starting or involved in the
’Solar City’ transformation process. These good practices can be used to generate ideas for planning
and devising an appropriate package of activities to implement clean energy sources and promote the
reduction of harmful emissions in the relevant urban area.
It is recognised that the activities and strategies in the cities and networks studied take place in a
particular environment and under specific circumstances. However, the results from this study focus on
good practices that are generally replicable or recommended.
Obviously each city needs to conduct a proper analysis of its own requirements before implementing a
local CO2 reduction plan, to find the optimal solutions that will also have a long-term effect on reducing
harmful emissions. It is realised that not only CO2 emissions are harmful, but as these are relatively
easy to measure and the reduction thereof will actively contribute to a cleaner environment, this is used
as a prominent guideline for the assessment of harmful emissions in cities.
Although the study focuses on activities undertaken in Europe as the primary geographical focus, the
results are relevant for cities and towns globally. The original aim was to include information on
activities and research results from the International Energy Agency (IEA) Task 30 – Solar Cities, to
also reflect the international state of affairs. However, this Task had not yet been formally established at
the time of the project conclusion (December 2003) and as such the anticipated results were not
available for inclusion in this material.
Various initiatives are underway globally to encourage city actors into moving into the right direction and
taking responsibility for their cities. City actors are encouraged to share their experiences. Thereby
helping each other to implement effective actions and avoid the duplication of mistakes.
When used in conjunction with Report B of this project – the ‘CO2 Reduction Potential Assessment and
Issues impacting on CO2 balances’ – this guide can be an effective introduction to the complex arena of
the urban environment and implementing RES and RUE strategies and activities -a tool for city actors.
5
The complete project results are available on http://solarcities.ises.org. Readers are invited to provide
feedback on the report to [email protected], and are encouraged to freely disseminate the reports to
their colleagues and contacts.
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Solar Cities - Good Practice Guide
1.2
How to use this guide
This GP guide has been structured to assist the reader to obtain a swift, yet concise overview of the
selected GPs. Specific actors have been identified, namely cities or towns, and one housing
association, as well as European city networks. From these a selection was made that is viewed as
representative or found to have commendable GPs (Obviously there are many other activities that can
also be considered, but these GPs provide an excellent starting point), and city actors are urged to
seriously consider these examples for replication.
A few sections have been created to provide the reader with useful reference points, namely the
‘overviews’, ‘elaboration of GP concepts’, and ‘matrixes’ (the latter provided for each actor studied).
City Actors
The GPs identified for each of the cities / towns (and the housing association) that were studied, are
placed within a wider context – namely that of the city network. Thus the city actors are grouped
together, showing where they are members of a specific city network (not listed alphabetically). The
country is another important reference framework as for example national or provincial legislation and
regulations can impact (either positively or negatively) on the wider implementation of RES and RUE.
The following city actors are addressed in this study:
City actor
Country
Type City network
Bruck
Austria
town Brundtland City Energy Network
Toftlund
Denmark
town Brundtland City Energy Network
Copenhagen
Salzburg
Zonnige Kempen
Denmark
Austria
Belgium
city
European Green Cities Network
city
European Green Cities Network
housing association
EGCN
Turin
Lyon
Italy
France
city
city
RESETnet
RESETnet
Freiburg im Breisgau
Germany
city
Energie Cités Association
Structure
As the conditions differ in the particular city or city neighbourhood studied, it is not possible to give
general recommendations to each of the presented city GPs. Instead a specific format for the
description of each GP has been followed, to allow the reader a rapid understanding on the objective,
the concept and potential results of each practice. This also helps to highlight similarities and
differences of each.
The format furthermore includes a conclusion and recommendations paragraph which aims to state, in
a simplified manner, aspects that need to be considered and the replication potential of the results.
Last, but not least, information is provided on the relevant contact point where further information can
be obtained from the organisation or person that has had direct experiences with the GP in question.
Although the selected GPs are presented as individual measures, it is strongly believed that an
integrated and planned or orchestrated approach is required for a city to reach CO2 reductions that will
make a considerable difference in the future. As such it is also recommended that the involvement of
experts from many different disciplines is pursued during the planning and implementation phases –
addressing the complex nature of the urban environment and that of the planned activities and
strategies. Such experts are involved in city networks, where a sharing of experiences and expertise
takes place.
Under the city network section (Chapters 3 and 4) the work is presented, firstly as a brief overview of
the networks that were studied (also in table format for comparison). Then the GPs are presented in
greater detail. A more comprehensive versions on each network is also available in Annex 3.
Additional useful information
In the range of Annexes provided the reader will find a collection of additional information, in particular
valuable background information for those readers new to the concept of RES and RUE in the urban
environment – e.g. a description on the renewable energy sources relevant for application in the urban
environment, and a list of interesting websites.
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Solar Cities - Good Practice Guide
2.
City good practices
In order to identify good practices that in particular address the reduction of CO2 emissions using RES
and RUE two levels were addressed in this study. Of primary interest here are the GPs of individual
cities - listed in this Chapter - and at a secondary level the strategies of city networks that provide the
wider framework, which are presented in the following chapters.
However, as stated before, these two levels are closely interrelated, and the user is encouraged to
consider this as an important element when reading this document. For example: the experiences of
implementing a GP of a specific city can also be pooled in the city network it belongs to, thereby
assisting the wider sharing of knowledge on the positive experiences and difficulties – helping partners
to avoid negative aspects and encouraging the replication of its positive experiences (Many city actors
are not prepared to openly share information of difficulties, but in the city networks such information is
shared to some extent - thus a good reason to join a suitable city network).
The range of city GPs presented below is not exhaustive, but is rather aimed at providing a inventory of
recommended activities or strategies, from the point of view of the project team, which can be
considered by many different types of city actors.
Five indicators have been identified 6 in this study for the categorising city GPs, namely:
•
•
•
•
•
CO2 reduction achieved or potential for achieving
Sustainability of the programme, strategy or activity
Satisfaction of users or inhabitants
General replication potential
Cost efficiency
These indicators are regarded as important in ensuring the overall effectiveness of the activities and
strategies, from the perspective of the project team. The indicators were also used as a basis for
developing a rating system for the selected practices, to enable an overall ranking of the GPs (see
paragraph 2.1 for more details on the rating system).
The following city actors were studied, with the reasoning behind their selection listed under the
respective descriptions. They are grouped together, showing where they are members of a specific city
network:
6
•
Bruck (Austria)
BCEN
•
Toftlund (Denmark)
BCEN
•
Copenhagen (Denmark)
EGCN
•
Salzburg (Austria)
EGCN
•
Zonnige Kempen (Belgium)
EGCN
•
Turin (Italy)
RESETnet
•
Lyon (France)
RESETnet
•
Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)
Energie Cités Association
Refer to Annex 2, where the study methodology and indicators are presented in greater detail.
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Solar Cities - Good Practice Guide
2.1
Rating system
For the overall rating system the second indicator, namely ‘the sustainability of the programme or
action’ was excluded. This was done, firstly because all the selected strategies and activities have
already achieved a very high score for this indicator, according to the project team. And secondly to
avoid a lengthy discussion on the exact definition of sustainability 7.
It needs to be underlined that in most cases it was not possible to obtain any detailed information (either
quantitative or qualitative) on these indicators. Therefore a basic qualitative rating system was
developed, as follows:
•
•
•
1 – low
2 – medium
3 – high
All the selected GPs presented in this guide are regarded as good practice (recommended for
replication) – as such zero (0) does not appear, and a rating of 1 is not a negative rating, but rather a
rating provided to indicate a ‘lesser impact’ when compared to other GPs. However, this should again
be seen in the context of each city’s whole strategy and the effectiveness of specific activities within an
integrated and planned approach.
Two indicators, namely ‘general replication potential’ and ‘cost efficiency’ were judged to be more
important than the other two, and were therefore multiplied by a factor of 2 before all four values were
added up. The lowest possible value would be 7 and the highest 18 for the individual GPs in the cities.
The reader is advised to use his/her own judgement in appreciating the rating obtained for each GP, but
in general the following observations can be used as guidance:
•
Ratings between 7 – 8
generally indicate that the GP has scored low for both general replication potential and cost
efficiency. Again it is reiterated that this ‘low’ rating may be very effective in a specific area such as
a high CO2 reduction potential, but it may be challenging to replicate under other circumstances.
•
Ratings between 9 – 14
generally indicate high scores on either replication potential or cost efficiency, but may show some
deficiencies, for example low citizen acceptance.
•
Ratings between 15 – 18
indicate high replication potential, good cost efficiency, good CO2 reduction potential and satisfied
users – within the overall context of sustainability.
In the overview for the ratings the letters R, P, I and T respectively stand for:
R
= residential sector
P
= public sector
I
= industry sector
T
= transport sector.
If no letter was listed this indicates that the GP does not correspond to a specific sector, but rather has
a strategic nature.
The authors have rated all the city GPs according to this system to give the reader a quick indication of
which GPs to look for first, pending specific requirements.
7
The basic focus is on reducing environmental degradation, caused by the use of energy.
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Solar Cities - Good Practice Guide
2.2
2.2.1
Overview of city good practices, incl. rating
Rating – Bruck an der Leitha
Strategy / Activity:
No.
CO2
reduction
Satisfaction
Replication
Cost
efficiency
Total
rating
The municipality committed itself to providing 100% clean energy for the town,
and plays a leading role in the region (LEADER+) regarding wider utilisation of RES
and involving citizens.
BR1
3
2
4
2
11
Establishment of the Association of the Energy Park Bruck an der Leitha to plan
and implement activities to attain 100% energy using RE.
BR2
1
3
6
4
14
Energy consulting for private households, resulting in the implementation of
several activities in residential areas.
BR3
R
2
3
6
6
17
Governmental subsidies available for RE and EE projects - from the
municipality, the government of Lower Austria Region and the EC.
BR4
R
3
3
4
2
12
A permanent exhibition - ‘Energy Info Walk‘ - was set up to teach about all forms of
RES and measures to save energy. Various media and activities are used to
generate awareness among residents and tourists.
BR5
R
1
3
6
4
14
A municipal decision that all new buildings are to be connected to the biomass
district heating plant if they are close to the line. All public buildings are also
connected to this system, and were better insulated.
BR6
R
P
3
2
2
4
11
Development of international tertiary study cooperation by the Energy Park
Bruck/Leitha, with universities collaborating on teaching projects.
BR7
P
1
3
6
4
14
Installation of a combined biogas heating and power plant to produce heat and
electricity for the town.
BR8
R
P
I
3
2
4
4
13
Establishment of the Wind Park Bruck/Leitha to provide clean electricity for the
town. Public investment helped to obtain wider public support. It enhanced the
value of the region and created jobs.
BR9
R
P
I
3
2
4
6
15
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Solar Cities - Good Practice Guide
2.2.2
Rating - Toftlund
Strategy / Activity:
No.
CO2
reduction
Satisfaction
Replication
Cost
efficiency
Total
rating
Political commitment to reach goal of 30-50% energy reduction in 10 years.
TO1
2
3
4
4
13
Wider cooperation on the Local Agenda 21 scheme between municipalities of
Toftlund and two other municipalities.
TO2
1
3
6
4
14
An energy awareness scheme targeting consumers was launched to save
energy.
TO3
R
1
3
6
4
14
Weighing waste from residential and public areas, with payment based on
weight, with a resultant reduction of up to 50% in waste from households.
TO4
R
P
I
1
2
4
2
9
A catalogue of energy reduction options for residential buildings was provided
to inhabitants addressing practical issues on implementing EE and clean energy.
TO5
R
2
3
6
4
15
Establishment of an energy database to evaluate the energy consumption of
individual households, using questionnaires to verify and update information, and
providing feedback on energy consumption.
TO6
R
2
3
6
6
17
BCEN support for the national photovoltaic (PV) campaign, by encouraging
households in Toftlund to participate and make use of the available subsidies.
TO7
R
1
3
2
2
8
Monthly measurement of energy in public buildings, linked to the Danish Energy
Management Scheme - registering heat, electricity and water consumption.
TO8
P
2
2
6
6
16
Installation of a biomass (wood chip stoker) plant at the public Arrild swimming
pool, with investment paid back in 2.5 years and excellent energy savings shown.
TO9
P
3
2
4
4
13
Installation of water efficient toilets at the Agerskov School, with a 2-year payback
time on investment and a high reduction in water consumption.
TO10
P
3
2
4
6
15
District energy provided by a Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plant.
TO11
R
P
I
3
2
4
4
13
A ‘craftsman package’ helped to ‘bundle’ information for the user, and ensure fair
pricing and cooperation between the industry representatives, as work increased.
TO12
R
I
2
3
6
6
17
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Solar Cities - Good Practice Guide
2.2.3
Rating - Copenhagen
No.
CO2
reduction
Satisfaction
Replication
Cost
efficiency
Total
rating
Energy audit scheme for larger buildings (>1500 m2) – implementing national
legislation on energy labelling. The objective of the scheme is to help owners of
larger buildings to introduce good energy management practices.
COP1
R
P
I
2
2
6
6
16
Increase of the district heating network to cover 97% of the heating demand in
the city, and exploiting the heat from conventional electricity production, thereby
reducing CO2 emissions.
COP2
R
P
I
3
3
2
4
12
Implement holistic urban renewal projects, which address sustainability issues.
Neighbourhood regeneration is based on the active commitment and involvement
of the residents, and also provided new incentive to industry for projects.
COP3
R
P
I
2
3
6
2
13
Green guides assist residents to choose environmentally optimal behaviour. A
‘green guide’ is a person who works as a local ‘environmental interpreter’, and
has to persuade citizens to think and act in more environmentally friendly ways.
COP4
R
P
I
1
3
6
4
14
Green accounts for public buildings - collecting and publishing key figures for
COP5
energy, waste and water to increase awareness of the building users, as well as
P
stimulating public awareness.
2
3
6
6
17
Green schools are implemented to show ways for the youth to embark on a COP6
meaningful path to improving their environment, also effective in influencing local
R
communities, families, school staff, local authorities, NGOs, etc.
P
1
3
6
4
14
COP7
R
P
I
3
2
4
6
15
Strategy / Activity:
The world’s largest offshore wind farm, Middelgrunden Windmill Farm was
established to provide clean energy for the city.
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Solar Cities - Good Practice Guide
2.2.4
Rating – Salzburg
Strategy / Activity
No.
CO2
reduction
Satisfaction
Replication
Cost
efficiency
Total
rating
Development of an urban renewal concept for a district, to provide an energy
saving retrofit concept for a whole city area, with specific aims to reduce energy
utilisation, raise the quality of living of inhabitants, provide a central energy supply
and develop a new traffic concept for the area.
S1
R
T
3
3
4
4
14
A point system for governmental subsidies was implemented to stimulate the
interets of builders in the implementation of low energy and ecological
residences, by using a financial incentive system (The lower the energy
consumption of a house, the higher the subsidy).
S2
R
I
3
3
6
4
16
The ‘e5’ programme for energy efficient communities was developed to provide
momentum and increase results of energy efficiency programmes in the region. This
programme supports communities with their energy strategies, by providing
information, professional project management and building a network of energyefficient communities.
S3
2
3
6
4
15
"SAQ” Criteria (‘Sanieren mit Qualität’) – high quality renovation of municipal
buildings – stipulating criteria to encourage the application of ecological renovation
or refurbishment plans for buildings, in particular to reduce energy requirements of
municipal buildings.
S4
P
2
3
6
6
17
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Solar Cities - Good Practice Guide
2.2.5
Rating – Zonnige Kempen
Strategy / Activity
No.
CO2
reduction
Satisfaction
Replication
Cost
efficiency
Total
rating
Show synergy of energy saving innovative technology applications in
sustainable building demonstration projects, in a new construction project that
addresses both housing and the resurfacing of the village centre.
ZK1
R
2
3
6
4
15
Decrease energy consumption through technically and economically optimised
renovation of social housing, with the aim to decrease heating by more than 60%
and for hot water production by 38%. This was done by developing a packaged
approach, that could be reproduced at an acceptable cost in similar buildings.
ZK2
R
I
2
3
6
6
17
Reducing energy use for heating in a solar energy project in Herenthout, for
new residential buildings. This forms part of an educational promenade walk on
sustainable living realised as part of the ”Green Valley Kempen” project.
ZK3
R
2
3
4
4
13
High energy savings using solar energy for hot-water heating in Hulshout, also
using the principles of compact building, proper orientation, extensive insulation and
ventilation strategies.
ZK4
R
2
3
4
4
13
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Solar Cities - Good Practice Guide
2.2.6
Rating – Turin
No.
CO2
reduction
Satisfaction
Replication
Cost
efficiency
Total
rating
Strategic planning regarding the energy balance, to identify aspects that will
impact on energy and environmental issues, and to develop a decision system for
the strategic choices of the local authority.
TUR1
2
3
4
4
13
Develop an energetic vision for the city: Turin’s Renewable Energy Action
Plan. This provides a 14-year policy plan designed to meet the requirements of the
Madrid Declaration and guides basic policy choices for Turin from 1996 to 2010.
TUR2
3
3
6
2
14
Conduct a study on energy substitution potential, to identify areas where fossil
fuels can be substituted with RES and where energy consumption can be reduced.
TUR3
3
3
6
2
14
Identify and evaluate environmental effects also focusing on potential for change.
TUR4
1
3
6
4
14
Consider the multi-faceted job creation potential. The decentralisation of energy
provision using RES increases the requirement for different technical competences.
Thus having an impact on the local economy and on job creation opportunities.
TUR5
I
2
3
6
6
17
Policy on bioclimatic design for residential buildings, using solar architecture
and materials that will reduce energy requirements.
TUR6
R
2
3
4
4
13
Reduce energy requirements in public and tertiary building stock, which in turn
can have an additional effect of increasing public awareness on the need for RES
and RUE and ways to achieve this.
TUR7
P
2
3
6
4
15
Focus on reducing waste and effectively using resources.
TUR8
1
2
4
2
9
Sustainable and effective transport for mobility and reducing energy requirements
in this sector.
TUR9
T
3
3
6
4
16
Use technical and economic / fiscal instruments to initiate and encourage
change towards RES and RUE.
TUR10
3
3
6
2
14
Provide information and training to change life-styles, encouraging people to
support of wider implemented envirnmental / energy policies and strategies.
TUR11
1
3
6
4
14
Strategy / Activity:
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Solar Cities - Good Practice Guide
2.2.7
Rating – Lyon
No.
CO2
reduction
Satisfaction
Replication
Cost
efficiency
Total
rating
Development of the Greater Lyon local energy policy addressing the building
sector, thus achieving a wide-scale impact.
LYO1
2
2
4
2
10
Identifying the energy savings potential in all the sectors, as the basis for
deciding relevant actions to improve energy / environmental aspects.
LYO2
1
2
4
2
9
Develop an energy action plan for the residential sector, to encourage owners
towards sustainable building renovation.
LYO3
R
2
3
6
2
13
Guidance for energy use in public buildings, impacting on urban planning, policy
and regulation development.
LYO4
P
2
2
4
2
10
Improving air quality and energy utilisation in the transport sector.
LYO5
T
3
3
6
4
16
Focusing on the high energy savings potential among SMEs in the industrial
sector.
LYO6
I
2
2
4
4
12
Development of a common region environmental approach for increased quality
of life.
LYO7
1
3
6
4
14
Strategy / Activity:
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Solar Cities - Good Practice Guide
2.2.8
Rating – Freiburg
Strategy / Activity:
No.
CO2
reduction
Satisfaction
Replication
Cost
efficiency
Total
rating
Development and implementation of the ‘SolarRegion’ Freiburg together with a
wide range of city actors.
FR1
2
3
4
4
13
Close city cooperation with local utility badenova to enhance clean energy and
EE implementation in the region.
FR2
3
3
6
2
14
Planning and activities of the Local Agenda 21 office.
FR3
1
3
6
4
14
Implementation of cooperative wind and solar energy projects, using local
investment and local expertise.
FR4
R
P
I
3
2
4
6
15
Development of new low-energy districts – Vauban and Rieselfeld, managing
infrastructure, socio-economic aspects and create comfortable residential areas.
FR5
R
3
3
4
6
16
City support for role of environmental NGOs, drawing NGOs to the city and
making use of their expertise.
FR6
1
3
6
4
14
Job creation in the RE industry, in many different sectors – from service provision
to product development.
FR7
I
2
3
6
6
17
Implementing a sustainable transport concept, considered within the context of
urban planning, requirements of inhabitants as well as environmental and energy
impacts.
FR8
T
3
3
6
4
16
Implement RE and EE projects in schools, to show what can be done in public
buildings, to increase awareness and have resultant economic benefits.
FR9
P
3
3
6
4
16
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Solar Cities - Good Practice Guide
2.3
Elaboration of good practice concepts
Based on the analyses, categorisation and ratings undertaken for each of the city GPs, an elaboration
of suitable concepts was made to assist the reader in gaining an overview of the GPs that are relevant
to a specific area. This resulted in a total of 13 “generic” or typical good practices as shown below.
This list typifies the GPs and as such constitutes an outline of good practice approaches that have been
implemented in European cities so far. These also point to concrete examples, enabling the reader to
identify issues where a more in-depth study can be made under the details of the relevant GP.
Committed
action plan:
The particular concepts included here are:
-
Political commitment to energy efficiency (EE), energy reduction and
the wider use of renewable energy sources (RES).
-
A city or region that is actively participating in the Solar City
transformation process.
-
The development of specific energy action plans.
-
Implementing a holistic urban renewal concept, including retrofit
concepts for public buildings, etc.
The actors involved in these activities are mainly local politicians, public
servants and representatives from utilities, with input from energy
consultants, technicians, and other experts in the respective areas
addressed (often also multi-disciplinary groups).
In general one can say that working out a committed action plan concept is
not expensive in itself - the main question is if the action plans are being
implemented or followed. If this is the case, investments cost can be large at
the initial stages, but for many investments the pay-back time make is
feasible (usually between 2 to 8 years, depending on the type of action).
BR1, BR6, TO1, COP3, S1, TUR1, TUR2, LYO1, LYO3, FR1
Organisation
establishment:
The concepts addressed under this point are:
-
The establishment of an organisation (e.g. Energy Park), which is
closely involved in the planning and implementation of RE and EE
projects, also guiding the more towards clean energy (optimal aim
of 100% RE) for local energy requirements.
-
Close municipal cooperation with local utilities in RE and EE
projects, and developing concepts to impact on the wider city area.
-
Drawing in other organisations that can be closely involved in city
projects, providing a new perspective, e.g. involving local energy
and environmental NGOs in projects.
The main actors are usually public employees, who with political
endorsement of the local politicians, can actively cooperate with
representatives from utilities, NGOs, etc..
There are upfront costs for setting up an organisation or implementing
formal cooperation. However, an important aspect to consider is that once
the various EE and RE projects are running, actual energy costs are
reduced, making these funds available for other activities. The expected
increase in awareness among local inhabitants on RES and RUE is
another important aspect to consider. Tangible benefits for the municipality
include the reduction of expenses for conventional fuels and reduced
consumption bills in the public sector, as well as overall good
relationships.
BR2, FR2, FR6.
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Solar Cities - Good Practice Guide
Energy
consulting:
This aspect is in line with the concept addressed, but specifically related to
providing energy consulting and guidance to local inhabitants and the
municipality. It can also relate to establishing a new energy consultancy for
RES and RUE in the urban environment. Such consulting relates to the use
of RE and EE in individual households, public buildings, in industry, as well
as for energy production plants, i.e. wind turbines, bio-energy systems, etc.
The actors are usually public employees who work with the political
endorsement of local politicians. Alternatively consultants are experts
employed in partly-owned public enterprises (and also an ideal solution for
establishing local Small and Medium-sized Enterprises - SMEs) Political
endorsement is an essential element.
The upfront costs when setting up an energy consultancy, can partly be
covered by asking a fee for services. If it is a public service again the
implementation of actual RE and EE projects will positively affect energy
costs for the respective target – resident, public building managers,
industry, etc. With a good business plan the investment costs for such a
consultancy can be paid back in a few years.
BR2, BR3, COP4, LYO4
Economic
incentives:
Here economic incentives take on two primary forms, firstly as a subsidy
scheme and secondly as an investment with expected returns for the
investor.
Subsidies can provide effective support over the short to medium term
(whether from private or governmental schemes; national, provincial or local
governments), and can be used in various ways. In a way the subsidies
reflect reward for ‘good’ behaviour for implementing RES and / or RUE. An
interesting approach presented is using a point system for governmental
subsidies - the lower the energy consumption of a residence, the higher the
subsidy. Subsidies from banks or utilities, in cooperation with industry
reflect another useful approach that supports the local industry as well.
The return on investment is a standard approach, which can be very
effectively implemented – in particular where the investor feels strongly
about supporting RES and RUE projects. This is seen in the GPs
addressing wind as well as solar projects, with the school project a novel
approach that combines benefits for the municipality (saving energy costs)
and returns on investment for the public investors.
One GP example also addresses the joining of forces from cities to
pressurize the national government for additional funds for RES and RUE
projects in some form or another.
Schemes that provide encouragement to implementers, or that have real
financial benefits, in addition to environmental benefits, are seen as
excellent catalysts for implementing EE and RE at a local level.
The actors involved here can be local inhabitants, the municipality, energy
consultants, banks, utilities, and local industry. Political support is useful in
most cases.
BR4, BR9, TO7, S2, TUR10, FR2, FR4, FR9
Awareness
campaigns:
Providing adequate information, environmental guidelines and a
combination of either visual or audio stimulation (showing project examples)
on RE and EE to specific targets in the city - mainly inhabitants, but also
industry, municipal workers, and even tourists - can clearly help the
effective and widespread implementation of RES and RUE projects.
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Solar Cities - Good Practice Guide
Most awareness campaigns are aimed at the private sector, although an
interesting concept included here particularly addresses RE and EE for
Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs).
For the public interesting ideas include an exhibition (an ‘energy info walk’),
as well as energy awareness schemes targeting consumers, and the
dissemination of catalogues providing practical energy reduction options.
The idea of ‘green guides’ who assist and motivate people in using clean
energy fuels, to renovate energy efficiently, etc. is a useful interactive
approach.
Initiating a campaign to present the city or town as a Solar City can also
have interesting spin-offs for tourism, with the ‘normal’ benefits for raising
awareness among inhabitants – and making them proud to represent a
energy / environmentally conscious city.
The role of energy and environmental NGOs in this aspect is essential, and
mutual cooperation between the local municipality and NGOs increases the
effectiveness of campaigns. Targeting the youth is an effective way of
reaching a larger part of the community, through the multiplier effect.
Campaigns that stimulate indirect awareness can also be considered.
Focusing on the cost of energy, e.g. the weighing of waste and paying
according to weight, or showing the advantages on reducing energy
consumption patterns (also through feedback on energy consumption).
The actors are energy consultants, professional public relations people and
political endorsement is needed if it is a city campaign.
Campaigns are not a great investment, although the outputs can be of great
significant.
BR3, BR5, TO3, TO4, TO5, TO6, TO8, COP4, COP6, TUR4, TUR10,
TUR11, LYO6, LYO7, FR1, FR6.
Demonstration
projects:
A number of real demonstration projects are presented as good practice
examples in this guide. These include biomass district heating plants,
biogas plants, CHP plants, wind parks, household garbage/waste projects,
PV projects, a water efficiency project, neighbourhood regeneration
projects, retrofit concept projects, social housing projects (one with an
asphalt collector in the pavement) , etc relevant to both residential and
public building stock. One comprehensive demonstration project is
concerned with the development of a new large district of 38 hectares.
The primary actors here are mainly technical people, but again political
commitment will help the actual planning and implementation in most cases.
It is difficult to say anything about the economy of the individual projects,
since these issues are related to the previous situation, original fuels types
used, fuels prices, etc. Normally demonstration projects are more expensive
as material or technologies are being tested.
BR6, BR8, BR9, TO4, TO7, TO9, TO10, TO11, COP2, COP3, COP7,
S1, ZK1, ZK2, ZK3, ZK4, TUR7, FR4, FR5.
Education:
Three different types of education projects have been identified, although
these are only a few examples of what can be done at school level:
-
The development of international tertiary study cooperation, which
specifically supports teaching collaboration of universities (teleteaching) in the region (cross-border).
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Solar Cities - Good Practice Guide
-
Green schools, which is an initiative aimed at primary and secondary
schools to show a meaningful way to improve the local environment,
thereby influencing the youth, their families, school staff and local
authorities – increasing awareness and education on energy and
environmental issues.
-
Projects on RE and EE projects implemented in schools to increase
awareness, provide education and encourage interaction and an
interest on the topics addressed. Here the aspect of economic
incentives also plays an interesting role in motivating participation.
The actors are energy consultants, school management and teachers. But
the multiplier effect can be wide and reach whole communities, and the
interest of parents for example can help to stimulate projects in the local
schools.
These examples do not reflect large investments in relation the effect it can
have. Investments can come from various avenues, starting with the
municipality which can gain considerable benefits from reduced energy
consumption in public buildings.
BR7, COP6, FR9.
City
networking:
Networking is a popular word these days, and can indeed be worthwhile
concerning the increased synergy between many actors and projects. The
Agenda 21 is a useful starting point for municipalities – in particular as it
recognises that energy and environmental issues do not stop at city borders.
However, an independent decision to take a leading role in a region can
have interesting results for regional cooperation. The GP that addresses
networking between three municipalities shows the use of interacting and
sharing on a wider scale. The programme for energy efficient communities is
another good example of wider sharing and encouragement, in a practical
way.
The actors normally are civil servants from the various municipalities, but the
role of NGOs in encouraging such networking is also effective to start the
process.
It is a good investment to network: (i) to learn from each other, (ii) to
establish synergy between projects, and (iii) the implementation of projects is
often faster and more effective as guidance leads to updating practice.
BR1, TO2, S3, FR3
Energy
accounting :
The formalised approach in studying energy consumption patterns, is a
useful way to identify and change ‘bad habits’. Providing feedback to users
is a first step to changing behaviour. Here a GP addressing the private
sector is included, namely an energy database for residences. For the public
sector monthly measurements in buildings, energy auditing schemes for
larger buildings and green accounts are looked at. Regarding whole
communities, an EE programme can achieve much when effectively
implemented. Nearly all the GPs that are implemented in the built
environment could benefit from an additional monitoring scheme.
The actors who implement the accounting are technical people, energy
consultants and PR staff.
The economic aspect varies, depending on the specific scheme considered.
TO6, TO8, COP1, COP5, S3
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Solar Cities - Good Practice Guide
Analysis
and studies:
The analysis of the existing situation and possible solutions remains a critical
element for developing a comprehensive city strategy using RES and RUE.
Here issues that are studied include: (i) identifying the energy substitution
potential in areas where fossil fuels can be replaced by RES, and (ii) a study
on developing an energy action plan for a city. The use of a method (as
presented in Report B of this project) and involving experts is recommended.
Actors are multi-disciplinary teams of experts, and municipal employees.
Analysis and studies are not usually a large financial investment, but the
outputs and proposals can be significantly expensive, depending on the
nature of the problems identified. Again here a long-term perspective needs
to be considered – finding and implementing sustainable solutions that will
reduce costs in the long term.
TUR3, LYO2, LYO4, LOY5
Job creation:
Each new project can contribute to retaining jobs or creating new
opportunities. Here are few interesting aspects to consider: (i) The
development of a craftsman package to help the user (with information on
options and prices) and to help local industry by ensuring fair pricing, has also
resulted in increased cooperation between industry representatives. Due to
the increased demand for RES and RUE building projects more craftsmen got
involved in this field. (ii) The decentralisation of energy provision requires a
need for more expertise in many different areas (depending on the types of
RES used more technical competencies are needed) and has excellent job
creation potential also in the service area (e.g. eco-tourism). (iii) By
developing new districts new jobs are created, especially if local infrastructure
is developed to provide employment close to residences.
All people directly or indirectly employed in sectors using RES and RUE.
More local employment opportunities stimulate the local economy.
BR8, TO12, COP7, TUR5, FR5, FR7
Public building
renovation:
The municipality can take the lead by showing what can be done in the built
environment, and reducing its own energy costs in the long run. Aspects
addressed here are the application of ecological refurbishment standards at
municipal level, energy consumption reduction in the public sector and
guidance for public building planning.
The actors are technical and energy consultants, working with civil servants.
Each project has its own specific costs. Usually renovation cost projections do
not reflect real energy costs (i.e. indirect costs must be acknowledged).
BR6, S4, TUR7, LYO4
Transport and
mobility:
Part of an overall energy / environmental approach is a sustainable transport
concept. Here aspects addressed include the development of a
comprehensive traffic concept for of district, improving public transport
systems, and encouraging sustainable mobility, such as walking and cycling.
The actors are transport and energy consultants, with political support.
A city can reduce the environmental impact caused by ‘normal’ transport, with
additional investment and long term cost savings (on environmental damage).
S1, TUR9, LYO5, FR5, FR8.
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Solar Cities - Good Practice Guide
2.4
Detailed city good practices
2.4.1
Bruck an der Leitha (Austria)
2.4.1.1
Context
From the Brundtland City Energy Network (BCEN) two towns were selected as representative of the
typical strategies implemented in this network, namely Bruck an der Leitha in Austria and Toftlund (see
par. 2.4.2). The reasons for selecting Bruck / Leitha are as follows:
The town is representative of many towns and cities in the BCEN network, and the number of
inhabitants is similar to those of other Brundtland Cities (BCs). However, Bruck/Leitha has gone
even further with its targets, aiming at 100% energy using RE. It is therefore regarded as the
network’s most committed BC. The strategies and activities of Bruck /Leitha are an excellent
example for replication, showing what can be done to implement a 100% clean energy community
using RE and EE.
The town municipality and inhabitants have displayed a high level of enthusiasm regarding the
network.
Bruck/Leitha has a tradition of viewing energy saving measures and RE as important;
It looked at a broad range of measures, thereby making it a useful example for other towns and
cities across a spectrum of strategies, and the results of its implementation activities can be
presented in a clear manner.
Bruck an der Leitha is a small town with around 8.000 inhabitants, situated in the eastern part of lower
Austria - in the border triangle area of Slovakia, Hungary and Austria.
A survey undertaken in the mid-1990s regarding the energy concept for Bruck/Leitha showed that only
7% of all the heating material used in the town was renewable (mostly wood). With the end of available
fossil fuels in sight, Bruck/Leitha set the goal of generating 100% energy from renewable energy
sources (RES) (BR1). This was also decided on, to show it is possible to produce enough energy from
local resources, and to be the first Austrian town that would be self-sufficient in its energy production.
This target would be reached by:
-
improving energy efficiency, and
-
covering the remaining energy requirements with RES.
Strategies and activities - overview
As part of this decision the Association of the Energy Park Bruck/Leitha (‘Verein Energiepark’) (EPK)
was established in 1995, to support the planning and implementation activities (BR2). This association
is the regional competence centre for energy and environmental questions. The EPK co-operates with
the municipality of Bruck/Leitha. It is a non-profit organisation, which is financed by membership fees,
subsidies from the municipalities as well as by projects.
In addition to the energy field, Energiepark supports the following aims through this energy sustainable
approach:
-
Increasing profits in the region
Strengthening companies
Promoting tourism
Creating "environmental jobs"
Role model for other regions
Linking regional and international initiatives
Aspects that relate to the energy management in the BC include the following specific measures:
Energy consulting office (BR3)
-
Energy walk (BR5)
Solar plants (thermal and photovoltaic systems)
Low energy houses
Solar residential area
Common photovoltaic plant
Biomass long distance heating system (BR6)
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Solar Cities - Good Practice Guide
-
Biogas plant with co-generation units (BR8)
Wind energy park (BR9)
Revitalising small water-power plants
Tertiary study opportunities / college for renewable energy (BR7)
Energy management (Interreg IIA-Programme) (BR1)
Revitalisation of small hydro plants
The Energy Park Bruck/Leitha was convinced that by using this approach in the long run, there would
not only be positive ecological impacts, but also a strengthening of the local economy - in particular
supporting local companies and promoting tourism.
For the duration of the total project to reach the 100% RE goal the Energy Park Bruck/Leitha have
consciously not set a specific time limit, but rather the goals will be attained through dynamic processes
enlivening the whole project. This optimism was indeed successful in as far as the town is within reach
of reducing 50% of its CO2 emissions by 2005.
The "Environmental Town Bruck/Leitha" is a long-term oriented programme, containing measures
adapted to the needs of the community. The implementation of this programme follows a strategy of
sustainable development; it will be updated and adjusted to new structural possibilities continuously.
The planned measures are divided into the following four sectors:
-
Energy
Traffic/Town Ecology
Landscape Development
Resource Management
In the residential sector house owners are becoming more aware of their energy usage and reducing
their energy utilisation (thereby saving both energy and money). The consulting service has helped
considerably in this regard and there has been encouragement to install both thermal solar power
systems (for domestic hot water heating) and photovoltaic systems in private houses. Building
renovation is also supported. Subsidies linked to specific standards are available and have helped
provide an incentive to change.
In support of the local inhabitants, the long distance district heating system, biogas and biomass plants
provide an opportunity for additional income for farmers in the region, if they provide wood waste and
other bio-fuels.
City Council of Bruck an der Leitha
/ Stadtgemeinde Bruck an der Leitha
Rathaus
Hauptplatz 16
A-2460 Bruck an der Leitha
Austria
Tel:
Fax:
Email:
Web:
+43 2162 62354 0
+43 2162 62354 25
[email protected]
www.bruckleitha.at
Information on Energy Park Bruck an der Leitha is available in German:
Web: http://www.energiepark-Bruck.at/
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Solar Cities - Good Practice Guide
2.4.1.2
Good practices - Bruck /Leitha
BR1 – Municipal commitment to 100% clean energy using RES
Objective
The "Environmental Town Bruck/Leitha" is a long-term oriented programme, containing measures
adapted to the needs of the community. The implementation of this programme follows a strategy of
sustainable development; it will be updated and adjusted to new structural possibilities continuously.
Description
The town aims to reach a 50% reduction of CO2 emissions by 2010, compared to reference year of
1988. This target should be reached through:
-
Improving energy efficiency, and
Covering the remaining energy requirements with RE.
The planned measures under this programme are divided into four sectors:
Energy
Traffic/Town Ecology
Landscape Development
Resource Management
The municipality and the Energiepark Bruck/Leitha (‘Verein Energiepark’) (EPK) decided to form the
Brundtland City (BC) team of Bruck/Leitha, in support of its CO2 reduction actions. This cooperation has
had unique results as many successful projects have been launched. Aspects that relate to the energy
management in the BC include the following specific measures (many of them are listed as good
practices on the following pages, and are implemented with or by the EPK):
• Large scale energy provision:
o Biomass long distance heating system
o Biogas plant with co-generation units (combined heat & power plant - CHP)
o Wind energy park
o Revitalisation of small hydro plants
• Buildings:
o Low energy houses
o Solar residential area
o Solar plants (thermal and photovoltaic)
• Awareness and support:
o Energy walk
o College for renewable energy
o Energy consulting office
• Energy management (Interreg IIA-Programme)
The municipality has taken a key position and leading role in the LEADER+ region towards utilisation of
new energy sources and to involve the citizens in this work (with its aim of 100% RES). LEADER+
regions are European supported areas that contribute to and are held up as examples of sustainable
development. One of the main reasons for this key position is the positive attitude the citizens have
towards the Energy Park Bruck/Leitha.
Bruck/Leitha is also a partner in the Climate Alliance. The aim of the Climate Alliance is to preserve the
global climate. This involves reducing greenhouse gas emissions to a sustainable level in the
industrialized countries of the North, and conserving the rainforests in the South. In general the
municipality is active in sharing information on its projects and activities, for example also in the Rural
International Network (www.rin.at), where some interesting project examples can also be seen.
Financial resources
For each specific activity or strategy a different financial mechanism was used, ranging from subsidies
to investment, and support from national or regional government. Overall the municipality has to budget
for a strong and expanding energy team as the interest in the project grows.
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Solar Cities - Good Practice Guide
Conclusion and recommendations
In the region a variety of the new RE and EE projects were implemented, and information about the
available possibilities are more rapidly reaching the individual citizens than was the case in the past.
Both of these aspects are due to the close cooperation and excellent communication between the
municipality and the EPK. The sharing of results on a wider basis also encourages other towns to
consider similar projects.
Contact point for further information
Tel:
Fax:
Email:
Web:
City Council of Bruck an der Leitha
/ Stadtgemeinde Bruck an der Leitha
Rathaus
Hauptplatz 16
A-2460 Bruck an der Leitha
Austria
- 25 -
+43 2162 62354 0
+43 2162 62354 25
[email protected]
www.bruckleitha.at
Solar Cities - Good Practice Guide
BR2 - Establishment of the Association Energy Park Bruck an der Leitha
Objective
A regional NGO was established, namely the Association Energy Park, to support and implement
activities related to the target of making Bruck an der Leitha self-sufficient in its energy production, i.e.
100 % self sufficiency, using renewable energy sources (RES) and EE.
Description
The Association of the Energy Park Bruck/Leitha (EPK) was established in 1995, to support the local
planning and implementation activities regarding energy measures. It was initiated by the town
councillor for environmental affairs – Herbert Stava - and a few other interested municipality
representatives.
The association is the regional competence centre for energy and environmental questions/issues, and
it co-operates closely with the municipality of Bruck/Leitha. To reach the 100% RE goal the Energy Park
Bruck/Leitha has consciously not set a time limit, on the contrary the Park hopes a dynamic process,
energizing the whole project, will develop throughout the process.
Several activities were planned by the EPK, including the following:
-
provide energy consultancy for private households;
arrange guided tours to various RE projects;
organise lectures, seminars and excursions;
involve the regional schools in projects;
encourage international collaboration between the universities on projects for ‘tele-teaching’
(e.g. between Slovakia, Hungary and Austria).
The Energy Park presents its work in various formats, including information on future plans and the
various energy efficient projects. In this way the public in the region is kept aware of new energy
projects and initiatives of the Energy Park. Brochures and information material is made available for
residential house owners, and for members of the association a newspaper with information is
accessible. Seminars and lectures are held with other organisations about various environmental
issues. The citizens of Bruck/Leitha have an open invitation to use the Energy Park’s library on RE,
energy efficiency and ecological building materials.
Overall results
The EPK has been the main initiator and catalyst for using innovative and clean technologies in the
region. It supports the community and the region using long-term regional development concepts. The
municipality Bruck/Leitha regards the work of the Energy Park as a strong identity foundation and an
important promotional asset for the region and town.
The Energy Park Bruck/Leitha is confident that in the long run the positive ecological impacts will lead
to increasing profits in the region, strengthening local companies and promoting tourism. Some of the
projects implemented are listed in the next good practices report.
Some positive effects of the EPK project work that have already been visible include (many of these are
described in more detail as specific good practices):
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
All public buildings in Bruck/Leitha are connected to the biomass long distance district heating
system;
Additional income has been generated for farmers in the region - from wood waste used for the
long distance district heating system, and biomass for the biogas-plant;
Several employment opportunities have been created:
o
The EPK has nine employees.
o
The long distance district heating system provides 5 part-time jobs in Bruck/Leitha;
o
The Windpark Bruck/Leitha provides employment for 4 part-time people and 1 full-time
position;
The Windpark Bruck/Leitha provides electricity for all the households of Bruck/Leitha.
Energy consulting is available for private households;
Solar thermal and PV systems have been installed at private houses;
Municipal buildings have been additionally insulated;
A combined biogas heating and power plant was established.
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Solar Cities - Good Practice Guide
Other experiences
Broad acceptance among the population is seen as an essential condition for the success of the
activities of the Energy Park Bruck/Leitha and the projects implemented in the area. As such good
public relations and lobbying (also at political level) is necessary - to inform and involve citizens, and
provide participation possibilities.
The close co-operation with communities and decision-makers as well as other regional organisations
was an important success factor.
Financial resources
Especially in the beginning of the Energy Park Bruck/Leitha, much of the work was done on a voluntary
/ honorary basis. The first employee was financed through a supplementary programme of the labour
market service. Bit by bit the development of the now existing level of office infrastructure was
established. Financing was raised through project proposals, association membership fees, and
contributions by the companies who originated from the association.
Conclusion and recommendations
The park regards awareness building and the availability of information as an important element - these
materials have to be well prepared and reduced to key issues as the public is often overloaded with
information. “Less is often best!”
Widespread local involvement, good regional cooperation and broad acceptance among the population
are the essential success parameters of the EPK
Financial positive output from the various projects, i.e. the wind farm, biomass district heating plant, the
biogas plant, et cetera, assisted in providing benefits and financial gains for the citizens (exclusively
projects for citizen participation). Financial savings for the citizens are also other positive effects of the
consultancy practised by the Energy Park.
An increase in value of the region through the de-centralised energy production (the various RE
projects) has also encouraged an increase in tourism – as other people are interested in these projects.
Contact point for further information
Association Energy Park Bruck/Leitha
Verein zur Förderung Erneuerbarer Energien
Wiener Gasse 4
2460 Bruck/Leitha
Austria
Email: [email protected]
Web: http://www.energiepark-bruck.at/
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Solar Cities - Good Practice Guide
BR3 – Energy consulting for private households
Objective
In support of awareness and capacity building for local residents the EPK initiated energy consulting
through an expert.
Description
Expertise is provided on several different aspects, ranging from practical training to support of financing
applications, some examples are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
exchanging a boiler
connection to the district heating system
heat pump systems
PV and solar thermal systems
building renovation
ecological residence financing
Overall results
Consultancy support is particularly relevant as the regional government has established an ‘energy
permit’ standard that has to be approved by a qualified person. This standard, active as of January
2004, is for new buildings to reduce harmful emissions. Reducing heating costs is one of the main
targets, with the required energy value of 60 kWh/m2a (Kilowatt hour per square meters and year) as
stated by the Austrian Institute for Civil Engineering (Österreichische Institute für Bautechnik - OIB).
Subsidies are available only for buildings where the required permit is at hand (see BR4).
In the residential area the results have been good, with inhabitants applying different RETs and solar
architecture strategies to reduce energy consumption. For example about 30 solar thermal systems
were added on private residences, as well as PV systems linked to the grid, as part of the municipality’s
strategy.
Conclusion and recommendations
The provision of energy consulting to private households has proven to be very successful. The citizens
often contact the energy consulting team for advice and technical support, when looking into potential
RE and / or EE projects.
Contact point for further information
Association Energy Park Bruck/Leitha
Verein zur Förderung Erneuerbarer Energien
Wiener Gasse 4
2460 Bruck/Leitha
Austria
Email: [email protected]
Contact person: Matthias Pober
[email protected]
Web:
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http://www.energiepark-bruck.at/
www.noel.gv.at/service
Solar Cities - Good Practice Guide
BR4 – Governmental subsidies for RE and EE projects
Objective
In order to support the actual implementation activities that will lead to CO2 reduction several subsidies
have been made available by different governmental sources.
Description
The municipality, the government of the Lower Austria Region (’Land Niederösterreich’) and the EC
support implementation of RE and EE projects by providing subsidies and information on available
support measures.
The subsidy model for residential homes in Lower Austria (EH-NEU) has several types of support
options:
•
Basic support: Providing an ‘energy permit’ (standard to be approved by a qualified person) is the
basis for qualifying for this. The support amount applicable is based on the Energy classification of
the building.
•
Family support aid: In addition to the above the family situation / status is taken into account so
some additional funding can be available for families.
•
Additional aid based on criteria:
•
o
heating systems using bio fuels and are environmentally friendly
o
controlled ventilation systems
o
drinking water saving systems
o
use of ecological building materials
o
consultation, planning and calculations
Super grant: Those who qualify can apply for additional support.
Conclusion and recommendations
In order to stimulate an interest in implementation it is useful to have government support mechanisms
in place that can help initiate or guide the process. This provides benefits not only for the individuals
who make use of it, but also for the government which has to reach its Kyoto reduction targets.
Contact point for further information
Association Energy Park Bruck/Leitha
Verein zur Förderung Erneuerbarer Energien
Wiener Gasse 4
2460 Bruck/Leitha
Austria
Email: [email protected]
Contact person: Matthias Pober:
[email protected]
Web:
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http://www.energiepark-bruck.at/
www.noel.gv.at/service
Solar Cities - Good Practice Guide
BR5 – Set-up of a permanent exhibition, the “Energielehrpfad” (Energy Info Walk)
Objective
The permanent exhibition “Energielehrpfad” (Energy Info Walk) was set up to teach about all forms of
RES, both active and passive solar energy, sustainable materials, as well as general energy saving
measures relevant for households.
Description
This „sustainable energy teaching path“ started off with guided tours to the three main projects in Bruck,
namely the Windpark Bruck/Leitha, the biomass long distance heating plant and the biogas plant. At the
Windpark Bruck/Leitha one of the wind turbines has an outlook platform, which has drawn special
attention from tourists - here visitors can climb up during operation, and enjoy the view of the area and
the installation.
Other aspects are also addressed with information provided on sustainable renovation of buildings and
other environmental / energy issues.
Overall results
Annually the Windpark has about 1,500 visitors. For the largest part this involves persons who are
already interested in the topic, but it nonetheless proves useful in showing the scope of the park with
greater awareness and education on relevant elements.
In general the experience enjoyed during this Energy Info Walk leads to increased awareness and
knowledge among visitors, also reflected by the positive attitude perceived among them.
Financial resources
The guided tours are provided against a small fee, with a reduced rate provided for school groups. This
forms part of the main cost factors for the Energy Park, as there has to be available personnel and
material for information dissemination. Some form of basis cost coverage is needed to make such an
activity sustainable over the long run as the fees do not cover all expenses.
Conclusion and recommendations
Awareness building requires tangible projects that people can see or experience with additional
information that they can study and consider. The EPK supports this approach and uses the permanent
exhibition to this end. Cities need to consider how they will finance such an activity effectively.
Contact point for further information
Association Energy Park Bruck/Leitha
Verein zur Förderung Erneuerbarer Energien
Wiener Gasse 4
2460 Bruck/Leitha
Austria
Email: [email protected]
Web: http://www.energiepark-bruck.at/
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Solar Cities - Good Practice Guide
BR6 – Municipal decision to link all new and public buildings to the biomass district heating
system
Objective
The new biomass district heating system is used for providing heat for a large area, using RES instead
of fossil fuels to reduce CO2 emissions.
Description
The Energy Park organisation initiated this long distance heating system project. “Fernwärme
Bruck/Leitha" went into operation in 1999 as the first major project by the EPK.
For environmental protection reasons, and to decrease dependence on fossil fuels, a biomass district
heating plant was established, with farmers from the region co-operating with the EVN AG. Not only
private households are provided with electricity, but also central public buildings. In this way a major
resolution of the municipality Bruck/Leitha guarantees that this district heating system would be used in
the future for all public buildings, as well as new residential settlement areas. It covers about one third
of the heating demand of the Bruck households.
System details:
Investment
Boilers
Network
Bio fuels used
Fuel storage
capacity
Biomass Input
Clients
Approx € 7 Mio (incl. grid extension)
Biomass boiler 1: 4.500 kW
Biomass boiler 2: 1.500 kWl
(Reserve): 4.000 kW
Length at final implementation: ca. 9 km
Wood and other agricultural waste, also bark and wood by-products
5.000 m3
± 6.000 tonnes per year
About 800 households
Financial resources
For a single family house the connection costs approximately 5,000 €, and less when subsidies are
available. The cost in heating remains the same, so it is advantageous when existing buildings are
additionally insulated to reduce heating costs.
Conclusion and recommendations
The decision to link all new and public buildings to this scheme sent a positive signal to the public,
showing commitment from the side of the municipality. The close cooperation between the municipality
and the EPK has also been crucial. The cooperation with the energy supplier has proven to be
advantageous, as it has backed up the process, thereby showing commitment and political will exists to
make this work as a successful project.
Contact point for further information
Tel:
+43 2162 68 100 16
Fax:
+43 2162 68 100 29
Email: [email protected]
FWG - Fernwärmeversorgung Bruck an der
Leitha Gesellschaft m.b.H. & Co KEG
Biomass-long distance heat Bruck/Leitha
Bruck and der Leitha
Austria
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Solar Cities - Good Practice Guide
BR7 – Development of international tertiary study cooperation
Objective
In support of disseminating knowledge on RE and EE, the Energy Park Bruck/Leitha supports
international teaching collaboration at universities on projects within European countries.
Description
A university training course is being developed with partners from Austria, Hungary and Slovakia, under
the INTERREG – grant system. A grant was awarded in November 2003, with the following partners
participating:
•
•
•
•
Technische Universität Wien
Donau University Krems
University of Mosonmagyaróvár
Energy Centre Bratislava
Several consultants are also involved. The focus is on developing a university course on Renewable
Energy for middle and Eastern Europe. Therefore new employment opportunities will be created, thus
the need for qualified people is important. The students will obtain a Masters Degree when they are
finished with the course.
Conclusion and recommendations
Within the RE sector many interesting work opportunities exist, and indeed this area is developing at a
rapid pace.
Involvement by an NGO in formal education addressing cross-border energy / environment issues is a
unique approach to capacity building and sharing information with young people. Tertiary education is
essential, with the employment opportunities in this sector expected to expand rapidly. New and
interesting study opportunities will draw the interest of people, and if renowned universities are offering
such courses it adds value to the end result.
Contact point for further information
Association Energy Park Bruck/Leitha
Verein zur Förderung Erneuerbarer Energien
Wiener Gasse 4
2460 Bruck/Leitha
Email: [email protected]
Web: http://www.energiepark-bruck.at/
Contact person: Martina Prechtl
Email: [email protected]
Austria
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Solar Cities - Good Practice Guide
BR8 – Installation of a combined biogas heating and power plant
Objective
To support the CO2 emission reduction goals of the city by generating energy using renewable energy
sources. The combined plant will assist in enhancing the value of the region, and will help to create
employment opportunities.
Description
A combined biogas heating and power plant was established in Bruck in 2003. The biogas plant
Bruck/Leitha was approved at the regional government level based on the Electricity Generation Law.
This plant functions as a fermentation system, using local agricultural rest products (grass, carrots and
maize, liquid manure et etcetera) as well as residual substances from the food industry. The process is
applied according to specific standards, processing material for electricity and energy production, which
in turn is linked to the main electricity network. The rest products from this process are then again used
for agricultural purposes (fertilizer for plants).
It had an investment of about € 5,3 Million.
Annual turnover
Annual electricity production
Annual heat production
2 Fermentation tanks
2 After fermentation tanks
1 Water reservoir
2 Co-generation Units
30.000 to
12.000.000 kWh
15.000.000 kWh
Each 3.000 m3
3.000 m3 & 4.000 m3
2.000 m3
each 836 kW
Other experiences
As part of the local support for farmers, to help them to generate additional income they can provide
wood and other agricultural waste for the long-distance biogas and biomass plants.
Conclusion and recommendations
Bioenergy conversion of biomass operates within the Earth’s natural carbon cycles, and therefore does
not contribute to climate change and greenhouse warming problems. Reasonable projections accord
the largest share of future renewable energy to bioenergy, and with cities that have close a rural
surroundings a biomass district heating system can particularly very effective in contributing to CO2
reduction for the city.
Contact point for further information
Biogas Bruck/Leitha GmbH & Co KG.
Bruck and der Leitha
Austria
Tel:
[email protected]
General Director: Gerhard Danzinger
Email: [email protected]
[email protected]
Web: http://www.energiepark-bruck.at/
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Solar Cities - Good Practice Guide
BR9 - Establishment of the Windpark Bruck/Leitha
Objective
To support the CO2 emission reduction aims of the city by generating clean energy using RES. The
wind park can help with job creation and assist in enhancing the value of the region.
Description
In support of the environmental protection aims and the town’s targets, a group of people planned the
establishment of the wind park – as well as to reduce the use of nuclear energy. The wind park was set
up in the year 2000, with the participation of local citizens.
The basis for the establishment of the park was the 2-year wind measurements, with the wind potential
comparing favourably to the coastal regions. On one of the wind-generators a platform was added at 60
m, which can be used by visitors (the first of its kind in Austria). In total 5 wind-generators were erected:
ENERCON E66/18.70, tower height: 65m, rotor diameter: 70m, total output: 9,000 KW. The energy is
fed into the public grid.
Overall results:
Annual capacity:
18.500.000 kWh/year (Electricity for 5.300 residences)
Savings:
6,2 Mio. litre oil / year
CO2 reduction:
12.900 To / year
Other experiences
In order to obtain public support for the implementation there was an option for investment in the
project. Citizens could acquire shares (‘Öko-baustein’) and obtain annual interest on the shares.
The wind park has played an important role in increased tourism in the region (due to interest in the
viewing platform).
Financial resources
The establishment of the wind farm cost about 8.35 Mio. €. The calculated payback time is 15 years.
Citizens could acquire shares to a value of 1.000 Euro, with income from annual interest.
Conclusion and recommendations
Wind turbines are a highly visible symbol in the landscape, and regarding the aesthetics of this there
are often strongly diverging opinions - some people find them attractive, impressive and representative
of clean energy, while others feel it disturbs the landscape.
To address these varying reactions, it is recommended to launch a thorough information campaign to
notify local inhabitants about the reasons for implementing the wind park, also highlighting the
opportunities for the inhabitants (investment / reward, employment), as well as for the region (tourism).
It is also important to consider the best sites for such a project, with consultation to be done at several
levels.
Contact point for further information
Windpark Bruck/Leitha GmbH & Co KG
Fischamender Str. 12
2460 – Bruck and der Leitha
Austria
Tel:
+43 02162 68100
Email: [email protected]
Web: http://www.energiepark-bruck.at/
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Solar Cities - Good Practice Guide
Transport Sector
BR3
BR5
BR1
BR2
BR3
BR5
BR9
BR1
BR2
BR6
BR4
BR6
BR5
BR5
BR7
BR1
BR2
BR7
BR1
BR2
BR2
BR4
BR1
BR2
BR9
BR1
BR2
BR2
BR4
BR8
BR9
BR1
BR1
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Policy &
Standards
Economic
Advantages /
Job creation
Industry Sector
BR1
BR8
BR9
Financial
Mechanisms
(incl.
Subsidies)
Public Sector
BR1
BR2
BR6
BR9
Awareness &
Campaigns
Residential
Sector
BR1
BR3
BR6
BR8
Education &
Training
Matrix – Bruck/ Leitha
Technology
Developed /
Tested
2.4.1.3
BR2
BR3
Solar Cities - Good Practice Guide
2.4.2 Toftlund (Denmark)
2.4.2.1
Context
The reasons for choosing Toftlund are as follows:
It is representative of the towns/cities in the network - Toftlund was one of first BCEN cities and
thus a good example of what has been implemented in a small town over several years. It is also
representative of Denmark.
It has show a lot of enthusiasm regarding the network and there is excellent local commitment.
It has a tradition of looking at energy saving measures and renewable energy,
It looked at various measures, and is therefore a good example for other towns/cities to learn and
gain information from,
It can demonstrate results of the work/projects that the employed strategies have shown until
now.
Toftlund is the main town in the municipality of Noerre-Rangstrup, an average Danish municipality. The
total area covered by the municipality is about 130 km2.
The town is situated in the heart of Soenderjylland, 40 km north of the German border. Toftlund is a
small Danish town with industrial, commercial, public and residential buildings. There are approximately
4,500 inhabitants, with about 1,040 single-family houses. An estimated 10,000 inhabitants live in the
whole community of Noerre-Rangstrup.
In 1990 Toftlund was chosen to become a Brundtland city / town because the energy supply structure
and distribution of buildings were representative for Denmark, and the town strived towards energy
conservation and using renewable energy sources. The main energy supply comes from natural gas
and a central Combined Heat and Power Plant (CHP).
Political Commitment and Policy
Toftlund’s central goal within the Brundtland project was firstly to demonstrate that with the existing
knowledge it was possible to reduce the energy consumption and the interdependent environmental
strain by 30 to 50% in an existing town area in about 10 years – there was clear political commitment to
achieve this aim. (TO1). The second goal was to gain knowledge and experiences from all aspects of
the project and to disseminate this knowledge for the benefit of similar projects, nationally, regionally
and internationally, as well as for interested parties in general. This has mainly been done through the
BCEN, and there has been an excellent local commitment for this.
In the year 2000 a national campaign was launched to establish 300 smaller photovoltaic (PV) systems
with an average size of 24 m2 (TO7). Through the Brundtland City project as many as 105 households
applied to enter the project and a total of 49 households were selected from this municipality for
installing PV systems. The interest shown in the PV project can most certainly be attributed to the
BCEN project, mainly due to the awareness generated. In 2001 photovoltaic systems have supplied an
estimated 81 MWh.
The CHP is run by Toftlund Fjernvarmevaerk (Toftlund District Heating Plant). The energy source was
changed in 1995 from coal to natural gas. Three years later a large combined heat and power engine
was installed (5.5 MW for electricity and 6.3 MW for heating). In 1992 Europe’s first fuel cell was
installed at Toftlund District Heating Plant. This resulting in a large reduction in the CO2 emissions. Also
the gas engine has been changed to a more energy efficient model (TO11).
The ELO management system, a Danish Energy Management Scheme (TO8), is in use in Toftlund. As
of January 1st, 1997 all buildings in Denmark are required to be energy labelled.
According to the Act and Executive orders (Act to Promote Energy and Water Savings in Buildings No.
485 of 12 June 1996. The Act has been followed up by the orders; Order on Energy Labelling etc. in
Buildings, No.789. 19. Sept. 2002 and Order on Fees and Responsibilities for Energy Labelling of
Buildings No. 718 of 14th Sept., 1999) all large buildings of over 1,500 m2 must be energy labelled once
a year. The scheme is mandatory for all large buildings (with more than 1,500 m² of total floor area).
The major types of buildings enclosed by the scheme are residential buildings, buildings used for trade
and for private use, as well as public buildings. The energy management scheme is used, in residential
buildings, as a basis for preparing the energy label (the EM - Scheme) for owner-occupied flats in large
buildings. Buildings used for industrial production, storage houses, churches and buildings with no or
very limited energy consumption are exempted.
Furthermore, large buildings are exempted from the scheme for two years, if they receive an A-mark
(on the scale A to M) for heating and electricity consumption, or if the energy plan includes (profitable)
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Solar Cities - Good Practice Guide
saving suggestions with a total reduction of less than 5% of CO2 emissions. Energy labelling includes
both an energy rating and an energy plan. The purpose of the Act is to promote energy efficiency and
water savings, thus reducing consumption in buildings. In the Noerre-Rangstrup municipality, the ELO
management system is enforced in all public buildings even if they are smaller than 1500 m2.
In connection with the ELO scheme, a monthly report is issued by the responsible energy manager on
the consumption of energy and water patterns. This way the public building managers can follow the
actual consumption in comparison to the estimated values. Once a year a meeting is arranged for the
energy managers, the management and the responsible technicians of the municipality to discuss
results, new initiatives and future energy projects (TO8).
The ELO-scheme in Noerre Rangstrup municipality has resulted in many energy projects, that have
resulted in large energy savings, often with a payback time of less than eight years. The financing for
these projects has either been granted through National schemes or the municipality’s internal energy
financing budget pool.
Residential Sector
An awareness scheme for encouraging energy saving among consumers was also launched by the
municipality. This addressed the following: The consumer should: 1) have the possibility to act, 2) have
the ability to act and 3) have the wish to act (TO3).
The waste from the residential buildings is weighed and the payment is based on the weighed figures.
This initiative has had very good results - increased composting at home, the collecting of plastic,
paper, metal and bottles for recycling, and establishing a recycling area for more than 20 different
materials. A reduction of up to 50% in waste from the households has been seen as a result of this- a
positive effect on the environment (TO4). This practice is also in place for public buildings. Weighing the
waste has meant: reduction from 200 to 100 ton/fortnight, with increased recycling. However there have
also been resultant problems like dumping waste at public places and burning of waste.
A catalogue of ideas for energy conservation and clean energy options has been developed for the
residential sector. The catalogue is provided to the residents addressing the following: energy
consumption, examples include conversion to another heating system, efficiency of electricity,
renovation of heating plants, solar heating plants for hot water production; information on energy
consumption and the environment; energy supply, such as the combined power and district heating
plant based on natural gas, and district heating using straw or wood chips (TO5).
In addition to this an energy database was established to evaluate the energy consumption for each
individual household, with figures submitted on electricity, district heating, natural gas, water and other
building data (TO6). On the basis of the consumption figure a Brundtland Diploma was issued to each
individual household that indicated its consumption figures, with suggestions for reduction possibilities.
Public Sector
Different technologies and materials used to reduce energy and water consumption in public buildings
include the installation of a new biomass (using wood chips) stoker at the public Arrild swimming pool
(TO9), and the use of water efficient toilets at the Agerskov School (TO10) leading to the substantial
savings of water. The reduction in costs for the municipality and the relatively short payback time has
encouraged the municipality to consider similar projects. The involvement of the pupils in various
projects has also encouraged growing awareness of environmental issues.
Through these projects, Toftlund now also has a positive reputation as an energy conscious and
responsible town, and the BCEN network was used to share experiences of being involved in energy
efficiency on a town level.
Industry Sector
A craftsman package was launched to support the local industry as well as the inhabitants who were
interested in renovating their buildings (TO12). The complications involved in carrying out retrofitting
have been avoided in Toftlund by agreements made with local trade people and suppliers to achieve
economies of scale with an efficient, flexible working procedure.
A handbook was compiled with information on relevant procedures, prices and benefits – thus making it
easy for house owners to decide on what they could implement and afford. The industry sector
supported the concept, also with fixed prices. It reduced time-consuming work of giving quotations, and
simplified decision-making by offering a total package to house owners on energy-saving work.
Packages include work description, total investment, subsidies, calculated energy saving, repayment
period, co-ordination of craftsmen, and random quality control.
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Solar Cities - Good Practice Guide
2.4.2.2
Good Practice – Toftlund
TO1 - Political commitment to reach 30-50% goal in energy reduction in 10 years
Objective
The political leadership of the city has committed itself to clear goals for implementation strategies and
actions to actively reduce harmful emissions in support of a sustainable environment.
Description
In 1990 Toftlund was chosen to become a Brundtland city because the town strived towards energy
conservation, using renewable energy sources, and the energy supply structure and distribution of
buildings were representative for Denmark.
The main aim of Toftlund within the Brundtland project was, firstly, to demonstrate with the existing
knowledge it was possible to reduce the energy consumption and the interdependent environmental
strain by 30 to 50% in an existing town area in approximately 10 years (starting around 1990).
There was clear political commitment to achieve this aim, and Toftlund did in fact manage to reduce
CO2 by more than 50 % in five years. This was achieved partly by converting the district heating system
from coal to natural gas, but also by reducing energy consumption in households. Through the range of
measures implemented (see a selection of good practice examples in following material) harmful
emissions were reduced as follows: CO2 by 22%, Nox by 17% and SO2 by 21%.
Financial resources
Many of the activities implemented (see following good practices) have been financed by the
municipality. However, the awareness campaign has had a wider effect – not only do inhabitants
become more aware of energy issues, but they also change their behaviour and implement their own
energy reduction measures. As such the initial financial impact can have a much wider (financial and
measurable) effect, benefiting all parties involved.
Conclusion and recommendations
Following up on its political commitment, Toftlund now has a positive reputation as an energy conscious
and energy responsible town. With its involvement in the Brundtland network it can share its
experiences in energy efficiency and use of RE technologies on a town level, thereby actively
encouraging other cities and towns to replicate its experiences covering a wide range of initiatives.
Contact point for further information
Nørre-Rangstrup Municipality
Danavej 15
DK-6620 Toftlund
Denmark
Mr. Ole Toft (Brundtland Network Administrative Coordinator)
Email: [email protected]
Web: http://www.nrrangstrup.dk/
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Solar Cities - Good Practice Guide
TO2 – Cooperation on Local Agenda 21 scheme with other municipalities
Objective
Cooperation across three municipalities is aimed at implementing effective measures for a small region.
Description
Toftlund collaborates and conducts planning together with the Gram and Roedding Municipalities to
fulfil the following five mandatory aims in central southern Jutland:
reduce environmental damage;
encourage sustainable town development;
encourage biological diversity;
involve citizens in the processes;
encourage an interplay between decisions on environment, traffic, education, culture, socioeconomic issues.
Overall results
All municipalities in Denmark are required to have a strategy for Agenda 21 supporting a sustainable
environment. An ‘agenda’ employee is responsible for the preparation of a common Agenda 21
strategy, starting and co-ordinating activities. Drafts for the strategy and activities are discussed by a
control group (comprised of technical managers of each municipalities and the Agenda 21 employee).
The strategy is defined by the municipality political departments before it is sent to a public hearing.
The control group meets about once a month. Initial discussions concern the structure of the
approaches to be used. When a strategy is defined, the control group address the determination of an
action plan for the activities, and identify how politicians, citizens, citizen groups, organisations and
unions can be involved efficiently. The Agenda 21 strategy is developed as a starting point for a 4-year
period; with the first one from 2003-2007.
The vision for sustainable development in the three municipalities is that the area should be attractive to
settle in, and it should be possible to find employment in the vicinity – or to commute to work under
reasonable conditions. In the draft for the Agenda 21 strategy, equal focus is given to the development
of economic, social and environmental sustainability. In each area a number of political objectives serve
as guidelines for the desired development.
From an energy perspective, minimising the load on the environment resulting from municipal activities
and focusing on the consumption and possible reduction of electricity, water and heat is essential. Pilot
projects, such as green accounting, environment statements, the involvement of the municipal
institutions and the public, are considered for implementation.
Financial resources
The cost for the municipalities was limited, as the state has supported many green initiatives and has
provided wage subsidies for the Agenda 21 work over a long period.
Conclusion and recommendations
Cooperation that takes place across several municipalities has certain advantages and disadvantages.
On the positive side, non-traditional partnerships are formed with those parties interested in the
environment (incl. schools, day care institutions, citizens) and they are provided with an opportunity to
become involved.
However, new ways of cooperating need to be identified. Coordinating activities over several municipal
structures is not always easy. A structural framework is recommended, committing the municipalities to
implement suggested initiatives and identifying specific responsible groups as reference points. This
requires a long-term focus and proper planning, with commitment from all parties involved.
Contact point for further information
Nørre-Rangstrup Municipality
Technical Department
Danavej 15
DK-6620 Toftlund
Denmark
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TO3 – Awareness and the energy theme on citizens agenda
Objective
In alignment with the political aims of Toftlund to reduce energy consumption, the citizens have been
increasingly informed about renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE), and have been involved
in projects and initiatives. This has impacted energy usage not only at home, but also in the work place.
Description
By running various campaigns over the past ten years the citizens of Noerre-Rangstrup are today
generally well-informed about RE and EE. Three key aspects were addressed here, namely providing
the possibility to act, the ability to act and the wish to act.
Several informational activities were launched, within the scope of Toftlund as a Brundtland City, for
examples a catalogue of ideas to reduce energy consumption with a range of options has been
produced for residential homes. The Brundtland Diploma, the Brundtland database and the weighing of
waste, are other activities, or tools, that help keep people informed and to assist them in making
choices contributing to a sustainable environment.
As part of the Brundtland City Energy Network motivational activities, one project regarded as
particularly useful was the provision of every household with a report card showing "Brundtland scores"
on a scale of 1-10. This reflected how much electricity and heating energy each household consumed,
relative to the size of the house. It was very effective in starting discussions about energy. Residents
with a medium-to-high (i.e. poor) score were offered an energy audit, and many chose to invest in
conservation measures, spending a total of 8.7 million DKK (€ 1.2 M) - of which 6.8 M DKK came out of
their own pockets and the remainder from grants- for energy efficiency measures.
An interesting result of this project was while measures clearly led to reduced heating consumption (by
12 %), electricity consumption fell twice as much - by 24 %. This was partly due to the building energy
efficiency improvements, but mainly due to energy conservation, as the municipality itself did not
succeed in reducing its own energy consumption, despite investing 2 M DKK in improvements to its
own buildings.
The Brundtland Centre, built on the outskirts of Toftlund, also assisted in generating awareness
amongst the public. It was built in the concept of low energy building with a range of renewable energy
technologies incorporated. The Centre was to demonstrate how to achieve a 50% reduction, as
specified in the UN report "Our Common Future", in energy use compared to normal Danish Building
Standards. Other important parameters were:
•
High indoor comfort levels and use of environmentally sound materials.
•
Demonstration of day lighting systems integrated in sealed glazing.
•
Demonstration of building integrated translucent photovoltaics providing solar shading.
•
Demonstration of atrium integrated into the building for utilisation of passive solar energy.
Overall results
The resonance experienced from the citizens was very good, and now they are in general much more
aware of energy efficiency and related issues, more conscious of consumption patterns and discuss
energy as a serious topic. Further, there is a wide interest in communal projects on RE, not been
experienced previously.
Financial resources
Information on the actual investment in creating awareness is not available. However, this is largely
carried out by the municipality and through funded projects by organisations. The return on the
investment is also difficult to quantify, but has a real effect on the reduction of energy consumption, and
thus on reducing harmful emissions.
Conclusion and recommendations
The municipality is encouraged to carefully consider introducing new projects, making sure they are
aligned to the wishes and expectations of the citizens. Local cooperation is essential to achieve
success, and it can be damaging if a project is forced regardless of the citizens’ needs and perceptions.
A proper public relations campaign requires input from several levels and actors.
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Linking resource consumption with economic issues (also benefits the public by saving costs on
energy) has been found to be useful, as well as a clear time schedule. The overall cost of energy
production is another aspect that is often not clear to users, as these are usually subsidized without
taking into account the environmental impact thereof. As such, investments in environmental and
energy issues also reflect a long-term investment in global sustainability.
Contact point for further information
Nørre-Rangstrup Municipality
Technical Department
Danavej 15
DK-6620 Toftlund
Denmark
Mr. Ole Toft (Brundtland Network Administrative Coordinator)
Email. [email protected]
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TO4 – Weighing of waste from residential and public buildings
Objective
In support of reducing consumption, the waste of local residents and municipal workers is weighed. As
part of increasing awareness of what is actually used and encouraging greater interest in environmental
issues.
Description
This practice was implemented to assist the selection of waste materials and improve recycling.
Weighing the waste has resulted in increasing composting at home, the collection of plastic, paper,
metal and bottles (for recycling) and establishing a recycling area for more than 20 different materials.
A chip and a streamer with the address are mounted on the dustbin. The garbage truck reads the chip
and registers the weight. The data is stored and it is possible for the citizens to go on the internet and,
using a password to obtain access, read the weight measured and compare it to the old data. At each
collection the first five kilograms of garbage is ‘for free’, as is required by law.
Payment is made on account and a final invoice is provided as with electricity and water. It is possible
to mount a lock on the container to prevent others from dumping their waste in peoples dustbins. The
lock is automatically released when it is turned upside down when emptying it in the garbage truck. The
arrangement is combined with a monthly collection of re-useables (plastic, paper, cardboard, metal and
bottles), and compost containers are issued as well.
Overall results
Weighing the waste has shown a reduction from 200 to 100 tons/fortnightly – thus a 50% waste
reduction. Recycling has also improved. Some problems have however also been experienced, such as
dumping waste in public places and the burning of waste, which is illegal.
Financial resources
The implementation and administration costs of the system are, admittedly, higher than without it. The
system demands extra financial resources, these are in the end handed down to the citizens. The costs
are estimated to be between 500.000 and 750.000 DKK.
Conclusion and recommendations
Despite the relatively high costs to implement and administrate the system a clear improvement of 50%
shows that most citizens support such an activity.
Contact point for further information
Nørre-Rangstrup Municipality
Technical Department
Danavej 15
DK-6620 Toftlund
Denmark
Mr. Ole Toft (Brundtland Network Administrative Coordinator)
Email. [email protected]
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TO5 - Catalogue of energy reduction options for residential buildings
Objective
To make the citizens aware of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) in their private
homes, as well as in the public and industrial sector, by providing a range of options with information
thereon.
Description
A catalogue was developed and provided to local residents showing the range of EE and RE solutions
to reduce energy consumption and the use of clean energy sources. This included information on
energy consumption and the environment, efficiency of electricity use, conversion or renovating of a
heating system, available solar energy options such as solar thermal systems for domestic hot water
production or photovoltaics (PV) for energy production, energy supply examples, such as combined
power and district heating plants based on natural gas, biogas and biomass.
Overall results
This measure was used to address both the residents and the political decision-makers. At the start the
catalogue was helpful for informing politicians of measures that could be considered for implementation
in the town, while it focused on residential building applications. The information and resulting increased
awareness assisted to bring into perspective and context the serious nature of the subject and what
every individual can do about energy use.
In Toftlund it was also important to the city council that the citizens notice the implementation of projects
– as such the first priorities were visible undertakings on public and private buildings.
Other experiences
Under the Danish Energy Authority (‘Energistyrelsen’), it is necessary to evaluate the implementation of
ideas as a whole, i.e. that societal, company and private economic consequences are carefully
assessed, before implementation of actual measures is started.
Financial resources
The costs for developing the idea catalogue were approximately 60.000 DKK.
Conclusion and recommendations
It is important at the municipal level to have a prioritised basis of ideas / plans, clarity on what exactly
will be implemented and an overall time plan indicating by when each step or activity has to be
implemented. As new suggestions are likely to be made on a regular basis it is useful to have an expert
involved who can study the proposals and consequences as part of a holistic plan.
Contact point for further information
Nørre-Rangstrup Municipality
Technical Department
Danavej 15
DK-6620 Toftlund
Denmark
Mr. Ole Toft (Brundtland Network Administrative Coordinator)
Email. [email protected]
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TO6 - Establishment of an energy database to evaluate residential energy consumption
Objective
To establish an energy database, containing useful information that can assist in raising awareness
among citizens in particular, about the energy used in every household over the period of one year.
This is also used to present the qualifying households with a Brundtland Diploma as part of the
motivational campaign.
Description
To establish the energy database the following consumption figures were submitted to the database:
Electricity, district heating, natural gas, water and other building data. 895 single-family households in
the Brundtland city of Toftlund received a questionnaire, 750 of them were returned (a response of
84%).The purpose of the questionnaire was to verify and improve available information in the database,
and to give the house owners an idea of their consumption figures.
The municipality manages the database. The practical work was handled by the power supplier (more
details available in Grete Korreman’s evaluation report of the Brundtland City Project).
Residents who returned the questionnaire received a diploma containing so-called Brundtland-figure,
and from this figure the household can establish its own level of energy efficiency. Residents were also
invited to seek advice on how to improve these figures. The document known as an energy resource
statement (ERS) enables householders to compare their consumption with similar homes in terms of
ERS figures.
Overall results
Amongst the households who received a Brundtland Diploma, a
process was initiated locally where people began comparing
their own consumption figures with those of their neighbours and
colleagues. This growing awareness resulted in several new
initiatives in the energy field. This project was one of a kind in
Denmark, and the experiences, a change was implemented as
from 2003. The Energy Authority demanding that all supply
companies must have norm figures once a year stated on their
energy bills (similar to what is provided on the diploma).
Financial resources
The data handling and processing amounted to 180.000 DKK.
While the development of a simple program for calculation of the
energy use was approximately 80.000 DKK.
Conclusion and recommendations
Implementing a clear way of illustrating the energy figures in households and other buildings can be a
very effective way of communicating with energy users. Residents usually do not ‘bother’ to look at
previous consumption figures, but by presenting it in an understandable way with an easy overview,
people become more involved and aware of the figures.
Contact point for further information
Nørre-Rangstrup Municipality
Technical Department
Danavej 15
DK-6620 Toftlund
Denmark
Mr. Ole Toft (Brundtland Network Administrative Coordinator)
Email. [email protected]
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TO7 – Support of the national photovoltaics campaign
Objective
To encourage citizens’ to use photovoltaics (PV) in their residences, as part of the available clean
energy options, the BCEN initiated a campaign.
Description
In 2000 Sydvest Energi was commissioned to start a project establishing 30 PV plants in its supply
area. Following an advertising campaign without success, SEB (Enervision) took over the assignment
on their own initiative, and Toftlund was chosen as the target area as it is known to be supportive of RE
and EE projects. Pamphlets were distributed to households containing essential information and an
application form. Through the Brundtland City project about 105 households applied for participation in
the project. Of these 49 households were selected for installation of a PV system.
Sydvest Energi called for a citizen meeting, where more than 100 additional citizens signed up for the
arrangement. The strategy was as follows: a neighbourhood was targeted, and PV systems are
installed where people had an interest; then the next area was selected and so on.
Overall results
In 2001 PV supplied approximately 81 MWh. About 300 PV systems with an average size of 24 m2
were installed. Subsidies were available to assist with the financing of these PV systems.
Purchasing, sales and the production can be monitored on the Internet. Each consumer with a PV
system is able to compare his/her own system with others, regarding energy production and
consumption – acting as a competition parameter.
Financial resources
Subsidies of 85% of the installation cost were available. In the area of Sydvest Energi, the campaign
cost about 25.000 DKK.
Conclusion and recommendations
The project was successfully carried out largely due to the positive dialogue with the consumers. For
such a project to succeed, it is necessary to also include a direct and local ”sales effort”, making people
interested in the concept. This has been lacking, as results have found, in some other national projects,
with resulting lower interest from the users.
Contact point for further information
Nørre-Rangstrup Municipality
Technical Department
Danavej 15
DK-6620 Toftlund
Denmark
Mr. Ole Toft (Brundtland Network Administrative Coordinator)
Email. [email protected]
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TO8 - The Danish Energy Management Scheme and energy registration of public buildings
Objective
According to the Danish Energy Management Scheme (ELO scheme) information on heat-, electricityand water consumption in public buildings needs to be registered every month.
Description
The ELO management system, which is the Danish Energy Management Scheme, is in use in Toftlund.
As of January 1997 all buildings in Denmark must be energy labelled. According to the Act and
Executive orders (Act to Promote Energy and Water Savings in Buildings No. 485 of 12 June 1996. The
Act has been followed up by the orders; Order on Energy Labelling etc. in Buildings, No.789. 19. Sept.
2002 and Order on Fees and Responsibilities for Energy Labelling of Buildings No. 718 of 14th Sept.,
1999) all large buildings of over 1,500 m2 must be energy labelled once a year. The major types of
buildings enclosed by the scheme are residential buildings, buildings used for trade and for private use
as well as public buildings. The energy management scheme is used, in residential buildings, as a basis
for preparing the energy label (the EM - Scheme) for owner-occupied flats in large buildings. Buildings
used for industrial production, storage houses, churches and buildings with no or very limited energy
consumption are exempted. The energy labelling includes both an energy rating and an energy plan.
The purpose of the Act is to promote energy and water savings and to increase efficiency in all
utilisation of energy and water in buildings.
Furthermore, large buildings are exempted from the scheme for two years, if they receive an A-mark
(on the scale A to M) for heating and electricity consumption, or if the energy plan includes (profitable)
saving suggestions with a total reduction of less than 5% CO2 emission. The energy labelling includes
both an energy rating and an energy plan. The purpose of the Act is to promote energy efficiency, water
savings and reduce consumption in buildings.
In the Noerre-Rangstrup municipality the ELO management system is enforced in all public buildings,
also if they are smaller than 1500 m2. Each month the consumption of electricity, heat and water is
registered for all the municipal buildings. The results are compared to the budget for the building, and
when large irregularities are registered, Enervision A/S contacts the operational personnel for possible
correction of errors.
Through the ELO system focus has been drawn to various changes during the years, the following has
been investigated and in many cases undertaken:
•
New boiler installations
•
New ventilation plants
•
Energy efficient lighting systems
•
Improved building envelopes - hereunder efficient glazing
•
Optimisation of automatic plants
•
Solar energy projects
•
Covering the outdoor swimming pool (using high quality glazing to minimise heat loss)
•
Optimisation of laundries in old age homes
•
Established CTS controlled plants.
Once a year a meeting is arranged between the energy managers, the building management and the
responsible technicians from the municipality. Here results and new initiatives are discussed, and the
future energy projects are decided on, also considered are the investments required and the savings
potential.
The ELO scheme annually results in energy efficiency improvements in public buildings. Each new
investment is thoroughly applied, the technology is utilized, and the investments and saving potentials
are calculated, while considering the payback time. The ELO-scheme in Noerre-Rangstrup municipality
has resulted in many energy projects, resulting in large energy savings often with a payback time of
between 4 - 9 years. The financing for these projects has either been granted through National
schemes or the municipality’s internal energy pool.
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Overall results
Thus far each year the ELO scheme contributed to energy efficiency improvements in some of the
public buildings of the town. Each new investment is carefully studied, identifying the optimal way to
utilize the technology and the investment, and by calculating the saving potentials and the payback
time. Energy savings result in financial savings, most of which are reinvested in energy efficiency
projects.
Other experiences
Energy managers and public building managers are increasingly aware of energy efficiency issues, and
through the Brundtland City project there is enthusiasm for energy optimisation ideas. With the ELO and
the Energy Management Scheme, it is possible to maintain this focus so that the building mass is
continuously operated in an efficient manner.
The building mass of Noerre-Rangstrup municipality has reached an optimal level of energy efficiency,
new investments in building renovation are identified as the final step to reduce the energy consumption
further.
Financial resources
The council has established an energy fund where public building managers can apply for funding of
energy related projects. The money they save is then added to the fund and thereby allows new
projects to be generated. About 100.000 DKK a year is spent on the ELO and Energy Management.
Through the annual revision of the buildings, there are investment proposals for typically 1 million DKK
with a payback period of less than nine years.
Conclusion and recommendations
The legal requirement to study the energy utilisation in buildings has assisted in standardising the
approach used. Many of the initiatives and projects implemented in connection with the ELO scheme,
show that the municipal management has to take a decisive and leading role to encourage energy
consumption.
The results can save costs for the local municipality, and the reinvestment of such saved costs in new
energy-related projects is a practical solution. At the same time it is an excellent example for the
inhabitants and other cities, indicating that this is a priority theme for the municipality.
The importance of informing and training the personnel who have to implement and monitor such
projects is essential for their success. Understanding and motivation for further initiatives is supported
by regular meetings between the operational personnel and the management of each of the buildings.
Contact point for further information
Nørre-Rangstrup Municipality
Technical Department
Danavej 15
DK-6620 Toftlund
Denmark
Mr. Ole Toft (Brundtland Network Administrative Coordinator)
Email. [email protected]
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TO9 - Installation of a new biomass (wood chip stoker) plant at a public swimming centre
Objective
In support of the town’s energy efficiency drive in public buildings, a more energy efficient heating
system was installed at the public swimming pool.
Description
A new biomass plant – using wood chips – was installed to at the Arrild Swimming Centre. This was
aimed at implementing a clean and efficient energy source that would also be more cost effective.
Financial resources
The new wood chip stoker has an investment of 100.000 Euro. The savings in energy are estimated at
40.000 Euro/year, with a payback time of 2½ years.
Conclusion and recommendations
The relatively short payback time and large annual energy savings makes this project a very effective
activity. The municipality, as the owner of the swimming centre, and of many similar public buildings,
can thus contribute very effectively to CO2 reduction by renovating and replacing inefficient materials
and energy supply systems. Savings generated by the new energy system can then be used for other
projects.
Contact point for further information
Nørre-Rangstrup Municipality
Technical Department
Danavej 15
DK-6620 Toftlund
Denmark
Mr. Ole Toft (Brundtland Network Administrative Coordinator)
Email. [email protected]
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TO10 - Installation of new water efficient toilets at public school
Objective
In order to reduce water consumption at a public school new water saving toilets are installed.
Description
32 New toilets were installed at the public Agerskove School, aimed at effectively reducing water
consumption and related costs. The water consumption dropped on average from 13 to 5 litres per
toilet, with the water savings calculated to be 3.000 Euro/year.
Other experiences
The pupils at public schools have also been involved in various projects on saving energy and RE. The
success of this particular project will also have an impact on similar new projects in other schools.
Financial resources
For 32 toilets an investment on 6.000 Euro was necessary. The water savings are calculated to be
3.000 Euro/year, payback time is calculated to be 2 years.
Conclusion and recommendations
This simple yet effective measure, as part of an overall strategy by the municipality to reduce energy
and water consumption, has been used to make people more environmentally aware, and change their
own behaviour patterns.
Financial savings that are made can be used to cover the investment costs, and thereafter can be used
effectively for new RES and RUE projects, thereby creating a sustainable financing mechanism for new
ideas.
Contact point for further information
Nørre-Rangstrup Municipality
Technical Department
Danavej 15
DK-6620 Toftlund
Denmark
Mr. Ole Toft (Brundtland Network Administrative Coordinator)
Email. [email protected]
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TO11 - CHP supply from Toftlund District Heating Plant
Objective
The objective is to continuously improve the town’s district heating system, and to make the system
more energy efficient.
Description
The district’s main energy source was changed in 1995 from coal to natural gas. Three years later a
large combined heat and power (CHP) engine was also installed by the Toftlund Fjernvarmevaerk
(district heating plant). This produces about 5,5 MW for electricity and 6,3 MW for heating.
In addition to this, in 1992 Europe’s first fuel cell was installed at Toftlund District Heating Plant,
resulting in a large reduction in the CO2 emissions. The gas engine has also been changed to a more
energy efficient model. Additionally PV provides an estimated 81 MWh (2001 figures).
Overall results
The installation of a CHP has resulted in a decrease in CO2 emissions in the community.
Other experiences
The economic risk of installation, operation and maintenance of such district heating systems has been
decentralised.
Implementing such decentralised local plants also helps to secure national energy provisions, given that
it is not such an interesting target for terrorism. It also provides added stability to the energy production
system as there is no dependence on a single system which could affect a large part of the population
should it fail.
In addition to this, using clean energy sources aids in the reduction of harmful emissions. Normally the
cost of electricity will remain the same for the individual consumer. If they have a choice on which
energy utility they wish to use it is important to inform the user on the available options, the impact of
their choice (also from an environmental perspective), and the cost thereof.
In general it is necessary to encourage the user to reduce energy consumption. Often the utility will not
address this issue as it impacts on the income generated. This is then also a task for the municipality,
which has a role to play within the Local Agenda 21 activities to inform inhabitants on environmental
issues.
Conclusion and recommendations
The combination of technologies used in this heating system provides an interesting and innovation
approach for heating municipal communities.
Contact point for further information
Nørre-Rangstrup Municipality
Technical Department
Danavej 15
DK-6620 Toftlund
Denmark
Mr. Ole Toft (Brundtland Network Administrative Coordinator)
Email. [email protected]
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TO12 – Development of a craftsman package
Objective
In support of the local industry and the users interested in energy efficiency projects, a system was
introduced to streamline the implementation processes.
Description
As a result of the BCEN awareness activities, more work was available in the energy efficient
renovation area. A ‘craftsman package’ was launched in 1991 to assist the local inhabitants with
planning and contact with local industry (craftsmen and suppliers), while it also helped the local industry
with more work opportunities.
The BCEN employed a consultant to co-ordinate work in the industry and to develop a cost estimate on
the types of assignments. A handbook was then produced presenting the different work and cost, e.g.
insulating of lofts and walls, conversion of electrical heating et cetera to assist the user in technical and
financial planning, and to minimise additional work for the craftsmen in the initial phase. The package
was divided into a number of important issues, offering a total package to house owners on energysaving work. It included a work description, total investment, available subsidies, calculated energy
savings, repayment period, co-ordination of craftsmen, and random quality control.
Other experiences
The increased awareness that EE projects were in demand, helped cooperation between businesses,
as there was enough work for everyone. The processes were streamlined with a flexible working
procedure, and information on procedures, prices and attainable benefits.
The fixed-price system was accepted by the craftsmen as it helped them to acquire work. It helped the
user by minimising the time-consuming work of getting quotations, and provided useful information
aspects to be addressed with sustainable renovation.
Financial resources
During the project the building industry was suffering from a recession. This system supported the local
industry and cooperation among the craftsmen meant spreading financial benefits among them. In turn
the citizens were able to implement work at favourable prices, and at the same time they saved money
as a result of reduced energy consumption (ranging from 15 - 50%)
Conclusion and recommendations
The project encouraged an interest in energy efficiency measures, both among the citizens and the
industry.
Contact point for further information
Nørre-Rangstrup Municipality
Technical Department
Danavej 15
DK-6620 Toftlund
Denmark
Mr. Ole Toft (Brundtland Network Administrative Coordinator)
Email. [email protected]
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Public Sector
Industry Sector
Economic
Advantages /
Job creation
Policy &
Standards
Awareness &
Campaigns
Financial
Mechanisms
(incl.
Subsidies)
Residential Sector
Education &
Training
Matrix - Toftlund
Technology
Developed /
Tested
2.4.2.3
TO7
TO12
TO5
TO11
TO1
TO2
TO3
TO5
TO6
TO7
TO12
TO1
TO2
TO4
TO6
TO11
TO1
TO2
TO3
TO8
TO9
TO1
TO2
TO4
TO8
TO10
TO2
TO8
TO9
TO10
TO1
TO2
TO3
TO11
TO12
TO1
TO2
TO4
TO12
TO8
Transport Sector
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2.4.3
Copenhagen (Denmark)
2.4.3.1
Context
The cities of Copenhagen (DK) and Salzburg (Austria), and the social housing group Zonnige Kempen,
were selected for further study as they represent interesting facets of the European Green City Network
(EGCN).
The reasons for choosing Copenhagen include the following:
It is representative of the cities and towns of the network, because it is a city of many elements. It
has the image of a capital, with a city centre and some densely populated areas close to the
centre, but also areas further out with a more suburban character.
The good practice initiatives that were implemented have proven to be effective and an
interesting combination.
The variety of measures implemented covers a large spectrum of activities in different sectors.
Copenhagen, the capital of Denmark, has just under 1 million citizens. In the greater Copenhagen area,
including the suburbs around Copenhagen, the number of inhabitants is about 1.7 million. When
considering the whole Øresund region - consisting of Copenhagen and southern Sweden (Skåne) – this
has a population of 2.8 million inhabitants.
In recent years Copenhagen has set many initiatives in motion in order to ensure sustainable
development. Copenhagen has set itself the goal to become Europe's environmental capital. Today the
city is at the forefront in several areas, in terms of fulfilling the Rio Agreement’s stipulations necessary
for sustainable development in the 21st century.
Strategies and activities
One of the means for achieving sustainable development is green audits or accounts for public
buildings (COP5), which the City of Copenhagen prepares for all its activities. The audits map the
overall consumption of electricity, water and heat in council-owned properties. From the information
collected key figures on energy, waste and water are published to increase public awareness. The
green audits are further instruments in the political debate about ends and means regarding all relevant
environmental factors - from council acquisitions and major building investments to the employees' use
of bicycles as a form of transport. The City of Copenhagen is in the process of introducing
environmental management in line with the EU "Environmental Management and Audit Scheme".
Copenhagen also prepares green audits of users, which show the impact citizens, commuters, tourists
and the business community have on the city’s environment. These contain key figures relating to the
consumption of energy, water, the amount of refuse, traffic development as well as the state of the
environment in the city's park areas and waters. These audits also focus on issues like contaminated
soil, environmentally sound construction activities and local sustainability. The energy audit scheme for
larger buildings (>1500 m2) (COP1) follows the implementation of the national law on energy labelling,
and energy management for larger buildings was put into force in January 1997. The objective of the
scheme is to help owners of larger buildings to introduce good energy management practice.
Copenhagen’s three large combined heat and power (CHP) stations - Amagerværket,
Svanemølleværket and H.C. Ørstedsværket – were the first in Denmark to receive the official seal of
approval in the form of an environmental certification - demonstrating conformity with the international
environmental management standard (ISO 14001), which obliges power stations to make ongoing
environmental improvements. The power stations have introduced DeNOx plants, which remove
nitrogen oxide from fuel gas, and are also equipped with desulphurisation plants. The district heating
network has been enlarged to cover most of the city (97%) to make use of all the heat from the CHP
production (COP2).
Holistic urban renewal projects (COP3) have been a cornerstone in urban regeneration. Trial
neighbourhood regeneration projects and holistic urban renewal can be characterised as the third
generation of urban renewal projects in Denmark. As neighbourhood regeneration is based on the
active commitment and involvement of the residents, they are invited to participate and take
responsibility for or actively participate in the management of the project.
Another initiative supported in Copenhagen is the Green Guides (COP4) project. A ‘Green Guide’ is a
person who works as a local environmental interpreter. The guide’s job is to persuade citizens to think
and act in more environmentally friendly ways – thus providing action-oriented public information about
the environment. Their work is undertaken in the conditions prevailing in the local area and in
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cooperation with local associations, institutions, citizens and authorities. This employment opportunity
also supports local job creation.
The Green Schools initiative (COP6) has as main idea to involve schools in projects for improving their
environment and local communities, with greater awareness among pupils, school staff, their families,
etc.
The world's largest offshore wind farm, Middelgrunden Windmill Farm, is located in the Øresund,
approximately three kilometres from Copenhagen harbour (COP7). This farm has 20 2MW wind
generators, which altogether produce enough electricity to cover 3% of Copenhagen's power
consumption. This clean energy production contributes substantially to the reduction of harmful
emissions in the area, and forms part of the city’s strategy. The wind farm is simultaneously a unique
partnership between private initiative and the public authorities. The generators are co-owned - 50%
owned by ± 8,500 co-operative members, and the other half by the City of Copenhagen through the
company, Copenhagen Energy.
Other activities that impact on environment
Copenhagen Energy delivers the inhabitants with drinking and domestic water pumped up from the
subsoil. Even though Copenhagen citizens are conscious of saving water (water consumption has
dropped from 168 litres to 131 litres per person per day over the last ten years), this resource is under
pressure due to the pollution. Therefore, Copenhagen Energy is filtering the water from Denmark's
largest lake - the algae-infested Arresø, north of Copenhagen – by artificial means. A water facility
exploits the strata's natural purification capability, with water being pumped from the lake to a naturallyformed sand-rich hill, from where it filters down through the earth into the lake.
As Denmark is partly surrounded by the sea, the water environment is important and has for many
years been a focus area in Denmark – a county that also has considerable experience with sewage
treatment. Each year two large and technologically advanced sewage plants, Lynetten and
Damhusåen, treat 75-100 million m3 industrial and household sewage from a 123-square kilometre
upland area.
At the Copenhagen Recycling Centre situated in Kalvebod, building and construction waste is received,
sorted and processed for recycling. Oil-polluted soil is cleaned, and garden / park refuse is composted.
Each day more than 600 trucks from the metropolitan region pass through this facility. Altogether 95%
of the construction waste received is recyclable. Only 5% must be burned or placed in storage. The
recycling centre is just one part of the entire refuse handling operation in Copenhagen. The aim of the
waste management plan for Copenhagen is for the absolute maximum of refuse to be recycled, and the
amount of refuse in general to be minimised. Also, all combustible refuse is to be used for generating
energy in the form of heating and electricity.
Environmental control in Copenhagen monitors 33,000 companies. However, the task consists of more
than monitoring to ensure that companies comply with legislation and regulations. In addition to this,
dialogue, expert advice and guidance on how companies can solve environmental problems in the most
appropriate manner, is provided thus ensuring that the way forward regarding the environment is
continually improved. Environment control also plays a huge preventative role, by encouraging
companies to maintain green audits and introduce environmental management.
Further documentation is readily accessible on the website of Copenhagen:
Copenhagen City Council
Environmental Control
PO Box 259
Copenhagen V
DK-1502
Denmark
Tel:
+45 33 66 66 33 (Information)
Email: [email protected]
Web: http://www.kbhbase.kk.dk/
http://www.CopenhagenCity.dk
http://www.miljoe.kk.dk/ (Environment Department)
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2.4.3.2
Good Practice – Copenhagen
COP1 - Energy audit scheme for larger buildings (>1500 m2)
Objective
The objective of the scheme is to help the owners of larger buildings (>1500 m2) to introduce good
energy management practice.
Description
Since 1997 all large private and public buildings (in excess of 1,500 m2) fall under the Energy
Management Scheme. Additionally, the owners of these buildings are under a legal obligation to
systematically improve water and energy conservation.
A certified energy consultant studies the energy consumption for the buildings every year. On the basis
of these ’registrations’ the energy consultant produces an energy label and an energy plan for future
potential actions that can be carried out. The energy label indicates the consumption of the building
compared to other similar buildings (schools are compared to schools, et cetera). The energy plan
shows the energy consumption for the last three years and describes what impact new energy saving
measures can have if carried out.
Overall results
By December 2003 the energy label scheme was in use for 6 years, and it has proven to have a
profound impact on the energy use in several buildings in Copenhagen. It makes a tremendous
difference in the CO2 accounts when large buildings follow the energy management scheme. However,
it is more difficult to see changes in smaller residential buildings, where the energy budgets are smaller
and where less money is available for energy saving measures.
Conclusion and recommendations
The energy label scheme clearly shows the energy consumption of a building, in an understandable
way - also for lay-people who are the energy users. The standardised method of conducting the study
by certified consultants, together with the formalised legal requirement, makes the labelling scheme an
effective strategy. As it is easy to compare buildings with similar buildings, specific improvements
resulting from using new technologies or material can be identified and shared.
This good practice has the potential for huge energy reduction patterns in large buildings, and could be
particularly useful if standardised at national or region (e.g. European) levels.
The scheme can also be extended to include other key figures (not only relevant to energy use but
sustainability in general), and could be a formalised ‘mini-green account’. Energy labelling schemes are
increasingly extended to many other items, such as electrical appliances, vehicles, public and living
areas, et cetera. This trend is most successful if users are made aware of the necessity to save energy,
with clear understandable information on the reasoning behind this.
Contact point for further information
Energy Labelling Denmark
Alhambravej 10
DK-1826 Frederiksberg C
Denmark
Email: [email protected]
Web: http://www.ens.dk/
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COP2 – Expansion of the district heating network
Objective
To reduce the CO2 emissions by increasing the share of district heating in Copenhagen and by
exploiting the “waste” heat from conventional electricity production.
Description
About 80% of the CO2 emissions in Copenhagen result from the consumption of heat and electricity. It
is therefore necessary to focus on the energy sector when addressing the problem.
The district heating network is currently being extended, so that waste heat from electricity generation
at the three Copenhagen power and heating plants may be exploited fully. As more users are linked to
the district heating, fewer of them use oil burners that are particularly "expensive" in terms of CO2
accounts.
Overall results
In 2000 the district heating network covered 91% of the total heating needs in the city, and by 2003 the
coverage reached 97%. The overall CO2 emissions for Copenhagen have been reduced by an
estimated 15% from 1990 to 1999. The goal for Copenhagen is a reduction of 25% from 1990 to 2010 –
as such a further reduction of 10% is therefore still required.
The improvements are mainly due to the massive extension of the district heating system, an increased
energy consulting service, a conversion from coal fired power plants to natural gas, as well as
improvements in combustion techniques and fuel gas cleaning techniques.
Fig. 1: Emission of CO2 from power production,
Copenhagen
Fig. 2: Overall emission of CO2 Copenhagen
Other experiences
All the utilities for Copenhagen (water, electricity, gas and heating) have been drawn together, forming
one utility company. This makes it easier to conduct overall planning and implement strategies for
Copenhagen.
In the future it will only be possible to extend the district heating system to a small number of buildings.
Any new large savings in CO2 emissions in the power production industry requires large investments.
Issues under consideration include continuing the extension of the district heating system, changes in
production, improved information and counselling for both private households and industry. There are
also planned initiatives towards building more windmills, using biomass and converting more plants to
use natural gas.
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Conclusion and recommendations
Using district heating in the city of Copenhagen has provided a good opportunity to optimise the energy
supply system, because the area is not very widespread. However, there will be a limit for extending the
systems when all consumers are connected to district heating. Other measures need to be considered
in addition to this strategy.
As mentioned above, the large savings in CO2 resulting from using a clean energy district heating
system require large investments. If financing is not available for such a strategy it is suggested that
any of the several other options are implemented, also addressing user behaviour to reduce energy
consumption patterns.
Implementing a district heating system is also a political issue, with clear political commitment and
support needed to decide on and implement such a strategy. As it is a very effective way to achieve
large CO2 reduction percentages, if a town or city is committed and has the financial resources this
scheme is highly recommended.
Contact point for further information
Københavns Energi
Vognmagergade 8
DK-1149 København K
Denmark
Email: [email protected]
Web: http://www.ke.dk/
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COP3 - Holistic urban renewal / regeneration projects
Objective
The implementation of neighbourhood regeneration projects can address many different problems in an
urban area. As periodic renewal is required, this opportunity is also used to address the reduction of
energy consumption, using clean energy sources, and a general sustainable approach.
Description
The neighbourhood regeneration projects in Denmark have an interesting background. Previous
attempts in the 1980s and 1997 led to general dissatisfaction among the inhabitants, since they were
not involved in the process. This resulted in an amendment of the Danish Urban Renewal Act in 1993,
to the effect that involvement of local residents became a statutory requirement.
As residents are now more extensively involved in neighbourhood regeneration projects, holistic urban
renewal diverse approaches have resulted. Residents are invited to take the initiative, responsibility for
and actively participate in the management of the projects.
Activities include housing improvements (renovation and new buildings), improving streets and squares,
as well as addressing social and cultural life (e.g. establishing a local job centre and neighbourhood
centre, cultural and sports facilities). As such, it involves an interdisciplinary and holistic approach,
where the individual measures support each other and the whole concept. A number of different
administrations and organisations work together with the local residents.
Overall results
There are currently 6 urban renewal projects in Copenhagen, including:
-
Nørrebro Park Kvarter
-
Kvarterløft Nord-Vest
-
Holmbladsgadekvarteret
-
Kongens Enghave
-
Femkanten
The environment and Agenda 21 area play a central role in all the neighbourhood regeneration projects,
with urban ecology and sustainability becoming a prominent theme. Experiences include:
-
Green guides have been attached to most neighbourhood regeneration projects, and make an
important contribution to the environmental work (see COP4).
-
Waste separation projects (starting at the source) has
increased recycling, and contributed to new types of cooperation.
-
To find ecological solutions, closer dialogue with the local
residents was initiated.
Other experiences
Neighbourhood regeneration is, first and foremost, about resident
participation. These projects have gone a step further than just
inviting participation, by placing the initiative in the local area. In
this way, it succeeded in involving many local forces in the
planning and implementation of the projects (People of all ages,
refugees and immigrants, families of all types, people with social
problems, a wide range of businesses, associations, housing
organisations, et cetera). Dialogue with these groups is necessary,
and all the parties must join forces – supported by the municipality.
A city is complex and diverse, as are the existing problems. The
solutions must therefore be multi-layered and tailored to the
requirements of the individual neighbourhoods. Problems differ
from neighbourhood to neighbourhood - some need improvement
of their open spaces, others have more need to address the
housing composition or traffic and rundown communal roads. It is
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important to adopt holistic approaches because the problems are often interconnected. Co-ordination is
necessary - the problems cannot merely be looked at from a local point of view.
Investments in the areas – both human and economic – are secured and optimal if they are based on
requirements and wishes identified by people in the local area, who also participate in the
implementation process. An interesting approach used in Nord-Vest was distributing a video film on
neighbourhood regeneration to all households. The video film was also an invitation to participate in the
first public meeting. Interviews were conducted with residents in the street. Questionnaires were
handed out to identify the perceptions on what is ’good or bad’ in the area.
Financial resources
From an economic point of view, neighbourhood regeneration projects in Denmark are characterised by
an unconventional financing model where the State, the municipality, private foundations, private
landowners, enterprises, associations, and other interested parties all contribute. Even though
neighbourhood regeneration is basically publicly funded, many of the specific projects involve
considerable co-financing.
Conclusion and recommendations
Holistic urban renewal is a concept that could be copied by any city to assure a sustainable urban
regeneration. It is essential that local residents have a real say in the process, and the process must not
affect the original residents such that they cannot afford to live in the area following urban renewal.
Positive effects have been experienced at several levels, including job creation, with better
opportunities created for the unemployed of the neighbourhood through consultancy, training and new
work opportunities.
Contact point for further information
Københavns Kommunes Kvarterløftsekretariat
Rådhuset
1599 København V
Denmark
Email: [email protected]
Web: http://www.kvarterloeft.kk.dk/
(The information presented here is based on information on this web-site).
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COP4 - Green Guides
Objective
A green guide is a person who works as a local ‘environmental interpreter’, who has to persuade
inhabitants to think and act in more environment-friendly ways.
Description
Green guides work for sustainable development in the local area where they are employed. Their work
is undertaken on the conditions prevailing in the local area and in cooperation with local associations,
institutions, citizens and authorities. The main focus of the work is action-oriented public information
about the environment. The green guide collects and communicates knowledge of and ideas for "green
behaviour", using:
newsletters, pamphlets, newspapers, exhibitions
debates, teaching, excursions
answers to questions asked by citizens via telephone, e-mail or a response page in a
newspaper
help to active groups and in connection with new project launches
dialogue with and networking vis-à-vis the local authorities, the corporate sector, associations,
etc.
Overall results
Local areas differ greatly in terms of size and nature. Hence, some guides work in areas or for housing
associations with a couple of thousand residents, while other guides work in areas with more than
50,000 residents. Some guides operate in the big cities, while others operate in rural districts. The
guides’ office are located in many different places, such as an environmental shop, a library, different
types of school or the railway/bus station, but often they are placed where it is easy for people to drop
by.
According to an evaluation report*, the Green Guide Scheme was very successful in meeting the
objectives of the scheme. The scheme strengthened local, popular environmental initiatives, both
through the information efforts of the individual guides and their cooperation with many different local
parties.
Financial resources
The Green Guides are financed partly by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency and partly by the
local municipalities. The Green Fund provides wage subsidies to the guides and has therefore laid
down a number of project requirements. These include annual work schedules and reports, budgets
and accounts and determination of the project organisation.
Conclusion and recommendations
The Green Guide concept seems to be a viable concept for increasing the awareness of local citizens
and initiating new projects to reduce the CO2-emissions among other goals. It also provides local
employment opportunities, and supports the work of the municipality that is particularly effective, as it
provides a direct channel of information in both ways.
Contact point for further information
Grøn guide Frants Thaning
Stemannsgade 9 c
DK 8900 Randers
Denmark
Email: [email protected]
Web: http://www.ggft.dk/
(The information presented here is based on information on this web-site).
*
Jeppe Læssøe, May 2001, 250 p. in Danish
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COP5 - Green accounts for public buildings
Objective
To collect key figures on the environmental impact of public buildings in the City of Copenhagen.
Description
Green accounts can include different units, and cover water, waste and energy consumption.
Information is collected in a structured way to determine the environmental impact of that particular
year. These figures are used to compare previous years’ consumption, to determine a pattern, and are
also compared to other buildings and institutions.
Overall results
The green account for the City of Copenhagen describes the environmental impact of the city’s
activities. The account includes figures for consumption of water, electricity and heat in all public and
administrative buildings. Every month the key figures are collected from the buildings by the energy
responsible person and added to a central database. This information is then used to identify goals,
determine if goals have been achieved, and to detect faults in the systems.
The energy consumption and also the emission of CO2 in the city has been reduced due to this and the
different initiatives implemented.
The scheme has increased awareness on energy and energy savings among the users of the public
buildings. The municipality is regarded as a role model and aims to inspire others through this
approach.
One weakness identified is that the scheme requires the collection of many figures, and it requires an
expert to understand the final statistics that are produced. However, it provides the city with clear
information on its energy consumption patterns, additionally the system can be extended to include
penalties for users in buildings that do not attain the goals and rewards for those that do (as they save
money in this way).
Financial resources
The expenses are covered by the municipality.
Conclusion and recommendations
Green accounting is a good scheme, but it requires continuity in application and expertise, with a
regular analysis of the results. This has to be presented in an understandable manner, and
communicated clearly to the public.
At this stage the green accounting scheme is only mandatory for public buildings. However, if it is
extended to other types of buildings (either as a mandatory or as a voluntary scheme) it will have a
larger impact – making users aware of energy consumption patterns is a first step in helping them to
change their behaviour.
Contact point for further information
Miljøkontrollen
Kalvebod Brygge 45
Postboks 259
DK-1502 København V
E-mail: [email protected]
Web: www.miljoe.kk.dk
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COP6 - Green schools
Objective
To show a way for schools to embark on a meaningful path to improve the local environment, thereby
influencing young people, their families, school staff and local authorities.
Description
Primary and secondary schools can apply for a “Green Flag” by fulfilling a number of obligations
(http://www.groentflag.dk/). Some of these are thematic and address the following:
-
energy
-
waste
-
water
-
nature.
Other obligations form part of the international specifications of the international Eco-Schools
programme. This is a programme in support of the Local Agenda 21, aimed at environmental
management and certification, and sustainable development education for schools. (http://www.ecoschools.org/index.htm).
Eco-Schools is delivered by non-governmental, non profit member organisations working closely with
public entities, such as Ministries of Education and Environment, as well as Regional Administrations
and Local Authorities. Who ensure the programme is mainstreamed and compatible with national
priorities and objectives in areas such as Education, Environment and Citizenship.
Overall results
The overall result of this strategy is an increased awareness on sustainability issues that reaches
beyond the school children and their teachers to the parents and the local society. As the schools are
part in an international programme it also strengthen the understanding of the value of international cooperation. 210 Danish schools have joined the Eco-Schools programme by 2003, and 178 certificates
were awarded.
The general impression is that the pupils who participate in the programme are involved with great
enthusiasm and thereby get a lot of practical and theoretical knowledge about energy and environment
issues.
Financial resources
The Green schools are supported locally by the Municipality of Copenhagen, and internationally the
Eco-schools programme has received support from the European Commission.
Conclusion and recommendations
The Green Schools programme is a successful initiative and it is easy to start a parallel programme in
any European (or international) city by contacting the Eco-Schools programme:
Contact point for further information
Friluftsraadet
Scandiagade 13
DK – 2450
Copenhagen SV
Denmark
Email: [email protected]
Web: http://www.groentflag.dk/
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COP7 – World’s largest offshore wind farm, Middelgrunden Windmill farm
Objective
The objective of the project was to design, build and operate a large scale offshore wind farm in a
cooperative between private owners and a utility company to produce clean energy to a wide range of
users.
Description
In 1996 the Copenhagen Environment and Energy Office (CEEO) took the initiative to propose and
organize the project. After mapping the wind potentials in the area of Copenhagen, the CEEO
organized a working group consisting primarily of citizens from the area who were interested in wind
energy. Different personal and educational backgrounds were represented with a common belief that
the project was going to be a success.
CEEO was a part of the working group in the beginning and now serves as a consultant for the wind
energy co-operative. The wind farm has since been developed and now of the 20 wind turbines, 10
turbines are owned by the co-operative and 10 turbines are owned by the local utility Copenhagen
Energy. More than 8,500 people, primarily in the local area, have joined the cooperative.
Overall results
The wind farm was established consisting of twenty 2 MW windmills. Although there have been some
technical problems the production of electricity has been satisfactory and above the estimated value.
Conclusion and recommendations
The innovative ownership construction, as well as the offshore wind technology, have proved viable
concepts and a great deal of experience has been gathered that can be useful for other cities that want
to walk in the footsteps of this project.
Contact point for further information
Middelgrunden Wind Turbine Cooperative
Blegdamsvej 4B
DK-2200 Copenhagen N
Denmark
Web:
http://www.middelgrunden.dk/MG_UK/project_info/production.htm#onl
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Public Sector
COP2
COP3
COP6
Industry Sector
COP2
COP3
COP7
COP1
COP3
COP6
COP1
COP5
COP6
COP1
COP4
COP5
COP7
Transport Sector
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COP1
COP3
COP1
COP3
Economic
Advantage /
Job creation
COP4
COP1
COP2
COP3
COP4
COP6
COP7
Financial
Mechanisms/
Subsidies
Policy /
Standards
COP2
COP3
Awareness /
Campaigns
Residential Sector
Education /
Training
Matrix - Copenhagen
Technology
Development /
Tested
2.4.3.3
COP2
COP4
COP4
COP6
COP2
COP4
COP7
Solar Cities - Good Practice Guide
2.4.4
Salzburg (Austria)
2.4.4.1
Context
The reasons for choosing Salzburg are the following:
It is representative of the cities and towns in the EGCN network,
The best practice initiatives implemented have proven to be effective and the variety of measures
cover a large spectrum,
Further documentation with more details is accessible.
With almost 500,000 people living in the city and province, Salzburg represents only a small proportion
of the citizens of the European Union, and is not very densely populated. It is one of the regions of the
European Union whose population will clearly increase even in future.
The province of Salzburg covers an area of 7,154.5 square kilometres. This small region is situated in
the middle of the ‘new Europe’, which is gradually including Central and Eastern European states. It
was precisely this central location in Europe that gave rise in the province of Salzburg to debates on
membership of the European Union.
More than any other province, Salzburg is dependent on its economic contacts with the countries of the
EU. The proportion of exports from Salzburg to EU-countries remained more or less constant both
before and after accession to the EU. At the time of the referendum in June 1994, two out of three
Salzburgers agreed with the opinion of the Salzburg Regional Government and voted in favour of
Austria joining the European Union.
Since 1992 the regional government of Salzburg has been very active in promoting a sustainable
development and the selected best practices provide good examples of this enthusiasm. Salzburg has
received broad recognition for the innovative labelling or point system for governmental subsidies (S2),
which has been a clear success. The success is now followed up by two new measures: The “e5 programme for energy efficient communities“ (S3) and „The building of tomorrow” (S4). Besides, and
often directly linked to the energy point system programme, many energy efficiency and solar energy
demonstration projects have been carried through in Salzburg. The retrofit of Schwarzach (S1) is a
good example of renovating a whole city district with a common strategy.
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2.4.4.2
Good practices - Salzburg
S1 - Development of an urban renewal concept of south-west district of Schwarzach
Objective
To develop an energy saving retrofit concept for a whole city area, with specific aims to reduce energy
utilisation, raise the quality of living, provide a central energy supply and develop a new traffic concept
for the area.
Description
In Schwarzach, in the country of Salzburg (‘Bundesland Salzburg’), twenty-two residential buildings
(comprising 107 dwellings) that were built between 1930 and 1960, were renovated. Some of them only
required insulation and a new heating system, while others had to be renovated completely, with 5
buildings to be demolished and rebuilt.
To assure good results a project group was established, involving different areas of expertise: a
technician, an architect, the housing association, a community representative, an energy specialist and
a sociologist.
Close to this residential area is a local school and senior residence. These communal buildings are
included in the energy concept of the district. As such the roof of the school (south oriented) was used
to establish a large solar collector system. The mayor signed a contract with the housing association,
and the community placed the roof at the disposal of the housing association for this system. This
collector system is then also to be integrated into the district heating system.
The retrofit concept was developed specifically for this area, also addressing the issue of traffic, the use
of the green areas and a total energy concept. Two new biomass district heating plants were
established and connected to a wider economic district heating system.
Overall results
The project group started working out the energy concept in September 2003. The municipality of
Schwarzach has agreed that the GSWB (the housing association) could build a large solar-collector
plant on the school’s roof, and this can be connected to the district heating net. As such, general
cooperation exists and can be implemented. The papers for the contractor-proposal for the district
heating are being worked out and the group is looking for a contractor who will erect the plants and run
the system for fixed prices. The contractor will be selected in February 2004.
Conclusion and recommendations
Using a project group comprised of different disciplines was found to be an interesting approach. This is
recommended to ensure the different requirements of all building inhabitant groups involved are
considered.
Contact point for further information
Salzburger Institut für Raumordnung und Wohnen (SIR)
Alpenstraße 47
5020 Salzburg
Austria
Contact person: Ms. Inge Strassl.
Tel.:
+43 - 662 623 455
Fax:
+43 - 662 629 915
Web: www.sir.at
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S2 - Salzburger point system for governmental subsidies
Objective
To stimulate the interest of builders in the implementation of low energy and ecological residences by
using a financial incentive system.
Description
A "point system" is in place for government subsidies regarding energy utilisation in buildings, with
specific technologies allocated to certain points depending on their positive ’energy’ impact (see Annex
1 Salzburg, with information in German, courtesy SIR). The better or lower the energy consumption of a
house, the better the subsidy will be. There are 10 classes for the insulation and additional points for
solar energy, biomass heating, air ventilation and heat pumps.
Since March 2003 a similar point system is in place for the ecological measures of the building. With a
special computer program they calculate the ecological qualities of a building, depending on the
building materials used (global warming potential, acidification potential and primary energy use) and
other aspects such as using rain water.
In this way the builders are encouraged to consider these measures to their own benefit, and are
staring to become interested in the ecological facts of the building material and various options that can
be applied.
Overall results
The results of this point system have been found to be very good. Many projects have been constructed
with a far better energy performance than they would otherwise have had if the system were not
operative. The statistics are as follows:
From 1994 to 2002 the following changes have taken place:
-
The percentage of dwellings with a solar heating system has increased from 9 to 65 %
-
The percentage of dwellings with bio-mass heating has increased from 10 to 62 %
-
The mean U-value has been reduced from 0,43 to 0,32 W/m²K.
Other experiences
These subsidies are connected to the normal housing funding system – as such no extra financial
resources need to be made available. For further information see the Annexes relating to Salzburg.
Financial resources
Government subsidies are available.
Conclusion and recommendations
This is a very useful concept that can easily be replicated by other cities, especially where a
governmental subsidy system is already in place or in planning.
Contact point for further information
Salzburger Institut für Raumordnung und Wohnen (SIR)
Alpenstraße 47
5020 Salzburg
Austria
Contact person: Ms. Inge Strassl
Tel.:
+43 - 662 623 455
Fax:
+43 - 662 629 915
Web: www.sir.at
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S3 – The’e5’ programme for energy efficient communities
Objective
To gain momentum and increase results of energy efficiency programmes in the ’Bundesland’ Salzburg,
using the ‘e5’ programme to support communities with their energy strategies - by providing information,
professional project management and building a network of energy-efficient communities.
Description
‘e5’ stands for the five characteristics and levels of energy-efficient communities. The programme is
realised in co-operation with Tirol and Vorarlberg, and addresses the following:
expanding energy efficiency implementation,
increasing the use of local renewable energy sources,
building and support of structures and processes, addressing energy policy over the long term.
Under this programme, which was started in 1998, communities that intend to make energy a priority
theme can join. There is a catalogue of 300 topics in the field of energy that can be handled by a
community. e.g. in the areas of urban planning, building authority, private buildings, traffic, information
provision for citizens, school activities, cooperation with other organisations, etc. The catalogue was
developed by the three institutes, namely the SIR (Salzburg), Energie Tirol (Tirol) and the
Energieinstitut Vorarlberg (Vorarlberg).
The SIR works out a plan with each community, identifying actions they can implement over the next
year. Every year they have the opportunity to present all their activities to a jury with the chance of
winning a prize (between 1 to five "e") as a level for all energy efficient communities.
The following characteristics are relevant:
-
INTERLINKED: within the municipality (local politicians, co-workers of the municipal office,
environmental groups, engaged citizens) and between the municipalities.
-
CREATE STRUCTURES: e5-Teams, regular co-ordination and exchange of experiences,
internal location planning and progress evaluation.
-
GIVES IMPULSE: Organization of capacity building events, supply of documents and manuals
on current themes; creating contacts; providing information about current developments.
-
ACCOMPANYING: Municipalities and projects are assited throughout with performance
checked, moderation and technical consultations provided, linking to experts, et cetera.
-
EVALUATION: annual internal progress; control & regular external examination of the quality of
the energy-political municipality work by independent experts
-
COMMUNICATE SUCCESS: Recognise the work done by a municipality with up to five ‘e’s
("Energiehauben").
The work plan for each community is individually developed by the community itself, and the local
authorities are actively supported during the implementation process. Communities that do an
exemplary job are given formal recognition. The job of the community as a whole is to take
responsibility for implementing outstanding measures in all energy-related fields. Already realised
projects are documented as part of a feedback and awareness activity.
The communities are offered the following:
-
Information material and aid (for example SIR representatives take part in meetings with the
communities to assist in planning energy relevant activities.
-
Package of measures
-
Presentation of a start-seminar, with further training and lectures supported
-
Participation in working-teams and committees
-
Access to experts and project consulting
-
Participation in an information-network with experts and other communities (and organisations
like ‘Klimabündnis’).
Within the scope of the one-day start-seminars, a working plan is developed to identify further activities
in the field of energy. The requirements of the community are:
-
resolution of project-relevant decisions by the local council (application for membership)
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Solar Cities - Good Practice Guide
-
appointment of an energy co-ordinator
-
appointment of a person who is politically responsible
-
appointment of an energy-team (e.g. representatives of politics, administration, trade, schools)
-
finalising a budget (for example for working teams, events, energy projects)
-
handing in the application form.
The basis for the distinction is the extent of implementation of those measures that increase energy
efficiency in the community. The package of measures serves as a guide. The success of this energypolicy is shown by the number of the awarded ‘Energiehauben’ (points).
Overall results
In June 1998 the first 7 model-communities were started, namely: Elixhausen, Grödig, St. Kolomann,
St. Johann, Weißbach, Saalbach and Mariapfarr. In June 2000 further model-communities were
admitted to the programme. More details can be found in the attachment and on www.sir.at.
Other experiences
-
Image cultivation, both internally (in city) and externally. The community is held up as an
example, and the formal recognition using the „e1“ to „e5“ system further enhances the image
of the community. Furthermore the inhabitants (especially the younger generation) strongly
identify with the local authority, and the awareness of environmental issues is strengthened
among the next generation.
-
Increased quality of life, with economic spin-offs for residents (saving money on energy, with
reduced energy requirements).
-
Security of energy supply, use of local resources.
-
Orders for local companies strengthen the local economy, with additional advertising appeal
generated for and through tourism. Potential additional sources of income and safety are
provided in the area of agriculture.
-
Easing the burden on the environment, as there are reduced emissions levels - clear
contribution to environmental protection, also using the view that responsibility is taken for
future generations.
-
External expertise is provided – to assist with setting up working programmes, support in public
relations and obtaining access to information.
-
The know-how is shared with continuous participation, with further capacity building courses
and using the information network.
Financial resources
From the participating communities (municipal level).
Conclusion and recommendations
The ‘e5’ programme is a comprehensive good practice that very effectively addresses different aspects
of energy efficiency and renewable energy. It is also easy to replicate in European cities or regions.
Contact point for further information
Salzburger Institut für Raumordnung und Wohnen (SIR)
Alpenstraße 47
5020 Salzburg
Austria
Mr. Helmut Strasser
Tel.:
+43 - 662 623455
Fax:
+43 - 662 629915
Email: [email protected]
Web: www.sir.at
Details: http://www.salzburg.gv.at/themen/bw/sir_haupt/sir_energie/e5.htm
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Solar Cities - Good Practice Guide
S4 - "SAQ” Criteria (Sanieren mit Qualität) – High quality renovation
Objective
The stipulation of criteria and implementation of ecological renovation or refurbishment plans for
buildings, in particular to reduce energy requirements of municipal buildings. The results achieved shall
serve as a guide and standards for quality and cost efficiency for future projects on refurbishing public
buildings. In addition, it is intended to use the results as a basis of discussion on subsidy regulations.
Description
The SAQ Criteria are part of the ‘Building of Tomorrow’ programme. Energy-efficient standards for
buildings in Salzburg are stipulated by the system of relevant criteria included in the housing subsidy
regulations. In recent years this has resulted in a considerable improved in the thermal quality of
housing envelopes, the increase of heating systems using biomass and thermal solar energy, and the
promotion of controlled ventilation systems with heat recovery. In addition to this subsidising system,
the County’s financial equalisation funds for municipalities (‚Gemeindeausgleichsfonds’ – GAF) has
introduced a bonus system based on energy efficient standards.
However, despite these measures, the adequate use of energy efficient technology in renovating
municipal buildings is still lagging behind. The resulting high costs for the municipalities, for operation
and maintenance, can be reduced by implementing appropriate measures through renovation. This is
an aspect which has been discussed with the relevant authorities of the County of Salzburg and the
association of municipalities.
Three initial steps were identified:
(i)
Several municipalities have decided to apply the guidelines for minimum standards for
energy efficiency (including maximum energy-efficient indicators) during the refurbishment
of municipal buildings.
a. By selecting appropriate examples, the idea is to present innovative concepts for
refurbishing “characteristic” types of municipal buildings (based on energy-efficient,
ecological minimum quality standards, as well as on additional requirements
determined by the “state of the art” technologies relating, for instance, to the interior air
quality in schoolrooms or to the accessibility of public buildings for the handicapped).
Defining these quality standards will rely on the experience gained in residential
building, as well as Prof. Erich Panzhauser’s basic study on the Assessment of the
Refurbishment of Old Buildings, “From the Viewpoint of Building Ecology”
(‚Bauökologische Bewertung von Altbaumodernisierung’).
b. Based on the planned renovations filed at the Department for Municipal Affairs of the
County of Salzburg, a survey of all the 119 municipalities will assist the estimation of
the demand for renovation at municipal level and to analyse the medium-term
refurbishment potential (to be implemented within the next five years), as well as
registering the buildings according to their current utilisation, category of building age
and current building standard.
(ii)
In the second stage, typical local buildings will be identified, to determine specific
renovation requirements, addressing:
a. criteria of utilisation e.g. nursery school, school, municipal office
b. evaluating the buildings with a view on energy-efficient standards and category of
building age.
c.
(iii)
The diverse categories of building ages have a considerable impact on the diverse
action fields of refurbishment (e.g. historic preservation, frontal façade, wall structures).
These analyses will result in a refurbishment matrix displaying the type of current
utilisation and category of building age.
In the third stage, buildings which conform with the refurbishment matrix will be selected
from the pool of the refurbishment potential determined in the first stage. Apart from the
conditions resulting from the matrix, another essential prerequisite for selection will be an
agreement of the respective municipality to co-operate in the innovative overall
refurbishment according the specific quality standards (cf. 4.). All in all, 8 to 10 buildings
shall be selected for closer analysis with special consideration of those municipalities that
have already been interested in refurbishing specific objects.
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Solar Cities - Good Practice Guide
Parallel to the first three stages, the quality standards for the refurbishment of the selected municipal
buildings will be designed by a team including representatives of the County of Salzburg (responsible
for the financial equalisation measures for municipalities), consultants on energy issues, architects and
planners. These standards will be based on the those already required under the Land’s housing
subsidies, as well as on Prof. Panzhauser’s assessment of refurbishment from the viewpoint of building
ecology.
The quality standards will focus on the following major issues:
-
energy-efficient performance (relating to the building envelope, heating systems);
-
material performance (referring, above all, to refurbishment-relevant building materials, such as
insulation materials);
-
health performance (providing thermal comfort conditions, which means adequate heat in
winter and cool temperatures in summer, ventilation and air conditioning, insulation in winter);
-
natural exposure, sound insulation, absence of pollutants, damp-proofing;
-
environmental performance.
Special emphasis will be put on the analysis of the building envelope and it will constitute a major
objective to achieve a maximum specific heat load of 34 W/m² and/or a maximum LEK value of 24.
In the next stage concepts based on the quality standards shall be provided for the refurbishment of the
buildings selected on the grounds of the matrix. Considering each building individually, at least one of
the proposed innovations will be analysed in detail (e.g. the use of appropriate insulation materials,
biomass heating, measures for reducing time of renovation). As a result, an individual refurbishment
concept, that complies with the quality requirements established, will be provided for each of the
buildings selected from the matrix.
In the final stage, the results will be compiled. First of all, the experience gained from drafting the
concepts will be employed to revise the quality standards, which then shall serve as basis for
discussing possible ways to include them in the Land’s regulations on financial equalisation measures
for communities (GAF). These quality standards will be available to all planners as a tool for
refurbishment concepts of tomorrow. Furthermore, the municipalities will receive a guide informing them
about the essential criteria of innovative refurbishment.
Overall results
Implementation is proceeding and the project will be finished in April 2004, after having a workshop with
the municipalities of Salzburg. In March 2004 elections will be held at regional and local levels in
Salzburg, and will have an impact on the implementation activities.
Financial resources
Funded by the Federal Ministry for Transport, Innovation and Technology (‘Bundesministerium für
Verkehr, Innovation und Technologie’ - BMVIT) within the funding programme of "Building of
Tomorrow".
Conclusion and recommendations
This is regarded as a very well conceptualised good practice for renovating municipal buildings, using
specific criteria and implementing it county-wide. The concept also has a wider application as it
addresses awareness-raising by presenting the results as a good practise of high environmental
standards.
Contact point for further information
Salzburger Institut für Raumordnung und Wohnen (SIR)
Alpenstraße 47
5020 Salzburg
Austria
Dipl.-Ing. Helmut Strasser
Tel.:
+43 – 662 623455
Fax:
+43 – 662 629915
Email: [email protected]
Web: www.sir.at
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Solar Cities - Good Practice Guide
Residential Sector
S1
S2
Public Sector
S4
S1
S2
S3
S4
S3
Industry Sector
Transport Sector
S2
S3
S4
S2
S1
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Economic
Advantages /
Job creation
Financial
Mechanisms
(incl. Subsidies)
Policy &
Standards
Education &
Training
Awareness &
Campaigns
Matrix – Salzburg
Technology
Developed /
Tested
2.4.4.3
S2
Solar Cities - Good Practice Guide
2.4.5
Zonnige Kempen (Belgium)
2.4.5.1
Context
Although Zonnige Kempen is a social housing company it was included as a study example, given that
many network members (also of other networks) are not exclusively cities. These members also require
guidance, and some novel solutions recommended for replication were implemented by ZK.
The social housing company ‘Zonnige Kempen’ is a co-operative society incorporated in December
1963. ‘Zonnige Kempen’ is the youngest social housing company in Flanders. Its incorporation resulted
from the joining of forces of 11 small, rural municipalities around Westerlo co-operating in the field of
social housing. The organisation was supported by social organisations, where the ACW (the Christian
labour movement) took the lead. The latter invested capital and assigned one employee for
administrative support. The registered office of Zonnige Kempen was located in Westerlo, but new
offices were also established in Turnhout – both the registered office and administrative offices were
brought together at the Grote Markt in Westerlo.
About 60% shares of Zonnige Kempen belong to several public administrations (see below), with the
other 40% owned by private partners. Zonnige Kempen is active in eleven municipalities: Berlaar,
Nijlen, Heist-op-den-Berg, Vorselaar, Laakdal, Grobbendonk, Herenthout, Hulshout, Herselt, Westerlo
and Zandhoven. These 11 municipalities own 40% of the public shares, with the other 20% bought by
the Flemish Region and the province of Antwerp.
All the municipalities listed are located in the district of Turnhout in the province of Antwerp (Belgium).
This region is a recognised objective-2 area (an under-developed region in Europe). The unemployment
rate is higher (12.1%) than the European average rate of 11.4%.
The general objective of social housing companies is to build affordable houses for low-income
residents. Usually this means paying limited attention to energy saving technologies. However, as
energy saving is becoming increasingly important, not only in terms of a limited budget for families, but
also in terms of sharing the energy costs and reducing harmful emissions.
The projects implemented by Zonnige Kempen studied are regarded as a novel and good practice
approach for a social housing area, with specific attention to the technologies used, which have good
CO2 reduction potential.
In all the projects of Zonnige Kempen there is an awareness programme for the tenants. There are
multiple information sessions and meetings with all the tenants.
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Solar Cities - Good Practice Guide
2.4.5.2
Good Practice - Zonnige Kempen
ZK1 – Show synergy of energy saving innovative technology application in ‘Sustainable
Building’ demonstration projects
Objective
To show the synergy of various energy saving technologies in a new construction project that
addresses both housing and resurfacing of the village centre.
Description
The re-mapping and the re-surfacing of the village centre of Zoerle-Parwijs, forming part of Westerlo,
has been planned to take place simultaneously with the new construction project on the St.
Antoniusplein. This offers the unique opportunity to integrate an asphalt collector in the paving at a
limited additional cost, thus enabling to recover low-temperature solar energy.
Various aspects form part of the integrated energy concept range from controlling the energy demand,
implementing ventilation concepts and solar systems, and using heat pumps. The efficiency of the
energy concept largely depends on synergies among these aspects, and are strongly interlinked.
Another important strategy for the reduction of CO2 is the people who live on the St. Antoniusplein, do
not need their cars to go shopping, thus the traffic issue is addressed in a sustainable manner.
Measures applied in this project:
-
Energy efficiency measures
-
Use of low-energy materials (LCA-analysis) and efficient organisation of the construction site;
-
Extensive insulation;
-
Sun-oriented architecture;
-
Passive solar energy concepts: e.g. greenhouses;
-
Mechanical ventilation with heat recovery in each dwelling.
-
Use of sustainable energy sources
-
An asphalt collector generates low-temperature energy stored in the ground during summer
months by way of vertical heat exchangers placed in the ground;
-
Flat-panel solar collectors contribute considerably to heating domestic hot water;
-
Photovoltaic solar energy generates the electric energy needed annually to power the
mechanical ventilation units of the dwellings.
-
Heat from the photovoltaic panels pre-heats the ventilating air.
-
Efficient energy generation
-
The heat that is extracted from the ground supplies a low-temperature heating circuit using a
heat pump;
-
A high-efficiency boiler ensures the collective after-heating of domestic hot water (the water is
pre-heated by the solar-collector, and reheated by the high-efficiency boiler).
Some examples of synergies
-
The surplus of solar energy from the solar collectors during summer months is stored using a
heat exchanger in the ground storage;
-
If no solar thermal energy is available in winter months, the heat pump will pre-heat the
domestic hot water;
-
The greenhouses or atria pre-heat the ventilating air;
-
By drawing in the ventilating air below the photovoltaic panels the fresh air is pre-heated; at the
same time the panels are cooled;
-
The distribution channels for heating and hot water are running through the strongly insulated
dwellings, recovering as such any distribution “losses”.
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Solar Cities - Good Practice Guide
Figure 1: Ventilation with heat recovery and pre-heating of
the ventilating air in ground pipes and the atrium
Passive measures
-
Extensive insulation measures applied are: 10 cm of mineral wool is placed in the traditional
cavity walls, 12 cm in the wooden frame construction and 18 cm of insulation in the roof slope.
The bottom is insulated with 8 cm of extruded polystyrene. The glazing has a k-value of 1.3.
-
To further increase energy-efficiency, a system of pre-heating the ventilating air has been
developed using the ground pipes which are combined with pre-heating in greenhouses
(figure1). The ground pipes also offer the advantage that they protect the air heat exchangers
against freezing. In 3 apartments on the west side of the project another system is used. Here,
the ventilating air is pre-heated through circulation along the photovoltaic panels on the roof.
Addressing the heat demand
-
The time schedule of the new-construction project coincides with the re-paving of the centre of
Zoerle-Parwijs. The technique used is to extract the heat from the asphalt road surface in
summer and store it in the ground has been integrated into this project. This technique offers
various advantages:
-
The heat exchanger below the road surface can be installed at a relatively low cost.
-
Extracting the heat from the road surface during summer months extends the life span of the
road surface considerably. Projects in Scandinavia have shown that the life span of the asphalt
paving can be extended from 3 to 10 years by extracting the heat in summertime.
-
In the winter the heat exchanger can be used to keep the road surface frost-free.
-
From simulations and comparisons with results of similar projects in the Netherlands, it appears
that an annual return of 150 kWh/m2 can be expected.
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Solar Cities - Good Practice Guide
-
Based upon simulations, the asphalt collector is sized at about 500 m2. The energy that is
extracted from the asphalt collector in summer months is stored in a vertical low-temperature
heat exchanger placed below the new village square to be laid. As a collective solar collector is
being installed for domestic hot water, another heat exchanger is provided from this circuit to
the ground storage enabling to store this solar heat - if it is not completely consumed during the
summer months - in the ground storage as well.
-
The ground storage will consist of about sixty drill holes of 40 m in depth, divided over a surface
of 15m by 15m. In winter months the heat extracted from the ground storage is used to power a
heat pump that in turn feeds a low-temperature heating circuit. The simulated energy balance of
the ground storage indicates a ground storage return of 60%. In winter periods, where the solar
collector sometimes does not generate sufficient heat, the heat pump can be used instead to
pre-heat the domestic hot water up to 40° C. To this purpose an extra heat exchanger is
provided in the storage tank of domestic hot water. The average co-efficient of performance of
the heat pump amounts to 3.2.
Overall aims
-
The use of renewable energy sources and sustainable energy techniques aims to reduce the
emission of toxic substances and to reduce the use of fossil fuels. The applied energy concept
realises per year the following savings as compared to a standard reference project in the table
below.
Description
realised
savings in kWh
realised savings in realised savings in realised savings
kg CO2
kg NO2
in kg SO2
272115
54967
51,70
0,54
-1250
-1234
-1,5875
-1,4
53733
50,11
-0,86
Natural gas
consumption
for heating
Electric
consumption
Balance
The applied indicators are for CO2: 0.987 kg/kWh, for NO2: 1.27 g/kWh and for SO2: 1.12 g/kWh. These
have been taken over from http://www.emis.vito.be/elektriciteit/index.htm. They are valid for the
production of electricity in conventional thermal power stations.
It departs from the hypothesis that rational energy consumption and the use of RES will, in the short
term, result in a reduction of the consumption by fossil power stations only and into the related emission
reduction.
By using photovoltaic panels the total electricity consumption is lower than in the reference project in
spite of the use of heat pumps. This gives a negative balance for SO2 and other emissions. As the
main-contractor started in June 2003 there are no measured results as yet.
Conclusion and recommendations
A good practice that addresses specific technological implementations, where the results can be
studied and replicated.
Contact point for further information
Architect:
Eduard Maes from Westerlo
Engineer:
3E and Chris Ebinger from Antwerp
Web:
http://www.3e.be
Development company: C.V. Zonnige Kempen from Westerlo
Manager:
Luc Stijnen
Web:
http://www.zonnigekempen.be
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Solar Cities - Good Practice Guide
ZK2 – Decrease energy consumption through technically and economically optimised
renovation of social housing
Objective
The objective of this project was to decrease the energy consumption for room heating by more than
60% and for hot water production by 38%, thereby reducing harmful emissions and saving energy
costs. The philosophy of this project was indeed to develop a packaged approach, that could be
reproduced at an acceptable cost in similar buildings. Interesting options presenting too high a level of
investment (e.g. solar PV), and a too low market introduction stage (e.g. heat pump boilers) have not be
retained.
Description
This project is a SynPack (Synergy Package Approach) project - a method demonstrated in four
innovative retrofit projects in different European countries (Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium and
Denmark). The project was carried out in the 5th Framework Program of the EU.
This method aims to develop retrofit concepts realising an economically viable energy savings potential
of up to 70%, with the particular advantage of comparing synergies resulting from different
combinations of energy saving measures and RE.
In the Belgian project, five apartment blocks with eleven dwellings each, in Schransstraat, Vorselaar –
part of the social housing association Zonnige Kempen - were renovated. The blocks were built in 1971.
In each block two apartments were added under the roof in 1992. The inhabitants were involved in the
renovation project from the start, starting 3 years before with consultation. After the renovation there
was also an evaluation of the whole process.
At the start of the project, insulation levels were very low (no wall insulation, single glazing, cold
bridges) except for the roof. There was also no ventilation system in the buildings.
The main renovation measures consisted of:
-
Thermal insulation of the building envelope
(external insulation + high performance
double glazing);
-
Suppression of cold bridges by glazed
balconies;
-
Individual mechanical ventilation with heat
recovery in each apartment;
-
Solar thermal system of 25 m² to heat up to
40% of the hot water consumption;
-
Condensing gas
heating efficiency.
-
As for the use of passive solar energy, a
study was conducted on the integration of
balconies.
boilers
for
maximum
For each block solar collectors were fitted on the new external lift shafts. These were concentrated in
four of the blocks in a collective system (see figure 2). For the fifth block a combination with individual
heating was chosen. The main problem here was to find a low-power, high-efficiency heating boiler.
This was solved by choosing a high performance condensing and modulating boiler, sized to meet the
reduced thermal load.
Building year: 2002-2003.
Overall results
The implementation of these measures realises an annual primary energy saving of 70%, reducing the
primary energy consumption for heating and domestic hot water from 250 kWh/m²a to 80 kWh/m²a. The
comfort of the inhabitants has been increased without extra cost.
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Solar Cities - Good Practice Guide
J
K
G
H
I
D
E
F
A
B
C
Figure 2: scheme of block with collective heating
Other experiences
The retrofit projects demonstrated the feasibility and success of the Synergy Package Approach. Apart
from the guidance provided by the Synergy Package, the investors highly valued the ongoing
assistance of the energy consultant steering the renovation process, who provided expertise and
assured quality of the realised building measures.
Most tenants were able to stay in their apartments while the retrofit took place. It proved to be beneficial
for all parties to involve the tenants in the process and keep them well informed. On the one hand, the
tenants could prepare themselves for times with e.g. higher noise levels. On the other hand, valuable
input for the retrofit measures was gained from the tenants. One example was the inclusion of public
spaces (staircases, playgrounds) in the retrofit measures. An interview with the tenants after realisation
showed a high acceptance of the building process and the results. They experienced low disturbance
during the building phase, increased comfort and more attractive living conditions after completion.
Five common principles
(i)
The evaluation of the demonstration projects showed common principles that contributed to the
success of these projects and are considered to be crucial for further retrofit projects:
(ii)
Including energy saving measures in necessary renovation projects is crucial for the economic
viability of the retrofit.
(iii)
The proper insulation of the building envelope helps to significantly reduce the energy demand
for space heating - this forms the basis of a Synergy Package. As the most cost effective
measure, this can counterbalance other investments and thus contributes to further steps
towards EE and integration of RE.
a. Appropriate measures to be combined in Synergy Packages are:
i. advanced insulation of the building envelope
ii. improved windows
iii. ventilation systems with heat recovery
iv. solar thermal systems
v. heat pumps and photovoltaic systems.
The Synergy Package Approach ensures an intelligent and optimised combination of these
measures.
(iv)
Using ventilation systems with heat recovery combines energy savings, improvement of indoor
climate and prevention of possible building damage due to moisture.
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Solar Cities - Good Practice Guide
(v)
Economy, energy savings, comfort and appearance are the target parameters for a retrofit
project. Finding synergies and avoiding conflicts between theses categories ensures the
development of a well-balanced and optimised solution leading to high acceptance by tenants
and investor.
Financial resources
The investors appreciated the economic feasibility of the Synergy Packages and received very positive
feedback on the innovative retrofit projects by their tenants and the general public.
Conclusion and recommendations
The built environment is responsible for 40 % of the primary energy use in Europe. The existing building
stock offers the largest potentials for energy savings. Due to the long life of retrofit measures, typically
several decades, it is one of the most urgent sectors for energy saving actions. The Synergy Package
Approach can easily be copied to a large number of similar buildings, offering feasible solutions to save
energy and improve critical city areas to regain attractiveness for the markets of the future.
Contact point for further information
Architect:
Ontwerp Kollektief, Herman Bogaerts from Mechelen
Engineer:
3E and Chris Ebinger from Antwerp
Website:
http://www.3e.be
Development company: C.V. Zonnige Kempen from Westerlo
Manager:
Luc Stijnen
Website:
http://www.zonnigekempen.be
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Solar Cities - Good Practice Guide
ZK3 – Reducing energy use for heating in a solar energy project in Herenthout
Objective
Reduction of the energy use for heating purposes in new residential buildings in the ‘Green Valley
Kempen’ solar energy project on Herenthout.
Description
In previous projects solar energy was only used for the hot-water production in summer, as it was not
needed for space heating. In winter time available solar energy is reduced while more energy is needed
for space heating, so the aim was to look for alternative solutions for the space / room heating part.
For the Nest Vercammenstraat in Herenthout, for instance, a proposal was developed to combine the
solar collector with a small combined heat and power installation (mini-CHP). This project received the
Electrabel award for “Solar house 1997-1998”.
The whole concept has been integrated as a demonstration project in an educational promenade walk
on sustainable living realised as part of the ”Green Valley Kempen” project. It concerns 19 newly built
dwellings in Herenthout (Nest Vercammenstraat), divided over two residential blocks of 12 and 7
dwellings respectively. For the production of domestic hot water in block 1, solar systems were provided
with a collector surface of 16.48 m2, combined with a boiler of 550 litre. The south-west orientation of
the roof required the use of a slope of 30°C in implementing the systems (it was not possible to
change the orientation of the blocks as they had to be built next to an existing road).
Next to this energy-saving measure various other techniques were applied:
-
The dwellings were fitted with extensive insulation (K37 as compared to the required K55). The
K55 is a Belgian standard for insulation values. The K-value can be calculated by dividing the
average k-value of the roof, wall and floor by the compactness of the building.
-
Electricity-saving measures such as daylight control and energy-saving lights;
-
Heating with a condensing natural gas boiler with a capacity of 100 kW combined with
oversized radiators with the regime 45° - 55°C (Due to the low temperature of 45° - 55°C the
radiators have to be oversized so that they can give off enough heat.)
-
An energy management system;
-
A balanced mechanical ventilation;
-
And a small combined heat and power installation with an electric power of 5.5 kW and a
thermal power of 12.5 kW. The combined heat and power installation is thermally coupled into
the heating circuit of the residential block. The electricity is supplied to the electricity grid.
sanitary
hot
water
gas
sun
boiler
conden
-ser
room
heating
small combined heat
and power installation
5,5 kWe
gas
cold water
Figure 3: Flow chart of the installation of block 2 at Nest Vercammenstraat, Herenthout.
Figure 3 depicts the flow chart of the installation: For residential block 2 a solar boiler system was
installed. On the south-oriented roof a solar collector was installed, using five collectors of 1.78 m * 1.75
m or a total useful surface of 13.80 m2. The heat is stored in a boiler of 550 litres. The pump only runs if
the temperature in the solar collector is 10°C higher than the temperature in the boiler, and the pump
stops running when there is a risk of freezing. If the pump stops, the water content of the solar collector
automatically runs into the return flow tank of the boiler. The installation’s sizing aims at a coverage of
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50%. A multifunctional gas installation ensures the after-heating of each individual dwelling. This is
shown in the figure below.
Figure 4: Concept of individual solar boiler installation in residential block 2 (Building year: 2000)
Overall results
Reduction of CO2 emissions: 2.2 tons in a period of 6 months. This is 21% compared to a reference
installation and 31 % compared to a separate production of heat and electricity. The mini-CHP has an
efficiency of 24.9% (electric) and 58.1% (thermal).
Other experiences
There was a problem regarding the regulation between the different systems. The efficiency of the
different systems could be increased by measurement and adjustment of the energy-output.
Financial resources
Investments to be paid by the energy savings.
Conclusion and recommendations
This is a good practice that addresses the combination of different technologies in an integrated
manner, and is suitable for replication.
Contact point for further information
Architect:
Ontwerp Kollektief, Herman Bogaerts from Mechelen
Engineer:
Johan Daenen from Bertem and VITO from Mol
Website:
http://vito.be
Development company: C.V. Zonnige Kempen from Westerlo
Manager:
Luc Stijnen
Website:
http://www.zonnigekempen.be
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Solar Cities - Good Practice Guide
ZK4 – High energy savings using solar energy for hot water heating in Hulshout
Objective
The required energy for heating was to be reduced from 220 kWh/m2/year to 50 kWh/m2/year. For this
purpose, principles of compact building, proper orientation and extensive insulation (insulation level
K24), condensing boilers and mechanical ventilation with heat recovery were applied. As well as for
50% of the energy required for the hot-water provision to be supplied by solar energy.
Description
The project in the Waterstraat in Hulshout can be subdivided in three parts:
Block 1 consists of three dwellings
Block 2 consists of dwellings, and
Block 3 consists of eight dwellings.
In each of the houses of block 1 an individual solar boiler with a return reservoir was installed. Figure 1
depicts a flow chart of the installation. On the south-oriented roof of each house a solar collector with a
surface of 2.75 m2 was installed. The solar heat is stored in a boiler of 100 litres.
The circulation pump only runs if the temperature measured in the solar collector is 10°C higher than
the temperature in the solar boiler. If the temperature difference is less than 2°C, the circulation pump is
switched off. In this case, the water in the solar collector automatically returns to the return tank. A
multifunctional device on natural gas ensures the after-heating of sanitary warm water. This is a system
type that can be implemented, for example in apartment blocks in urban areas.
supplied air
T4
T5
D2
V1
discharged air
T6
D3
V2
outside air
S1
solar collectors
heat exchanger
return air
combustion air
C2
T3
return air
T2
hot tap water
supply of heating
C3
return of heating
C1
E1
solar boiler
heater
D1
G1
T1
cold-water inlet
gas connection
Figure 1: Flow chart of the installation of block 1 at Zonnige Kempen, Hulshout.
The heating of the sanitary hot water in block 2 is also ensured by solar boiler systems, but here a
collective system of 24 flat-panel solar collectors of 1.7 m2 each is used. Figure 2 depicts a flow chart of
the installation.
The heat is stored in four boilers with a content of 500 litres each. One boiler also serves as a peak
boiler. The condensation boiler is connected to this boiler for additional heating in the transitional
season and in wintertime. The circuit between the solar collectors and the four boilers is filled with water
and anti-freeze so that the pipes must not be drained in winter.
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Solar Cities - Good Practice Guide
supplied air
T4
T5
D2
V1
return air
T3
T6
D3
V2
discharged air
outside air
hot tap water
heating
12 dwellings
D4 - D15
S1
C4 - C15
solar collectors
T2
C3
C1
C2
E1
3 solar boilers
peak boiler
heater
D1
G1
T1
cold-water inlet
gas connection
Figure 2: Flow chart of the installation of block 2 at Zonnige Kempen, Hulshout
In block 3 no solar boilers were placed due to less favourable preconditions relating to the consumption
of hot water and to the building orientation. As not only energy-efficiency, but also sustainability was an
issue here, one aspect of interest is using rainwater and the specific choice of materials (using the LCA
method =>life-cycle-analysis). For instance, when choosing wooden window frames the required
maintenance must also be considered. In the project three water-based painting-techniques, healthier
for painters and the environment, were used. Building year: 1999.
Overall results
Block 1 - Share of solar energy of hot water demand: 47%.
Block 2 - Savings of more than 50% have been realised, namely 50.6% for the year 2000 and 23,033
MJ/year (without collector 35,521 MJ/year and with collector 12,488 MJ/year), being 65% for the year
2001. (Measurements carried out by students for their civil engineering thesis).
Financial resources
The financial investments costs per apartment improved because the basic costs could be divided over
a larger number of entities.
Conclusion and recommendations
Using clean energy for hot water production is highly recommended for replication.
Contact point for further information
Architect:
TemaS, Eduard Maes from Westerlo
Engineer:
Johan Daenen from Bertem
Development company: C.V. Zonnige Kempen from Westerlo
Manager:
Luc Stijnen
Website:
http://www.zonnigekempen.be
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ZK1
Industry Sector
ZK2
ZK2
ZK2
Transport Sector
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Economic
Advantage /
Job creation
ZK1
ZK2
ZK3
ZK4
Financial
Mechanisms/
Subsidies
Policy /
Standards
Public Sector
Awareness /
Campaigns
Residential Sector
ZK1
ZK2
ZK3
ZK4
Education /
Training
Matrix - Zonnige Kempen
Technology
Development /
Tested
2.4.5.3
Solar Cities - Good Practice Guide
2.4.6
Turin (Italy)
2.4.6.1
Context
For RESETnet the cities of Turin (Torino) and Lyon (see next paragraph) were selected for further
investigation, for the following reasons:
Turin is representative of the cities in the network,
As a city with a complex (industrial) nature Turin has looked at various measures, that may be of
interest to similar types of cities,
It can show results of projects that have started, following the guidelines of RESETnet.
The city of Turin, with 970,000 inhabitants, is the core of a metropolitan area that involves, besides the
central city, 52 municipalities. Of these municipalities 23 are located in a "first ring" and 29 are located
in a "second ring". The total population of the Turin Metropolitan Area is about 2,000,000 inhabitants.
Perhaps it is the most interesting existing example of "urban design" in Europe: It is the result of the
experienced and inventive town planning from different eras such as the Roman, the Middle Ages, the
Renaissance and the Baroque periods. Unfortunately, it has not been spared from the massacre of
suburban speculation and from the presence of areas left empty by industry.
Turin is a city representing many different aspects: It used to be the capital of industry, the capital of
vermouth, the capital of the cinema, the capital of vermouth, the capital of radio, the proletariat and of
soccer in Italy.
Throughout its history the city has not dissipated, but rather it can be said that a new cycle of
development has started in the city, which should involve all city components, drawing on the energy
and imagination of all to identify a way out of urban stagnation and the strictly production oriented
formulas. When speaking of Turin, it is difficult to avoid the question of its mono-industrial culture and its
actual crises, a high percentage of unemployment, affecting young people in particular; the decrease in
population; and the need for new engines.
Contacts for the City of Torino
Mr. Gianni Vernetti
Città Torino-Assessorato Ambiente
via Garibaldi, 23 - 10121 Torino
Tel.:
+39 11 442 3003
Fax:
+39 11 562 9032
Web: http://www.comune.torino.it/
Mr. Paolo Galliano
Azienda Energetica Municipale Torino
via Bertola, 48 - 10121 Torino
Tel +39 11 5549 410
Fax +39 11 538313
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2.4.6.2
Good Practice – Turin
TUR1 – Strategic planning regarding the energy balance
Objective
In order to ascertain the activities that could be implemented under the Energy and Environment
Strategy for Turin, it was necessary to identify aspects that will impact this, in particular, studying the
energy balance.
Description
The first energy plan of Turin, called TEST (Turin Energy and Environmental Strategy) was developed
for the base year 1990 (project supported by DG TREN). The objective was to give the necessary
information to develop a decision system for the strategic choices of the local authority by evaluating
consequences in terms of energy and environment of different policies.
After the TEST energy balance was completed, following the directives of the Italian law n° 10/91, Turin
developed a City Energy Plan (P.En.Co), which includes the energy and environmental balance
updated to the year 1992.
Overall results
P.En.Co estimates a total amount of energy, available for final use, equivalent to 1,720 kToe. Splitting
the final energy consumptions by sector, it has to be noted that the sector with higher energy
consumption is the Residential (35%), followed by Industrial (29%), Transport (22%), and Tertiary
(14%).
These results indicate that Turin does not have a large presence of energy intensive industries, and that
the main consumer of fossil fuels is by far the residential sector. Nevertheless, energy density is high
(13,200 Toe/km2).
The previous outcome is somehow in contradiction with the perceived industrial character of the City.
The explanation relies on the relocation of the majority of Turin industries in the proximity of the city
boundaries. Taking into consideration the first ring of Turin, where industries are located and most
commuting is involved, the picture is quite different from the previous one, as pointed out in TEST
energy balance.
The Industrial sector (56%) is by far the most relevant energy consumer, then Residential (23.2%),
Transport (15.7%), and finally Tertiary (5%).
Table1: Energy Demand estimated by P.En.Co and TEST
Demand sectors
City Turin
P.En.Co
Metrop. Area TEST
Demand sectors
23.2%
Residential
Residential
35.1%
Tertiary
13.9%
5.1%
Tertiary
Industrial
29.2%
56.0%
Industrial - Metropolitan Area
Transport
21.8%
15.7%
Transport - Metropolitan Area
Total (Toe)
1,720,015
3,566,248
Total (Toe)
The Municipality has drafted a number of ambitious operations for long-term reduction of pollutants,
including the following:
-
Monitoring the atmospheric pollution of Turin: This includes "historical" pollutants; pollutants
that are a major problem today; and those that are particularly difficult to reduce or eliminate.
-
The clean engine operation: This operation is expected to reduce Carbon Monoxide in the air
by between 6 and 10%.
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Solar Cities - Good Practice Guide
-
Clean heat operation: According to a recent study by the AEM (Agenda Energica Municipal),
this operation should reduce Sulphur Dioxide, Nitrogen Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide, Dust and
Carbon Dioxide by 11%.
-
Conversion of public heating systems: The City of Turin owns more than 700 premises (about
10% of the buildings in the entire city). Energy conversion is planned to achieve the following
objectives: 80% powered by natural gas and with tele-heating, 10% oil fired, 10% with RES.
-
The electric car project: A project has been launched to encourage the introduction and widescale use of electric cars as a further step towards reducing atmospheric pollution.
-
The urban traffic plan: The main aim of the operations already under way is to streamline the
flow of traffic, to upgrade public transport, to reduce the number of private vehicles on the road
and to reduce pollution in the city.
-
Heating of municipal buildings with wood chips projects: The project will use the wood, left over
after pruning the tree-lined roads of the city, as fuel to heat a number of municipal premises.
The system consists of two 1 MW boilers fed with wood chips. It will heat municipal premises
(44,000 m3) with 2,500 Gcal/year of heat requirements. This project is realized under a Third
Party Financing Service Contract.
-
Development of photovoltaic roofs: AEM of Turin has already implemented seven operations
involving electrification of isolated users, installed five photovoltaic street lamps and one grid
connected PV Installation. Within Turin and in the network connection sector, short term
planning includes setting up two photovoltaic roofs with a total of 24 kW. AME will use
crystalline silicon modules. The systems will be set up in the centre of Turin and will play an
active demonstration role.
-
Low energy housing in the Turin Area: 517 solar dwellings were built in the Turin area as part of
a demonstration program supported by the Italian Ministry of Public Building and by the
European Community. The building program, carried out by a consortium of builders (UPSE), is
among the largest completed projects in Europe concerning Passive and Hybrid Solar
application. The monitoring campaign that was started in 1985 lasted three years and provided
much information on the thermal performance of energy conservation measures and the
environmental conditions in which such performance is achieved. One of the major successes
was the demonstration of the energy and economical efficiency of the technological solutions,
which contributed to a significant energy saving: 40% - 50% of saved fuel, compared to the
current Italian energy standard.
Conclusion and recommendations
It is necessary for a community to have a political commitment to sustainable and environmental
strategies. Thereafter doing comprehensive studies to examine the comprehensive effects of such
strategies on a local level, taking into account measures like Agenda 21 and the Kyoto Protocol.
Additionally, many tools and resources are available to aid cities and municipalities for this activity.
Contact point for further information
Azienda Energetica Municipale Torino
via Bertola, 48
10121 Turin
Italy
Contact person: Mr. Paolo Galliano
Tel:
+39 11 5549 410
Fax:
+39 11 538313
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TUR2 – Development of an energetic vision : Turin’s Renewable Energy Action Plan
Objective
Turin’s RESET Action Plan is a 14-year policy plan designed to meet the requirements of the Madrid
Declaration, and to articulate an energetic vision for the city. This Plan guides basic policy choices for
Turin from 1996 to 2010, and provides a flexible framework for adapting to real conditions over time.
Description
The Turin Action Plan has been prepared, based on the results of a Local Scenario Workshop held in
Turin in November 1995. Since this time Turin has acquired a certain familiarity with the use of the
“scenarios” method. The scenario, produced on this occasion, focused on planned results for 2010. The
participants were invited to develop and propose ideas, concrete actions and initiative
recommendations at a local level - to achieve the objective of a consistent substitution of fossil fuels
with renewable energies for the city. During this type of meeting all the participants were regarded as
experts, since they, as local actors, were familiar and realised the possibilities of and obstacles to
change.
The exercise addressed the following sectors:
-
Residential building
-
Public and tertiary patrimony
-
Wastes and resources
-
Mobility and energy
-
Technical and economic instruments
-
Information, training and life styles
Questions raised were:
(i)
the major part of the existing infrastructure is large centralised systems - Is it
possible to combine this situation with local technical solutions and promote many
micro-economies?
(ii)
Who has the responsibility for developing ecological functions - the local
organisations, families, or citizens who collaborate at an intermediate level?
(iii)
Which technologies can be used to resolve or prevent which problems?
The solutions and actions in the near future will principally have to come from the residents, also using
investments and innovations of the private sector, and from the public authorities.
Different options have been proposed and investigated, and a document was produced. After a number
of meetings and document revisions, the Action Plan was prepared. The discussion continues in the
City with elected officials and outside with the neighbourhood communities. Some specific actions will
have to be verified and discussed in detail, but the general framework is ready and will be adopted soon
(by the mayor and the City Council), thereby providing a guiding commitment to an overall vision of a
“Sustainable Turin”.
Citizens may look at this Plan for guidance regarding the city’s goals and actions as tools with which
Turin can control its future.
Conclusions and recommendations
When developing an action plan for a city or town it increasingly important to involve the local
inhabitants in both the decision-making and implementation process. From an energy / environmental
perspective this is particularly essential, not only to inform them and obtain their input in the planning
stage, but also for reinforcing the importance of their commitment and active participation in reducing
energy consumption. As such, city awareness and PR campaigns will be very useful in stimulating local
interest.
Contact point for further information
Azienda Energetica Municipale Torino
via Bertola, 48
10121 Turin
Italy
Contact person: Mr. Paolo Galliano
Tel:
+39 11 5549 410
Fax:
+39 11 538313
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TUR3 – Conduct a study on the energy substitution potential
Objective
To identify areas where fossil fuels could be substituted with clean energy sources and where energy
consumption could be reduced. To accurately identify these areas, a thorough and comprehensive
study must be conducted of the different actors influencing energy consumption.
Description
The plan consists of six chapters - each covers one policy sector organised by key policy actions for
that sector: A. Residential Building, B. Public and Tertiary Patrimony, C. Wastes and resources, D.
Mobility and energy, E. Technical and economic instruments, F. Information, training and life styles.
The actions’ description is homogeneously developed on the base of a form where each action is
named and is also identified within the sector of the plan in which it is located, together with the specific
objectives, the implementation scheme, the financial scheme, the timing and the expected results.
RESET Action Plan
END-USE FOSSIL FUELS REDUCTION
in the City of Torino
Renew able
energy
8%
Energy
conservation
15%
District Heating
15%
Residual
62%
The objective of the Renewable Energy Action Plan was to verify the feasibility of the substitution of
15% of fossil energy with renewable sources until the year 2010, according to the indication contained
in the Madrid Declaration, and as approved by the EC and presented at the European Parliament.
The objective is ambitious for cities with a scale difficult to reconvert, but the opportunities induced by
the renewable sources in the dynamic social-economical urban (employment, environment, health) area
are placed between the few concrete regeneration solutions in the cities and for Turin it is worth
exploring.
The present situation in Turin gives the share of RES in energy consumption at 1% over 1,720,000 TOE
of global consumption.
The detailed analysis by sector estimates that by 2010, an ambitious strategy on the development of
RES will:
-
decrease fossil fuel consumption by 38.8% by the year 2010 (which represents around 647,000
TOE of energy savings);
-
decrease CO2 emissions by 1,400 ktons per year by 2010, in relation with the energy saving
policy;
-
increase the utilisation of RES from 17,200 TOE to 131,400 in 2010;
-
ensure RES will represent a percentage of 8.0% of 2010 consumption;
-
the overall investment in energy conservation and substitution will be about Euro 264 million
per year;
-
the cost of energy saved / substituted will be about 0,4 €/kOE, much lower than today’s cost of
conventional fossil fuels.
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Solar Cities - Good Practice Guide
Conclusion and recommendations
In order to create clarity on the actual projects and activities to be implemented, it is essential to
conduct a comprehensive study, under the guidance of experts, to identify the current state of affairs.
The RESET approach has been found to be very effective, with clear results (as can be seen above)
made available to the city management for consideration and implementation.
Contact point for further information
Azienda Energetica Municipale Torino
via Bertola, 48
10121 Turin
Italy
Contact person: Mr. Paolo Galliano
Tel:
+39 11 5549 410
Fax:
+39 11 538313
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TUR4 – Identify and evaluate environmental effects focusing on status and potential for change
Objective
The environmental impact of the amount of energy saved and substituted is one of the clearest
indicators for a strategy on renewable energy. As such an evaluation has to take place to identify the
actual status and potential for change.
Description
The environmental effect of the RESET Action Plan has been evaluated in terms of “saved emissions”
into the atmosphere, related to the amount of saved fossil fuel regarding the following pollutants:
-
SOx - Sulphur Oxides
-
NOx - Nitrogen Oxides
-
TSP - Particulate
-
CO - Carbon Oxide
-
VOC - Volatile Organic Compound
-
CO2 - Carbon Dioxide
TORINO - Air Pollution Effects from RESET Action Plan
Total reduction of air pollutants emission
Health effects
Pollutant
SOx
NOx
TSP
CO
VOC
Greenhouse effect
tons
Pollutant
VOC
CO
CO2
-1.838
-3.947
-838
-17.818
-2.020
tons
-2.020
-17.818
-1.414.548
Conclusion and recommendations
The results presented above basically speak for themselves, and show a clear reduction of harmful
emissions in support of a sustainable environment.
Contact point for further information
Azienda Energetica Municipale Torino
via Bertola, 48
10121 Turin
Italy
Contact person: Mr. Paolo Galliano
Tel:
+39 11 5549 410
Fax:
+39 11 538313
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TUR5 – Consider the multi-faceted job creation potential
Objective
The wider implementation of renewable energy technologies has an impact not only on the local
economy, but also on a wider scale in terms of job creation stimulating the economy. The employment
potential through RE is multi-faceted, in part as the energy provision becomes more decentralised, but
also as a wide range of RE technologies used increases the requirement for different technical
competences.
Description
The RESET Action Plan provides several effects at different scales. Most of them are easy to perceive,
but difficult to translate into concrete numbers. Therefore only the possible effect on job creation until
2010 is taken in account.
TORINO - RESET Action Planning
Job creation from Renewable Energies
2.000
1.800
1.600
Cycling&Walking
1.400
Large wood boilers
1.200
Hydro-power
1.000
Landf ill and Bio-gas
800
Incineration
600
Bioclimat ic design
400
Solar PV
200
Solar thermal
Global Local
The evaluation considers two levels of jobs connected to the implementation of the Action Plan:
-
Local jobs, created from the activities that require locally based units to carry out work (building
and running plants, maintenance, small systems installation, training of staff, selling of products
and material, etc.);
-
Global jobs, supported internationally through the request of technology, installation of large
plants, raw materials, etc.
The actions have been grouped into two different lists - energy saving or substitution - in order to be in
a position to distinguish the “Madrid Declaration” effects from the effects of a larger energy strategy.
Effects of the district heating were not included in any list as the scale of intervention is much different.
The local number of jobs necessary to guarantee the running and initial maintenance of the system is
estimated at 200.
Conclusion and recommendations
As seen above the diverse RE sources can generate a wide range of employment opportunities and
several different economic benefits, from increased tourism as an eco-region to additional income for
farmers selling bio material for a biomass district heating system. This is an important element for cities,
and in conjunction with the CO2 reduction potential, defines a well-considered strategy for the city
addressing several issues simultaneously, and is beneficial to a range of actors in the area.
Contact point for further information
Azienda Energetica Municipale Torino
via Bertola, 48
10121 Turin
Italy
Contact person: Mr. Paolo Galliano
Tel:
+39 11 5549 410
Fax:
+39 11 538313
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TUR6 – Policy on bioclimatic design for residential buildings
Objective
The energy use in buildings contributes to a large amount of harmful emissions, thus it is a useful
starting point for implementing an overall strategy for the improvement of the natural environment
through the utilization of clean and RES.
Description
(i)
Introduction to the concepts of bioclimatic design for buildings
This policy has as a technical objective, the reduction of the need of energy for winter heating, summer
air-conditioning and lighting. In reality, the introduction of concepts of bioclimatic design for buildings
within the traditional planning process incorporates objectives that involve changes in the regulation,
knowledge of the professional culture, improvement of housing comfort and, more importantly, the
improvement of the urban quality.
(ii)
Promotion of solar systems in residential building
RESET Action Plan
RESIDENTIAL BUILDING
Reduction of the global energy consumption
of the City of Torino
A.1
1,2%
A.2
0,7%
A.3
8,8%
A.4
11,9%
Residual
77,4%
This policy refers to a dissemination activity of the innovative building culture, aiming at the integration
of thermal solar systems and photovoltaic systems in both the building envelope and the building
installation.
(iii)
Energy retrofit for the existing building stock
Actions foreseen here strengthen the intervention policy, which has already been started by the City.
These are aimed at reducing the energy consumption for heating and air-conditioning of public and
tertiary buildings as well as the improvement of the quality of buildings - by introducing energy efficiency
criteria in the maintenance interventions, and reducing the maintenance costs of existing installations.
(iv)
District Heating
A policy on district heating has already been established by the City, namely the extension of district
heating and the diversification of thermal energy, aiming to heat around 50% of the built area in Turin by
the year 2010.
Conclusion and recommendations
The strategies identified here are an excellent combination for implementation at city level, as they
address several sectors that contribute substantially to CO2 emissions. By focusing on residential
buildings these strategies target a significant source crucial in the campaign to promote clean heating
and energy technologies.
Contact point for further information
Azienda Energetica Municipale Torino
via Bertola, 48
10121 Turin
Italy
Contact person: Mr. Paolo Galliano
Tel:
+39 11 5549 410
Fax:
+39 11 538313
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TUR7 – Reducing energy requirements in public and tertiary building stock
Objective
To create a reduction in the energy consumption in public and tertiary buildings through the promotion
of renewable and clean energy systems. As with residential buildings, this stock of buildings is an
appropriate and feasible starting point for reducing emissions at the local level.
Description
RESET Action Plan
PUBLIC AND TERTIARY BUILDING STOCK
Reduction of global energy consumption
for the City of Torino
B.2 B.3 B.4
B.5
B.1
0,3% 1,3% 2,8%
0,9% B6
0,5%
0,3%
Residual
93,9%
(i)
Bioclimatic design for public and tertiary buildings
This type of policy has as a technical objective, the reduction of the need of energy for winter heating,
for summer air-conditioning and for lighting. In reality, the introduction of concepts of bioclimatic
planning for buildings within the traditional planning poses objectives, which involve changes in the
regulation, knowledge of the professional culture, improvement of housing comfort and, more
importantly, improvement of the urban quality.
(ii)
Promotion of solar systems in public and tertiary buildings
This policy refers to a dissemination activity of the innovative building culture aiming at the integration of
solar thermal systems and photovoltaic systems in buildings.
(iii)
Energy retrofit for the existing public and tertiary buildings
Actions foreseen within this policy strengthen an intervention policy started by the City. It aims at
reducing energy consumption in heating and air-conditioning the public and tertiary buildings and the
improvement of the quality of buildings, by means of the introduction of energy efficiency criteria in the
maintenance interventions, and the reduction of the maintenance costs of existing installations.
(iv)
Environmental low-impact energy sources for public patrimony heating
This policy aims at reducing the environmental risk, by means of using energy sources that have a
reduced impact on the environment for public buildings heating, using both local systems and
connections to the district heating network.
(v)
Efficiency improvements of the energy management in municipal buildings
The presence of different actors, measures and procedures in the City’s energy management of
buildings, a standard procedure in the United States, is now also emerging in Europe. The actions
suggested under this policy focus on the increase and creation of instruments and procedures assisting
the Municipality to attain a more efficient energy management of its building patrimony, also using
companies specialised in energy management (ESCO).
(vi)
Reduction of resources consumption in sectors controlled by the Municipality
Wherever it controls service and tariffs, the Municipality is in a position to act with effectiveness in
reducing the consumption and waste of resources. These kinds of actions are based on a co-ordinated
group of measures that, starting from an educational and information campaign, are reinforced by tariff
policies and the introduction of new technologies.
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Conclusion and recommendations
At the local government level there is a continuous search for ways to save costs. Addressing the
building stock belonging to the municipality, using bioclimatic design and sustainable renovation
methods has proven to be very effective – not only are consumption costs reduced after renovation, but
through careful planning, the renovation itself can cost the same, or even less, than a ‘standard’ retrofit.
Especially when one considers the external costs involved and savings in the reduction of energy
consumption.
Contact point for further information
Azienda Energetica Municipale Torino
via Bertola, 48
10121 Turin
Italy
Contact person: Mr. Paolo Galliano
Tel:
+39 11 5549 410
Fax:
+39 11 538313
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TUR8 – Focus on reducing waste and effectively using resources
Objective
To promote recycling and reduce waste by educating citizens and municipality employees about the
environmental and social benefits both for the community and the natural environment.
Description
(i)
Reduction of solid urban refuse
This proposes the expansion of a policy Turin has been working on – a policy, which has produced
significant results to help change citizens’ lifestyles by encouraging the valuation of the whole life cycle
of products, and aims to reduce the amount of domestic refuse.
(ii)
Recycling solid urban refuse
The direct objectives proposed by this policy include the reduction of 45% of refuse produced in the
final treatment – the recovery of 50% of paper, glass, plastic, and metal present in refuse; as well as the
collection of 70% of organic refuse for compost installations. Due to the economic exploitation of
products obtained from solid urban refuse, it is also possible to create new jobs through this system.
From a behavioural point of view, to attain these results, the public needs to adopt a lifestyle that does
not consider the use of goods as a conclusive part of the consumption process, but rather one that fits
in with the holistic process where individuals take responsibility for what they use and dispose of.
RESET Action Plan
WASTES AND RESOURCES
Reduction of the global energy consumption
of the City of Torino
C.2
C.1 0,0%
0,0%
C.3
3,4% C.4
0,0%
Residual
96,6%
(iii)
Energy utilisation of solid urban refuse
This policy forecasts the realisation of an installation structure which resolves the problem of the final
disposal of urban refuse through incineration with recovery of the thermal energy for district heating and
possibly combined power generation. The recovery of energy from existing landfill biogas is also
foreseen.
(iv)
Potential energy exploitation of biomass produced by the municipal territory
The aim of this policy is the correct environmental and economic management of surrounding woods
and other biomass resources belonging to the Municipality.
Conclusion and recommendations
The reduction of waste has a tremendous savings potential, and can support implementing and
financing a recycling system. A central aspect here is the education and involvement of the local
inhabitants, as well as the municipal employees – who can play a guiding role and example for the
community.
Contact point for further information
Azienda Energetica Municipale Torino
via Bertola, 48
10121 Turin
Italy
Contact person: Mr. Paolo Galliano
Tel:
+39 11 5549 410
Fax:
+39 11 538313
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TUR9 – Sustainable and effective transport for mobility and reducing energy requirements
Objective
By focusing on the transport sector, specifically mobility and transport energy consumption, the
community concentrates on a crucial element for the reduction of energy costs and emissions. The
promotion and improvement of public transport systems and encouraging sustainable mobility, such as
walking and cycling, the community supports a viable means of reducing emissions and improving the
communities environment.
Description
RESET Action Plan
MOBILITA' E ENERGIA
Reduction of the global energy consumption
of the City of Torino
D.2
D.1 0,0%
2,1%
D.3
0,2%
D.4
0,0%
D.5
0,5% D.6
0,2% D.7
0,5%
Residuo
96,6%
(i)
Increasing the average speed of public transport
The objective is to increase the average speed of the public transport, both by raising the number and
the length of the lanes reserved for public transport, and by reducing the pressure of private vehicles on
central areas.
(ii)
Expanding the offer of dedicated tickets to increase the use of public transport
The aim is to increase the number of passengers using public transport by offering a wider range of
tickets according to their specific needs.
(iii)
Improvement of taxis and other systems of transport “on request”
The objective is to exploit taxis, minibuses et cetera, thereby extending the concept of transport “on
request”.
(iv)
Alternative engines for public and private vehicles
It is intended to reinforce the City policy aiming to introduce alternative engines able to guarantee lower
air pollutant emissions in respect to the traditional endothermic ones.
(v)
Facilitating biking
The aim is to increase the number of people using bicycles to and from work, and service
displacements extending the biking paths, parking and other facilities all over the City.
(vi)
Facilitating walking
The objective is to encourage people to walk more in the City, either for leisure, work or service, thereby
creating a safe and pleasant net of the pedestrian paths all over the city and with large pedestrian areas
in the centre of each district.
(vii)
Reducing the needs of displacement
It is intended to reduce the needs of displacement to obtain services from public offices and private
companies (banks, shops, et cetera) by opening local offices and improving the use of computer
systems.
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Conclusion and recommendations
The transport sector is one area where large emissions savings can be made if the correct strategy is
implemented. Many cities are using different approaches, and the way it was addressed by Turin
provides a useful overview of the different aspects that can be addressed. In Europe, encouraging
green areas, in combination with pedestrian areas and cycling have been found to be very effective.
Another aspect is an extended public transport system – if it functions well, people are more likely to
use it more frequently. City planning plays a central role in these issues, and involving an interdisciplinary team is recommended, when addressing the issue of transport emissions reductions.
Contact point for further information
Azienda Energetica Municipale Torino
via Bertola, 48
10121 Turin
Italy
Contact person: Mr. Paolo Galliano
Tel:
+39 11 5549 410
Fax:
+39 11 538313
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TUR10 – Use technical and economic instruments to initiate change
Objective
To use technical and economic instruments for the promotion and spread of sustainable energy
methods in the private sector. Using the public sector as a model of the benefits of energy reduction
and clean energy use, and so motivate the private sector to also implement and apply these methods.
Description
(i)
Incentives for the development of the market of energy saving and substitution
The objective is to create incentives beyond the compulsory regulations, for the realisation of
conservation and energy substitution interventions in the private sector. The public sector is used to
create a “demand” in the field of energy conservation and the exploitation of renewable energies, able
to generate adequate products and services, provided by small and medium operators, initially at a
local level.
(ii)
Activation of private resources for the development of the RESET Plan
This policy intends to encourage the transformation of small and medium businesses operating in the
building and installation field into innovative energy service companies. In order to achieve this
objective it needs, on the part of the Council, to favour the constitution of funds for the financing of
energy conservation/substitution. At the same time, it needs to involve the citizens in the creation of
installations for the production of energy from renewable sources not manageable at an individual level.
(iii)
Introduction of fiscal instruments
The introduction of fiscal instruments is one of the most effective incentives used by the administration
to carry out the actions described in the Plan. The policy operates according to various directions, while
the total balance remains unchanged regarding the current state. At the same time, the Municipal
Administration can start lobbying at a national level, together with the Administrations from other large
Italian cities, requesting the application of other fiscal measures and the transformation of the nontargeted fiscal orders into taxes.
RESET Action Plan
TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS
Reduction of the global energy consumption
of the City of Torino
E.2 E.3 E.4
E.1 0,1% 0,0% 1,2% E.5
0,0%
1,2%
Residuo
97,5%
(iv)
Creation and improvement of new instruments for the promotion, management and control of
the RESET Plan
By creating the City’s Energy Agency and increasing the role of the Energy Manager, it is intended to
provide an adequate co-ordination of the Action Plan, and to accelerate the penetration process of
energy conservation/substitution in the various sectors of consumption.
(v)
Job creation in the urban environmental re-qualification and energy saving and substitution
activities
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The objective is to promote the re-qualification of urban territory, offering support for the employment of
young people. The policy encourages the presentation of projects for the European Social Fund and for
the creation of cooperatives involved in the stewardship of the urban territory.
Conclusion and recommendations
Implementing a strategy at the city level requires close involvement of the local industry and inhabitants
from the start. This is seen very much as an interactive process, where information has to be provided
with clear reasoning of why saving energy is a priority for the city. Focusing on the shared economic
benefits for all also motivates the industrial sector and citizens to cooperate in the utilization of clean
energy systems.
Contact point for further information
Azienda Energetica Municipale Torino
via Bertola, 48
10121 Turin
Italy
Contact person: Mr. Paolo Galliano
Tel:
+39 11 5549 410
Fax:
+39 11 538313
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TUR11 – Provide information and training to change life-styles
Objective
To help change people’s life-styles in support of policies and strategies that will assist the overall
reduction of emissions and waste in the community, there is a need for information and training.
Description
Open communication with citizens and employees will help encourage and motivate people to support
the policies and strategies for the enrichment of the community’s natural environment.
(i)
Active citizenship
With the activities forecast for this type of policy aimed at communication and participation, it intends to
create and explicitly support a network of actors throughout the territory. These actors must be capable
of supplying indications and suggestions to the local authority regarding current or planned
interventions, and / or to actively participate in specific actions, in energy and environmental fields.
(ii)
Training
This policy is aimed at different targets - children, unemployed people, public workers - creating
initiative strongly involving participation. The initiative regarding children intends to reduce common
misconceptions and establish a new and more useful approach on environmental communication, to
insure and guarantee a useful and regular exchange of ideas between administrators and these young
citizens. The idea is not to separate the theory from the actual use of energy as a strong transdisciplinary element within the whole cultural project.
With regard to mobility workers, the unemployed and people who need to be re-settled into other jobs,
opportunities need to be created for permanent work in the field of conservation and energy substitution
(according to the Delors “White book” of employment and according to the “Local Initiatives of
Development and Employment” by the EC). The activity program directed at public managers comes
from different sectors, and consists of an activity program on the issues of environmental and energy
management of the city (bureaucracy) and on the issue of energy / environmental strategic projects on
an urban scale.
RESET Action Plan
INFORMATION, TRAINING AND LIFE-STYLE
Reduction of the global energy consumption
of the City of Torino
F.1
0,0%
F.2
0,0%
F.3
0,8%
Residuo
99,2%
(iii)
Increasing knowledge concerning the need to moderate traffic
The policies proposed here, which involve a change of behaviour of the citizens, insist on the respect of
motorists for the regulations stated in the highway code and in the civil rights; on matters concerning
de-congestion of traffic and the subsequent reduction of energy consumption, air pollution and noise,
and on the agreeableness of the city spaces and streets.
Conclusion and recommendations
Achieving a change in life-style of the local population is not an easy task, but with adequate
information and communication one could reach and educate a large percentage of the population
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about the importance of improving the environment of the community. The themes of energy and
environment are gaining more and more attention, also at a European level, and many examples of city
activities are available for consideration.
Contact point for further information
Azienda Energetica Municipale Torino
via Bertola, 48
10121 Turin
Italy
Mr. Paolo Galliano
Tel:
+39 11 5549 410
Fax:
+39 11 538313
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Public Sector
Industry Sector
Transport Sector
TUR10
TUR5
TUR11
TUR1
TUR2
TUR3
TUR4
TUR7
TUR10
TUR5
TUR11
TUR1
TUR2
TUR3
TUR4
TUR8
TUR10
TUR5
Education &
Training
TUR11
TUR11
TUR11
Policy &
Standards
TUR11
TUR1
TUR2
TUR3
TUR4
TUR6
Awareness &
Campaigns
Economic
Advantages /
Job creation
Residential Sector
Financial
Mechanisms
(incl. Subsidies)
Matrix - Turin
Technology
Developed /
Tested
2.4.6.3
TUR1
TUR2
TUR3
TUR4
TUR9
TUR11
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2.4.7
Lyon (France)
2.4.7.1
Context
The city of Lyon in France was selected for further investigation, for the following reasons:
It is representative of the RESETnet cities, and has been involved in developing a local energy
policy since 1994, focussing on expanding the use of renewable energy technologies,
It has addressed its energy / environmental problems by looking at a variety of measures. As a
large city is can offer useful examples for similar sized cities to learn from,
It can show results of projects that have started following the guidelines of RESETnet.
The Greater Lyon area set its objectives for the year 2010 as an increase in the use of RES for
sustainable energy provision, targeting a 15% energy provision for the total energy balance, as well as
reducing energy consumption by 16%.
In order to initiate the RESETnet activities aimed at transforming the Renewable Energy strategy into
local development, existing data and information on the energy and environmental system had to be
collected. The Community Planning Forum for Lyon was held in December 1995 at the Council offices.
It was planned and facilitated by the Department of Urban Development and by AGORA'. The majority
of the participants had some previous interest or experience in renewable energies. The forum worked
well and there was a good level of participant involvement, with interesting information presented to
ensure that all of those who attended had plenty of opportunity to improve their knowledge and
understanding of the subject area.
Several projects were implemented, including the following projects:
-
RESET project (Renewable Energy Strategies for European Towns)
This Project was aimed at verifying the feasibility of the penetration of RE in four European
metropolitan areas: A.M.Barcelona, Glasgow, Grand Lyon, Torino, and St.Petersburg.
-
RE-START project (Renewable
Regenerating Towns)
Energy Strategies and Technology Applications for
RE-Start aimed at providing the public authorities, the institutions and the professionals of these
industrial European Cities with some "Exemplary Urban Projects", concerning innovative
energy integration on the built environment.
-
CLICK project (translated from Italian – ‘into the near edge of the future’)
CLICK aimed at promoting and extending the RE Action Planning to the cities which constitute
the RESET network, as an accompanying measure of the RE-Start targeted demonstration
project involving the cities of the network.
Contacts for the Greater Lyon Area
Mr. Claude Pillonel
20, Rue du Lac - BP3103
F - 69399 Lyon Cedex 03
France
Mr. Jean Villien
Head of Environmental Department
Communauté Urbaine de Lyon
France
Tel +33 78 634 635
Fax +33 78 634 078
Tel +33 78 634 672
Fax +33 78 634 970
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2.4.7.2
Good Practice – Lyon
LYO1 – Development of the Greater Lyon local energy policy addressing the building sector
Objective
To develop a comprehensive local energy policy for an area, with a focus on implementing renewable
energy in the building sector.
Description
The Greater Lyon local energy policy started in 1994 with the RESET Action Plan. Together with three
other cities (Area Metropolitan de Barcelona, Glasgow and Turin), Lyon was looking for the conditions
to meet the objective of 15% of renewable energy sources in the energy balance of each RESET City.
The results were as follows:
-
A strategic action plan covering all different sectors of the Greater Lyon was developed,
showing that the objective was realistic;
-
A concrete decision was taken to undertake the program RESTART as a first priority, mainly in
the residential sector.
Overall results
(i)
Demonstration: RESTART
For Greater Lyon RESTART has provided:
The RESET action plan in the building sector, starting with social
housing. The project concerns 200 dwellings, which will use innovative
technologies to reduce energy consumption and to cover 15% of
energy requirements through renewable energies. In the long run, it is
expected that 20% of residential buildings will be built using the REStart approach.
A photovoltaic installation at the school of engineers “INSA” in Lyon
demonstrated the interest for such a technology and the opportunities
for further development in an urban area.
(ii)
Implementation: RESET-CLICK
The development of the local energy policy over the long term was
addressed for Greater Lyon. There was a validation of the detailed action plan. The first action plan,
elaborated in 1995, needed to be discussed, studied and revised. The new action plan, validated with
CLICK, covers 5 domains with objectives, key actions and key players identified for each domain. The
detailed action plan is presented in the following pages.
(iii)
Creation of the local Energy Agency
For the implementation of the action plan, an organised structure was necessary. Under the SAVE
programme a proposal was submitted and accepted. The local energy agency, created in partnership
with Glasgow City Council started in February 2000.
(iv)
The local Energy Team
For the implementation of the RESTART project many partners have been contacted. To validate the
action plan, these partners have worked and helped to define priorities and actions for the future. These
key players constitute the local energy team on which the future local energy agency will rely for the
definition of the energy policy and the implementation of concrete actions.
Conclusion and recommendations
This approach has brought with it an adequate place for communication, allowing the exchange of
experiences and information on the demonstration of efficient technologies. Such exchange has helped
to the actions already implemented as well. The collaboration with national and regional partners in
developing concepts is another helpful aspect. Overall this GP is linked to the energy balance and tools
to follow up the implementation of the policy, with a local team to discuss, evaluate and propose
actions.
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Contact point for further information
RESET e.e.i.g.
Web:
http://www.resetters.org/
Mr. Jean Villien
Head of Environmental Department
Communauté Urbaine de Lyon
Email: [email protected]
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LYO2 – Identifying the energy savings potential in all the sectors
Objective
To identify energy savings potential in the Greater Lyon area.
Description
The expected results have been verified thanks to several feasibility studies realised in various sectors.
The total energy consumption in 1995 is about 2 408 239 Toe. Actually RES represents:
•
130 696 toe
•
5,4% of the total energy consumption
81270
100 000
80 000
32000
Incinerators
Hydroelectricity
Wood and wastes
17657
60 000
40 000
20 000
0
RES in Tep
The breakdown of RES in the energy balance is:
Overall results
(i)
Energy savings
The potential for energy savings by 2010 has been estimated by different sectors (see below) and gives
a total potential of 400 000 toe, which represents 16 % of the total consumption.
The potential for energy savings by 2010
sectors
energy
demand
1995
potential for
in in %
savings in 2010
in toe
industry
691 873
10%
69 187
residential
683 271
20%
136 654
commercial and public patrimony
358 865
15%
53 830
transport
664 397
20%
132 879
agriculture
9 333
0%
0
Evolution of energy demand in Toe
2 500 000
2 300 000
2 100 000
Scenario BAU
Scenario ME
1 900 000
1 700 000
1 500 000
1995
2010
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Conclusion and recommendations
Energy saving requires investment in both efficient technologies, as well as better information and
training for the main actors (such as architects, builders, enterprises). There must be clearly detailed /
specific actions dedicated to energy management.
New financial instruments, like third party financing, will also help the realisation of investment for
energy savings. The involvement of banking groups from the start of such planning will be useful; not
only to obtain their interest in the concept, but getting ideas for new or novel financing mechanisms.
Conclusion and recommendations
Energy saving requires investment in both efficient technologies, as well as in better information and
training for the main actors (such as architects, builders, SMEs, etc..). There must be clearly detailed
and specific actions dedicated to energy management.
New financial instruments, like third party financing, will also help the realisation of investment for
energy savings. The involvement of banking groups from the start of such planning will be useful; not
only to obtain their interest in the concept, but getting ideas for new or novel financing mechanisms.
Contact point for further information
RESET e.e.i.g.
Web:
http://www.resetters.org/
Mr. Jean Villien
Head of Environmental Department
Communauté Urbaine de Lyon
Email: [email protected]
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LYO3 - Develop an energy action plan for the residential sector
Objective
To use the large savings potential in the residential sector of Greater Lyon, owners are encouraged to
implement sustainable building renovation strategies.
Description
The residential sector represents 31% of total energy consumption in the Greater Lyon area (1997),
with an increase of 8 % in 1997 compared with 1990.
The energy action plan has given a high priority to the residential sector for different reasons:
-
the potential for RES and energy conservation is high;
-
in social housing sector, Greater Lyon is a key player and is able to implement concrete
actions;
-
actions in this sector belong to the traditional competencies of Greater Lyon towards its
citizens.
(i)
Renovate buildings
It was regarded as necessary to help owners or managers of properties to consider investment
in energy conservation and efficient technology. Also the contracting authorities (both public
and private) need to be informed of the advantages and problems linked to the utilisation of RE.
Implemented actions:
-
specific grants for retrofitting;
-
diagnosis and recommendations for tenants having unpaid bills;
-
assistance to the owners for the maintenance of equipment:
-
lobbying for the reduction of VAT on energy saving investments;
-
information and recommendations on energy conservation for heating and sanitary hot
water.
(ii) Promote successful demonstration projects
-
to analyse and evaluate RESTART projects;
-
to realise other demonstration projects in different targeted sectors: public / private- individual /
collective;
-
to federate the partners of building sector on the energy policy of Lyon;
-
to demonstrate economical and technical feasibility of renewable energy technologies;
-
to communicate and make publicity about the results.
Implemented actions:
-
guidebook on “green buildings” mandatory for public buildings
-
follow-up and evaluation of
these realisations
-
search for financial grants
(including the decrease of
VAT rate).
Key players involved in this:
-
Direction
Régionale
de
l’Equipement (DRE) (Regional
Directorate of Public Works
Ministry)
-
Syndicat des économistes de
la construction (association of
the economists of the building
sector)
-
Comité
de
liaison
des
énergies renouvelables (CLER) (Association for the promotion of RES)
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-
(iii)
Rhônalpénergie environnement (Regional Agency for Energy and Environment).
Develop a new approach for global costs and integration of energy decisions in a long-term
prospective
-
to develop a new approach taking into account investments, running costs and
environmental impacts in decision process for energy investments;
-
to find financial mechanisms which takes into account costs in investments for the
owners and savings for the tenants;
-
to evaluate long term costs for maintenance;
-
to develop new contracts for energy management.
Implemented actions:
-
Urban energy planning at the municipal level to give a global framework for energy
investments programming;
-
Integration of energy and environmental guidelines in urban planning administrative
documentation;
-
An existing obligation to use district heating where it already exists;
-
Improved regulations for building construction;
-
The development of new contracts - energy management services;
-
The promotion of controlling energy expenses among tenants.
Key players:
(iv)
-
Greater Lyon
-
FG3 E (association of companies working in the energy sector)
-
Rhonalpénergie environnement
-
Photowatt (Private company involved in the photovoltaic sector)
-
Phoebus (association for the promotion of photovoltaics).
Unite key players
A specific agreement was needed between the key actors, namely FG3E, FNAIM et CNAB
(organisations representative of the real estate sector). The intention was to integrate these
organisations in the board of the local energy agency, and to emphasise the role of the local
energy agency as a tool to unite different key players.
Key actions:
-
Providing information for the main partners on available technologies.
-
Using the local agency as a resource centre for training, research and pedagogy.
-
Increasing the awareness of key players involved in the construction sector.
Key players:
-
DRE
-
FG3E
-
Rhonalpénergie environnement.
Conclusion and recommendations
When developing an action plan for a city or town it is increasingly important to involve the local
community in both the decision-making and implementation process. This is particularly important for
reinforcing the commitment and active participation in reducing energy consumption. As such,
awareness workshops and campaigns are very useful for stimulating the local interest in similar
conditions.
Contact point for further information
RESET e.e.i.g.
Web:
http://www.resetters.org/
Mr. Jean Villien - Head of Environmental Department
Communauté Urbaine de Lyon
Email: [email protected]
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LYO4 – Specific guidance for energy use in public buildings impacting on urban planning,
policy and regulation development
Objective
In support of the implementation of RE and EE concepts in public buildings specific guidance is
provided, impacting on urban planning as well as policy and regulation development and involves a
range of actors.
Description
There is no standard survey for public buildings. However, the energy balance pointed out that the
equipment belonging to local authorities consume 38 683 tep in Greater Lyon, meaning an increase of
25% compared to 1990. This represents 9% of the energy consumption of the commercial / public
sector. These sectors represents 17% of the energy consumption in 1997, and has had the biggest
increase since 1990, of almost 26%.
Implementing a survey is considered very important for different reasons. Many of the domains
concerned resort directly under the responsibility of the local authorities belonging to Greater Lyon.
Through proper urban planning, the impact on energy consumption can be high. The increased
consumption has to be stopped in order to attain the energy objectives of Greater Lyon.
(i)
Local energy planning in coordination with local players
-
to optimise urban design and spatial organisation at every scale of urban planning (Urban
Community - local authority-development area);
-
to coordinate activities of urban planners and energy companies (district heating,
electricity and gas network, RES companies);
-
to collaborate with the construction sector; and
-
to integrate energy and environmental criteria in urban planning regulation at local level.
Implemented actions:
-
Elaboration of an energy annex to every urban planning document
-
Development of an energy and environment guidebook
-
Follow-up and evaluation of the implementation of the policy
-
Establishment of a working group with the different key players to analyse and evaluate
the results of the action
Key players:
(ii)
-
Region Greater Lyon
-
SIGERLy (local syndicate for gas distribution in Greater Lyon)
-
CICF (syndicate of design offices)
Proposals for new regulation
-
development of a new regulation with a mandatory rate of RES in buildings (both in the
residential sector and elsewhere);
-
assistance to local authorities
for the development of new
regulations
and
concrete
implementation at local level.
Implemented actions:
-
Proposals for regulation.
-
Synergy with other partners.
Key players:
-
Regional Council
-
OIKOS
-
CLER
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(iii)
Communication
-
development of complete and adequate information on the feasibility of RES installations,
with examples, information on technical visits and the exchange of experiences;
-
training for technical services of the municipalities.
Implemented actions:
-
Adaptation of training actions to different populations
-
Organisation of sites visits
-
A training program for local authorities
Key players:
(iv)
-
Greater Lyon
-
CICF
-
SIGERLy
-
OIKOS (association for energy savings and environmental protection particularly in
residential sector)
Energy and environmental assessment for equipment
-
energy assessment at the design stage in public equipment
-
increase of the rate of RES in public equipment
Implemented actions:
-
drawing up of guidebook of specification with the integration of RES
-
assistance to the contracting authorities
Key players:
-
SIGERLy
-
OIKOS
-
Region Greater Lyon
Conclusion and recommendations
Using the implementation of a new building regulation, to ensure the wider use of EE and RE utilisation
in new buildings and in the existing building stock, can be very effective for the whole city’s energy
consumption.
This also relates to using public building stock to demonstrate the feasibility and the efficiency of RE
technologies and bioclimatic criteria – with awareness for inhabitants, but also increased awareness of
the local administration, through the appointment of energy managers and the development of a
specific action plan for each body .
The recommendation for public building and urban planning can be summarised as follows:
-
Integration of energy and environment in all urban policies
-
Construction and renovation to have efficient public buildings
-
Development of local synergies with the various city planning departments and services for
energy conservation and RES.
Contact point for further information
RESET e.e.i.g.
Web:
http://www.resetters.org/
Mr. Jean Villien
Head of Environmental Department
Communauté Urbaine de Lyon
Email: [email protected]
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LYO5 – Improving energy utilisation and air quality in the transport sector
Objective
The impact of energy utilisation and resulting air pollution in the transport sector requires a
comprehensive strategy to address these aspects in a sustainable manner.
Description
The transport sector represents a large part of energy consumption and pollution sources. 27% of the
consumption in 1997 was equivalent to 594 000 tep, with a stability in the consumption patterns seen
since 1990 (still to be verified for later years).
(i)
Decrease the need for mobility through increased control of urban planning
Proper urban planning can impact positively on the reduced need for transport. It is useful to
develop a cartography of the different axes for transport (by means of road- public transportmetro…) in relation to air pollution. Then targets can be defined for public spaces and urban
planning approaches.
Implemented actions:
(ii)
-
A working group was established with different organisations involved in urban planning
(urban planners, sociologists, psychologists…), to obtain a better understanding of
citizens behaviour concerning transport.
-
Local regulation was developed, with a specific recommendation on transport for every
new urban development area.
Communication with citizens on the real cost of pollution
By informing people on the actual costs of pollution linked to the different fuels available their
awareness on issues affecting air quality is increased.
Implemented actions:
(iii)
-
Internalisation of transports costs in urban planning, with an evaluation of indirect costs
for the city and the society.
-
Realisation of a large campaign on transport and air quality.
-
Dissemination of a specific guidebook for students and schools.
Technology demonstration programme on RES
As part of the need for increased awareness demonstration projects are implemented and used
to promote of RES, as a clean energy alternative. The users need to be informed in real time on
the costs and incitements for alternative transports utilisation.
Implemented actions:
(iv)
-
Realisation of a catalogue of available alternatives technologies (technologies, vehicles,
et cetera).
-
Promotion of RE technology / equipment in public tenders.
-
Development of mobility planning within large enterprises including the problem of goods
transportation.
Energy and environmental assessment
There is a need to integrate energy and environmental costs (i.e. pollution) due to transport,
and to optimise urban planning by taking into account the transport sector as a sector that
particularly contributes to the increase of harmful emissions.
Implemented actions:
(v)
-
specific studies on transport in urban planning
-
development of mobility plan in enterprises
Modification of citizens behaviour concerning transport
The change of behaviour of the local citizens is an essential part of a successful campaign. As
such, a large communication campaign on air quality was to be developed and additional
dialogue with citizens encouraged. Aspects addressed hereunder include the promotion of
efficient transport options and finding an alternative to using motor vehicles. Another aspect to
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be considered is establishing relevant infrastructure (peri-urban car park, milestones for
electrical cars…) needed to accommodate this change.
Implemented actions:
(vi)
-
Information campaign for alternative fuels and public transport.
-
Further development of public transport.
-
Promotion of a non-polluting transport system.
Development of an information system on air pollution for a better protection of citizens
Implemented actions:
-
Implementation of prediction tools / instruments.
-
A large dissemination campaign with information on air pollution, using various forms of
media.
Key players:
-
EDF – GDF Service - information on technologies and demonstrative examples
-
Grand Lyon - assistance to the Local Agency (technical, financial and political),
participation to the different actions
-
Rhonalpénergie environnement - exchange of experiences with other local authorities
(regional, European….) and the analysis of and energy consumption, and costs related to
urban planning.
Conclusion and recommendations
The implementation of an efficient transport policy through the development of a transport action plan,
will help to address specific issues such as :
-
increase the use of the public transport,
-
reduce energy consumption and resulting pollutant emissions,
-
substitute conventional fuel with non-pollutant energy (e.g bio-diesel).
To help make efficient choices at an early stage the integration of energy and environment criteria in
land use, planning and the development of local regulation for urban planning, will help guide a
substantial process, as transport is inter-related with these aspects.
Contact point for further information
RESET e.e.i.g.
Web:
http://www.resetters.org/
Mr. Jean Villien
Head of Environmental Department
Communauté Urbaine de Lyon
Email: [email protected]
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LYO6 – Focusing on energy savings potential among SMEs in the industrial sector
Objective
With the largest energy savings potential available among Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs)
this groups was targeted for reductions in the industrial sector.
Description
The industrial sector represents the 27% of the total energy use in Great Lyon, around 657.000 TOE,
with an increase of 4,5% between 1990-1997.
In the action plan priority is given to SMEs. As most of large enterprises in the Greater Lyon area have
already implemented energy conservation measures in the past years, the potential for energy savings
and RES will mainly come from SMEs. In this sector, the local energy agency, together with partners
involved in the industrial sector, may have relevant and efficient actions towards SMEs.
(i)
Situation and prospective for the industrial sector – evaluation of energy consumption and
potential for savings in SME
An evaluation of energy consumption is required, also to establish an energy balance for the
industrial sector, by analysing the potential for energy savings and following up on the quality of
energy.
Implemented actions:
-
Energy balance for the industrial sector to present the global framework of the sector with
specific emphasises on SME (by using existing surveys from SESSI, energy companies)
-
Specific surveys on energy system, potential for energy savings.
Key players:
The local energy Agency with Rhonalpénergie environnement, ADEME, CEREN. ATEE
(association for energy savings) can help in information collection and dissemination within its
network.
(ii)
Development of environmental consciousness among SMEs
In support of realising an eco-balance for relevant SMEs information is disseminated regarding
the concept of the life cycle.
Implemented actions:
-
Demonstration projects, dissemination of documents on industrial ecology to give
information on costs, savings and environmental impacts.
-
Visits to industries.
-
Creation of a working group with few enterprises interested by the subject.
-
Realisation of environmental impacts studies with few SME.
Key players:
(iii)
-
ADEME
-
Rhonalpénergie environnement
-
APORA (association of industries)
-
ATEE propose relevant sites and assists the agency to organise visits.
Define the role of the Agency and communicate actions
The local Energy Agency has to be recognised as a key player, and plays an important role in
the promotion of energy savings by SMEs. It can also support the development of
competencies in the industrial sector.
Implemented actions:
-
Realisation of a directory of competencies on energy and environment adapted to SMEs.
-
The diffusion of examples from other agencies from other European countries.
-
Construction of a collaboration process with organisations representing different sectors
of SMEs.
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(iv)
-
A competition to reward SMEs for particular innovative action in energy and the
environment.
-
The presentation of a general document to define the role of the agency, its actions and
objectives.
-
The local Energy Agency should play the leading role and has to coordinate the existing
information and the different partners involved in this action.
Information on regulation and available subsidies
As part of increasing awareness it is necessary to give information and to help SMEs to
anticipate the evolution in the regulation.
Implemented actions:
-
A survey of available information and documentation.
-
Development of a calendar of forecasted regulations and norms in the industrial sector
-
Collection of all this information by the local energy agency – development of a resource
centre with a specific data base for SMEs.
Key players:
(v)
-
DRIRE
-
DIREN
-
ADEME
-
Collaboration could be envisaged with a student from INSA and a student with a specific
project on technologies and regulation.
Development of a specific programme in SME for electricity saving – demand side
management
Implemented actions:
-
data base on electricity technologies in industries
-
a specific campaign on DSM on targeted sectors
-
documentation and specific information
Key players:
-
ADEME
-
Rhonalpénergie environnement
-
EDF
-
CEREN
Conclusion and recommendations
Training programmes on the integration of EE and RE in SME processes and buildings, could have a
large impact on the overall city energy policy, depending on the number of SMEs active locally.
The diffusion of packages of general measures for the development of EE and RE utilisation in the
industrial sector is another approach that can be effective.
The development of industrial competencies in the field of RE applications for industrial processes is an
aspect that is not adequately addressed in many industries. Here the implementation of cleaner
processes, using clean energy and saving energy can have a valuable environmental impact for the
city.
Contact point for further information
RESET e.e.i.g.
Web:
http://www.resetters.org/
Mr. Jean Villien - Head of Environmental Department
Communauté Urbaine de Lyon
Email: [email protected]
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LYO7 – Development of a common region environmental approach for increased quality of life
Objective
To develop a common approach in the region that increases the quality of living, by providing certain
environmental guidelines and information.
Description
The implementation of a “high environmental quality” building approach is relatively new in France.
RESTART was the first opportunity in Greater Lyon to develop such a concept. On the basis of the
RESTART guidelines and other implementation processes in France, it has been chosen as a major
objective of the Great Lyon.
This had to be discussed within the RESET local team, as the methodology was not familiar to the
participants. It was difficult at that stage to define precise actions. However, three objectives were
pointed out by the group and are developed by the local Energy Agency, namely:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
Dissemination and information
-
to give targeted information to the different partners concerned.
-
to launch a training program for architects and design offices.
Demonstration projects
-
to realise a guidebook of existing references with arguments for the implementation.
-
to launch demonstration projects.
Energy conservation
-
to encourage the development of water
and waste management activities, as
well as energy conservation in all
sectors (also transport).
-
to collect data and information on the
different technologies and regulations
from the partners involved (e.g.
ADEME, the Ministry of Industry).
Conclusion and recommendations
The implementation of a "high environmental
quality" building approach is a recent development
in France. RESTART was the first opportunity in the
Greater Lyon to develop such a concept. On the
basis of the RESTART guidelines and thanks to
other realisations in France, it has been chosen as a
major objective of the Great Lyon. This was a matter
of discussion within the “local team” meetings.
As a recommendation, local energy agencies should
monitor the application of the high environmental
quality approach in all public building and districts.
Contact point for further information
RESET e.e.i.g.
Web:
http://www.resetters.org/
Mr. Jean Villien - Head of Environmental Department
Communauté Urbaine de Lyon
Email: [email protected]
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LYO1
LYO3
LYO7
Residential Sector
LYO1
LYO4
Public Sector
Industry Sector
LYO6
LYO6
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Economic
Advantages /
Job creation
LYO1
LYO2
LYO3
LYO7
LYO1
LYO2
LYO4
LYO1
LYO2
LYO6
LYO1
LYO2
LYO5
Transport Sector
Financial
Mechanisms
(incl. Subsidies)
Policy &
Standards
Education &
Training
Awareness &
Campaigns
Matrix - Lyon
Technology
Developed /
Tested
2.4.7.3
LYO6
Solar Cities - Good Practice Guide
2.4.8
Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)
2.4.8.1
Context
Freiburg im Breisgau was selected from the members of the Energie-Cités Association (EnergieC) for
several reasons. The Energie-Cités Association is large and represents a wide spectrum of cities, many
of them with interesting good practices in the area of renewable energy and energy efficiency (There is
a diverse range of best practices listed on the Energie-Cités website and this is also recommended for
further reading).
The reasons for specifically selecting Freiburg im Breisgau are as follows:
Freiburg strives towards remaining the ‘Solar Capital’ of Germany – it has high solar radiation
potential, a wide range of examples of solar architecture and actors in the city are active at many
different levels, in support of this solar area.
The city plays a leading role in the region (‘Dreiländereck’) and has close links to neighbouring
cities and towns in Switzerland and France.
Freiburg has implemented a wide range of good practices that are interesting for their replication
potential for European cities as well as cities globally. This has led to the city becoming known as
an eco-tourist destination and an influx of government representatives that seek information on
replicable solutions.
The interesting approach of the city in terms of planning, also with regards to involving civil
society and inhabitants in processes.
The city has a plan for reducing emissions up to 25% by 2010, addressing energy and transport
in particular.
Freiburg im Breisgau is regarded as the sunny capital of the Black Forest, and lies in the south of
Germany, close to the French and Swiss borders (‘Dreiländereck’). The city covers an area of 15 306
ha and has an estimated population level of 212.000 inhabitants. This includes a high number of
students, as the city hosts a renowned university and other tertiary education institutions. The city is not
only a ‘student’ city, but is also a well-known tourist destination, also for eco-tourism, and hosts a range
of light industry, but also with close links to the agricultural and forestry sectors.
Freiburg boasts with the title ‘Solar Capital’ of Germany, as it has the highest solar radiation potential in
the country, with ± 1.117 kWh (m2a). Roughly 50% of Freiburg (with the municipal boundaries also
covering some towns on the outskirts) stands under conservation in some form or another (landscape
protection, natural conservation).
The Freiburg region is situated in the heart of Europe: it is intersected by key trade routes from north to
south and from east to west. At the crossroads of these routes it provides optimum links to the
European economic regions.
There are over two million people living in the wider region – covering an area of 8,680 square
kilometres, which includes the conurbations of Basel (North-West Switzerland), Colmar, Mulhouse
(Upper Alsace), and Freiburg (Southern Baden). These European industrial centres are directly served
by the EuroAirport Basel-Mulhouse-Freiburg. There are also a number of landing strips for private
business flights. The Upper Rhine area is well-connected to the international railway network.
The city inhabitants started showing a keen interest in clean energy as a direct result of the planned
nuclear power station in Whyl in the 1970s, and the resulting protest of the local agriculture sector
against this. This in turn spilled over to the students and the general population, with a resultant
‘ecological’ approach to politics remaining a visible approach of the local inhabitants.
In 1986 the city council adopted a municipal energy policy that addresses clean energy provision using
renewable energy sources, as well as energy savings. In support of the reduction of harmful emissions
the Office for Environmental Protection (‘Umweltschutzamt’) develops concepts and measures in
particular addressing energy and traffic with innovative solutions are studied and implemented. The
Freiburg climate protection concept aims at the reduction of CO2 output up to the year 2010 by 25
percent. However, planning and monitoring by the authorities is however only a small part of the whole
and inhabitants are encouraged towards environmentally conscious behaviour (through disseminating
material and consulting).
The Green Party has also been successful in this area, with the first Green Party Mayor elected into
office in 2002. This in turn has led in increased expectations that the city implements more
environmentally-friendly projects.
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2.4.8.2
Good Practices – Freiburg im Breisgau
FR1 – Development of the ‘SolarRegion Freiburg’
Objective
The municipality, inhabitants, research and industry sector of Freiburg cooperate on jointly developing
their city and region as a ‘solar region’ to the benefit of the city and surrounding region. To this end
projects are implemented that are ecological, aesthetical and interesting from an economic perspective.
Description
Originally the ‘SolarRegion Freiburg’ was a one-off, ad-hoc project prepared for the EXPO 2000.
However, the municipality has built on this concept and markets the city as the solar capital of Germany
- which is supported by many different aspects (some listed here as good practices).
Several aspects work in combination and have helped to develop the SolarRegion concept, namely:
-
The high solar radiation potential (the area has about 1.800 hours of sunshine per year, with
the highest solar radiation level in Germany).
-
The interest of inhabitants in the ecology, environment and clean energy.
-
The wide range of actors involved in these areas.
-
Municipal energy policy developed during the mid-1980s to address the wider use of RES and
energy savings, in conjunction with the city’s climate protection plan adopted in 1996.
The municipality developed the ‘SolarRegion Freiburg’ concept, not only to present the city as a solar
city, but also to draw wider interest from people all over the world (thus an exchange concept, as well
as a focus on economic benefits).
The results of this programme can be seen with the numerous visible solar installations throughout the
city (on offices, residential and public buildings - which in turn reflects the support of the inhabitants).
Also the extensive range of publications on solar and ecological issues are a result of the programme,
available for local inhabitants and tourists e.g. the Freiburg Solar Guide (available in German and
English) is widely used by tourists visiting the city to study the wide range of buildings presented.
The relatively high density of actors involved in the area of renewable energy also helps to present the
city as a solar region and to draw interest from a diverse range of people.
-
In the field of research there is the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (Fraunhofer
ISE), which is the largest European research institute addressing the topic of solar energy –
and not only draws researchers but also politicians, architects and engineers, as well as ecotourists.
-
In the industry sector the Solar-Fabrik has for example drawn wide-spread interest with its zero
emissions building and production facilities.
-
In the civil society sector there are numerous non-governmental organisations (NGOs) that are
involved in environmental and energy themes. All these actors are also linked informally
through cooperation and participate in forums where exchange (some organised by the city) is
invited. This has assisted in establishing Freiburg as a centre with an extensive network of
know-how in the field of RE.
RES data on the city of Freiburg (as of March 2004):
-
PV capacity 3.4 MW (annual electricity generation: 3.1 m kWh p.a.)
-
thermal capacity 8,700 m² + 600 m² swimming pool absorbers
-
wind (2003) capacity 9 MW (annual electricity generation: 15 m kWh p.a.)
-
hydropower (2003) capacity 396 kW (annual electricity generation: 1.8 m kWh p.a.)
-
biomass (2003) (no capacity figures) annual electricity generation: 14.4 m kWh p.a.
Financial resources
The estimated financial investment from the city and other sponsors in the SolarRegion programme is
around € 4 million. As the whole concept is the result of the combined actions of all the actors in the city
much private investment was also made (included in this rough estimate).
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Conclusion and recommendations
The SolarRegion programme was initiated before the Agenda 21 process started in Freiburg, with the
public involved in this process early on. In many cities the Agenda 21 process is the first step towards a
comprehensive energy and environment strategy, but the involvement of citizens in each phase is
nonetheless critical – not only to inform them. But to generate acceptance and opportunities for
involvement.
The city is now widely know as an ecological tourist destination, not only for groups and individuals who
are interested in the topic, but also for government representatives from other countries – people who
are looking for answers to energy related problems. This in turn reinforces the city’s aim as becoming
known as the solar capital of Germany.
Through the interest and support of both the public and private sector, there is continued growth in the
implementation of clean energy sources, which are secure and decentralised – contributing to the
sustainability of the region in terms of environment, energy provision and job creation.
This whole situation is also supported by the German federal political approach to energy and
environment – where both are seen as important within the framework of sustainability and achieving
the goals stated in the Kyoto Protocol. The national German feed-in law has helped generate an
interest among local inhabitants – according to this legislation home owners can sell energy generated
through RES to the local utility at a specific rate (essentially assisting a faster pay-back time of initial
investment costs).
Contact point for further information
Mr. Thomas Dresel
Stadt Freiburg im Breisgau
Umweltschutzamt / Bürgermeisteramt Dezernat II
79095 Freiburg
Germany
Also Forum SolarRegion Freiburg
Tel:
+49 761 201 646
+49 761 201 6148
Fax:
+49 761 201 6099
Email: [email protected]
Web : http://www.freiburg.de
http://www.solarregion.freiburg.de
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FR2 – City cooperation with local utility badenova
Objective
The local electricity utility(ies) plays an important role in energy provision, and needs to be involved in
the process of change towards sustainable energy provision.
Description
badenova is the main utility that operates the grid in the Freiburg region, and as such is obliged by law
to buy all the locally produced energy from RES, according to the German feed-in law (even if the local
users do not buy ‘their’ energy from this company. There are several utilities active in the region, some
operating in limited areas, others nationally).
Users who sell their own generated RE to badenova obtain a relatively good rate for such their clean
energy – higher than for the rate for buying conventional energy. This has amongst others helped the
close cooperation between the city council and the utility.
In this situation the utility company also stands in close cooperation with the municipality, where local
policy and planning takes place. The cooperation extends to an agreement for leasing space for solar
energy projects on municipal buildings such as the ‘Rathaus’ (council building), or the large solar
thermal system installed at a public swimming pool, and the photovoltaic system on the roof of the
student residences in the Vauban district.
badenova provides consulting for local households, also on the issues of energy saving and clean
energy provision (several other utilities in the region also do this).
With income generated from regional energy provision badenova provides direct subsidies for solar
installations – mainly in the city of Freiburg. For example a ‘solar offensive’ was started in conjunction
with the Solar-Fabrik and the Sparkasse Freiburg-Nördlicher Breisgau where every person using the
regional electricity can acquire a PV installation at a reduced price – thereby encouraging local
inhabitants to use PV more widely.
Large-scale examples of PV used are on the badenova soccer stadium and the Solar Garage in the
Vauban – with private investors buying in and gaining the benefits from the feed-in law tariffs.
In the area of awareness-raising badenova regards schools are a particularly interesting target, where
the youth are provided with opportunities to learn, e.g. visiting water and combined heat and power
stations, participating in workshops, staring joint project days, etc.. The utility also supports local
environmental projects through a support fund, which in turn helps additional implementation activities
in the region.
Financial resources
No specific data available.
Conclusion and recommendations
As a company badenova is of course interested in service provision linked to financial gain. The
interesting aspect is that is combined this with additional activities with great success – thereby
enhancing its position as a supporter of clean energy, although much of its energy does not come from
clean sources.
Although the city does not always have financial means to implement projects, it can work very
effectively by bringing in different actors and jointly implementing projects, activities and strategies in
the area of energy / environment.
Contact point for further information
Dezernat II - Umwelschutzamt
Rathausplatz 2-4
79098 Freiburg
Tel:
+49 761 201-61 00
Fax:
+49 761 201-60 99
Email: [email protected]
Energieagentur Regio Freiburg GmbH
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Email: [email protected]
Web: www.badenova.de
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FR3 – Involvement of the local Agenda 21 office
Objective
The implementation of Local 21 activities at city level in support of sustainable local development.
Description
In 1996 Freiburg decided to sign the Charter of Aalborg to implement Agenda 21 at local level – 21
stands for the 21st century. The background to the Local Agenda 21 is the intention to give recognition
to the role of local governments and communes in sustainable development, based on three aspects –
ecology, economy and social justice. It also provides a larger network for exchange of experience and
ideas, as well as for inspiration.
The aim was to involve local participants - the citizens of Freiburg and the city administration – in an
action program for a vision for Freiburg. An important step in this was the implementation of the
Freiburg Local Agenda 21 in 1999. The citizens together with the administration developed the goals. In
parallel to this several successful projects were implemented.
At present in Freiburg the ‘Area development plan 2020 (‘Flächennutzungsplan 2020’) is being
developed. Here the goal is also to involve the local citizens in the Agenda 21 process.
The Agenda 21 activities are seen as an important component of local development, helping to
overcome the conservative ways of thinking, and giving momentum to change. Activities that are
implemented include organising workshops and other forums for local interaction, developing strategies
and implementation activities, as well as implementing specific projects. Since 2000 16 different
projects were implemented in the Baden-Württemberg region
Freiburg won the 1st place in the federal competition "Future-oriented municipality" (’Zukunftsfähige
Kommune’), which was implemented to encourage municipalities to combine socio-economic and
sustainable development aspects.
The following Agenda 21 working groups meet regularly:
water
one-world
social, education and culture
next generation
town development
women
Financial resources
No data available. Normally the LA21 offices are small, staffed by experts and projects are implemented
as funding becomes available at local level.
Conclusion with recommendations for new cities
Many cities are part of the Agenda 21 process and this provides an excellent basis for planning specific
activities and strategies addressing clean energy and environmental issues. However, it is important to
obtain the agreement and involvement of many different actors at city level to ensure the final success.
Contact point for further information
Freiburger Agenda 21 Büro
Wilhelmstr. 20
79098 Freiburg
Germany
Tel:
Fax:
EMail:
Web:
+49 761 7678 511
+49 761 7678 513
[email protected]
http://www.freiburger-agenda21.de/
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FR4 – Cooperative wind and solar energy projects
Objective
Implement local projects in the areas of wind and solar energy, using local investment and expertise.
Description
The ‘Förderverein Energie- und Solaragentur Regio Freiburg’ (FESA) (Association for the Promotion of
the Energy and Solar Agency, "Regio Freiburg"), has launched successful co-operative investment
projects for wind and solar power plants.
Since 1994, FESA has built seven big solar plants for generating electricity (photovoltaic) on roofs over
the city of Freiburg, with an output of around 250 kW. These investments were financed by share
certificates sold to interested parties. This meant that all citizens were provided with an opportunity to
invest in a solar plant.
FESA helped with the realization of innovative projects such as nine citizen wind turbines, eight solar
electricity plants, a hydro-electric power plant and a feed-in power station (savings contracting between
citizens and municipality). In these projects there is also a cross-linking of industry, handcraft, planners,
final customers and investors. Consultation of investors and municipalities takes place, among others
through providing feasibility studies and the calculation of production costs.
Financial resources
FESA helped in the acquisition of more than 6 million EURO participation capital for energy projects,
from 700 limited partners, which in turn helped realise investments of over 20 million €uro in energy
installations in the region.
In general FESA is a membership NGO, but the income generated through membership fees does not
cover such projects.
Conclusion and recommendations
The interest of local inhabitants in Freiburg in supporting solar and wind energy projects is the result of
a high level of awareness of the problem (in response to the nuclear power situation) and a general
interest in environmental and ecological concepts.
In the case of the solar power plants a large number of citizens were prepared to invest here, despite
the fact that many of these systems were not cost-efficient under the conditions that prevailed at the
time (This has changed partly due to the German feed-in law). However, in most instances the focus is
usually also on economic benefit for the investors, and this is an excellent incentive to encourage
investment (but again the national legislation needs to be in support of this – as is starting to change in
some European countries).
Local farmers can also participate as investors and make available their land (renting or as owners of
the new technology) for setting up wind turbines, which in turn allow them to generate an income.
Contact point for further information
förderverein energie- und solaragentur regio freiburg e.v.
Solar Info Center
Emmy-Noether-Str. 2
79110 Freiburg
Germany
Tel:
Fax:
Email:
Web:
+49 761 40 73 61
+49 761 40 47 70
[email protected]
http://www.fesa.de
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FR5 – Development of new districts - Vauban and Rieselfeld
Objective
To relieve the requirement for additional residences in the city, two new districts were planned and
developed, considering local infrastructure to promote the combination of living and working in the same
area, and considering sustainability aspects, as well as economic issues.
Description
The buildings in these two areas were designed according to low energy building and passive solar
building standards – creating 2.000 residences (apartments) in Vauban and 4.500 residences in
Rieselfeld. In this way about 1.700 new employment opportunities were created. The city’s transport
concept was expanded to provide the needed infrastructure.
Vauban District
The former Vauban military barracks, approximately 2.5 km from the city centre, on the southern
outskirts covers an area of 38 hectares. It became available for urban development after the French
occupation force left in 1992. A concept was developed by the municipality in conjunction with local
NGOs and in consultation with prospective buyers. The resulting district would house more than 5,000
inhabitants and provide about 600 jobs. In 1993 the planning for the district started (to be finalised in
2006) with three development phases.
In Vauban the following aspects are of particular interest:
-
the planning structure integrates legal, political, social and economical actors from grassroots
level up to the city administration,
-
all houses are built at least with improved low energy standard (65 kWh/m2a, calculated similar
to the Swiss SIA 380/1 standard) plus at least 100 units with "passive house" (15 kWh/m2a) or
"plus energy" standard (houses which produce more energy than they need, another 100 plus
energy houses are planned),
-
a highly efficient co-generation plant (CHP) operating on wood-chips is connected to the
district's heating grid.
-
solar collectors (about 450 m2 until 2000) and photovoltaics (about 1200 m2 until 2000) will be
common "ornaments" on the district's roofs,
-
an ecological traffic / mobility concept is implemented with a reduced number of private cars to
be parked in the periphery (about 40% of the households agreed to live without an own car),
good public transport, a convenient car sharing system and a higher quality of living,
-
streets and other public spaces are playground for kids and places for social interaction,
-
joint building projects (about 30 groups of building owners, the Genova co-operative and the
self-organized S.U.S.I.-settlement initiative) provide fertile ground for a stable district
community and a rise in ecological awareness,
-
the far-reaching participation and social work organized by Forum Vauban gives voice to the
people's needs and supports their initiatives, invents innovative ecological and social concepts
and sets up a communication and participation structure including meetings, workshops, a
three-monthly district news magazine, publications on special issues and internetpresentations.
Rieselfeld District
The Rieselfeld District lies to the west of the city, at the edge of a protected area, which would be
available for public access. The objective for this urban area was to balance high building density living
and working in the same quarter, providing 4.200 housing units for 10.000 to 12.000 people, with good
private and public infrastructure and environmentally oriented planning. The property in the area
originally belonged to the city Freiburg, and with the sales the city covered a large part of its costs for
planning, development, public mechanisms and financing of the project. The project is run by an
independent project group that originally was part of the city municipality.
Since 1995 the development of about 78 hectares into a new, attractive quarter proceeded, including
urban planning considering open green space, inexpensive flat for rental, single family houses, schools
and businesses. The light industry area Haid is situated close to Rieselfeld, providing about 6.000
employment places. Public transport options are available, with an excellent network also for cycling.
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Financial resources
In 1996, the Federal Environmental Foundation (DBU) supported Forum Vauban and made possible the
employment of experts to improve the citizen’s concepts. Subsequently, an overall concept in the fields
of traffic, energy, housing and social life was developed, which took into account many aspects of
sustainable city planning.
The city covered its costs for Rieselfeld for planning, development, public mechanisms and financing of
the project, around 145 million EUR The financing runs outside of the municipal household account
over a trust account, managed by the Stuttgarter Kommunalentwicklung LEG GmbH.
Conclusion and recommendations
When planning a new district, planning with regard to all aspects of sustainability is a necessity. Here,
the comprehensive approach used in the Vauban can indeed serve as a model. But independently from
specific measures, the intensive participation of the future residents is not only a way to improve the
acceptance of the results, but moreover can serve as an example of sharing the responsibility for the
well-being of the community. The involvement of the Forum Vauban, an association for all residents of
Vauban, right from the start of the planning process resulted in a highly successful project.
Contact point for further information
Dezernat IV - Bauen und Verkehr
Technisches Rathaus
Fehrenbachallee 12
79106 Freiburg
Germany
Fax:
+49 761 201-4029
Email: [email protected]
Web : http://www.vauban.freiburg.de/
Fax:
+49 761 201-4098
Email: [email protected]
Web: http://www.rieselfeld.freiburg.de
Forum Vauban e.v.
Alfred-Döblin-Platz 1
79100 Freiburg
Germany
Tel :
Fax:
Email:
Web:
+49 761 456871-31
+49 761 456871-39
[email protected]
http://www.forum-vauban.de
http://www.vauban.de
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FR6 – City support for role of environmental NGOs
Objective
In support of its presentation as a city that is interested in ecological and environmental issues the
Freiburg municipality has played an important role in drawing non-governmental organisations (NGOs)
to the city.
Description
The active part Freiburg has played in drawing NGOs to the area has had useful spin-offs for the
region. The success of these activities can be seen in the wide diversity of NGOs that have found their
home in the city, from the Öko-Institute to international NGOs like the International Solar Energy Society
and the European regional office of ICLEI (International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives).
All of these NGOs contribute to the image the city wishes to present – namely an ecological and
environmentally-friendly and conscious city. This has also aided in raising awareness of the local
inhabitants and an increase in recognition of the importance of Freiburg as a solar city by visitors.
The NGOs are also involved in local discussions where future activities and planning are considered.
The role of civil society is regarded as important in the guidance of the city’s activities, and in return the
NGOs help to reinforce the city’s representation as a solar city.
For example the role of the the ‘förderverein energie- und solaragentur regio freiburg e.v.’ provides an
example of how the activities of an NGO can also support the city aims.
-
publication of the regional magazine "Die Solarregion" (30,000 editions disseminated), which
provides useful information and contacts in the area;
-
publication of books and brochures on the topic of renewable energy and energy saving;
-
publicity and media work, as well as meetings – not only for members but also to present the
NGO and its activities, and acting as a pressure group;
-
encouragement of good energy ‘feed-in’ conditions - with public utilities and government
institutions;
-
conception and critical accompanying of solar programs to ensure the successful
implementation thereof (many members are experts in different RE areas);
-
helping to formulate the regional identity "SolarRegion".
Financial resources
The city of Freiburg has invested time in encouraging NGOs to settle in the region, and remains in
touch with many of these organisations through formal and informal discussions and networks. This is
usually combined with a minimum of actual financial expenses, except in the case of its own formal
SolarRegion programme.
Conclusion and recommendations
The involvement of the civil sector can be to the advantage of the city as well as the inhabitants – in
particular in drawing in a wide range of expertise for the planning and development of projects, urban
concepts and awareness activities.
Contact point for further information
Stadt Freiburg Bürgermeisteramt
Umweltbürgermeisterin
Dezernat II
Rathausplatz 2 - 4
79098 Freiburg
Germany
Tel:
+49 761 201 6000
Fax:
+49 761 201 6099
Email: [email protected]e
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FR7 – Job creation in the RE industry
Objective
A stable and growing economy requires employment for local inhabitants. The RE industry and the
multi-faceted field of RE (e.g. support industry, services industry, eco-tourism and hotel industry), has a
much higher than average employment number and tremendous growth potential.
Description
In Freiburg the cooperation between the municipality and the RE industry sector has also been to their
mutual advantage – and to the advantage of the inhabitants, with job creation as the RE sector expands
rapidly.
Employment opportunities that were created in the solar energy arena (only PV and solar thermal
regarded here) in the region of Freiburg (incl. Emmendigen and Breisgau-Hochschwarzwald) is 637
(data from 2000). This exceeds the national average by more than factor 4 (No specific survey was
conducted for all RES related jobs).
A few examples of where jobs were created in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises:
-
Solar-Fabrik: The zero CO2 emission, environmentally sound solar energy component
manufacturer in Freiburg. Entrepreneur Georg Salvamoser founded a medium-sized solar
energy company in 1991and was awarded the German Environmental Prize in 1998 by the
Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt (DBU). The solar factory building, where photovoltaic
modules are produced to industrial scale, fulfils high ecological requirements. It is a noemission building, which supplies itself exclusively from renewable energy. Solar energy is
used to supply the building with heat and electricity. Furthermore, a rapeseed oil block heating
and generating plant is in operation there.
-
Freiburg Futour: A small company started to manage eco-tourism and solar-tourism in the
Freiburg region. Diverse tours are offered to visitors, also making use of the Freiburg public
transport system or the no-energy version using bicycles. The solar tours include visits to the
main solar buildings, made interesting by the wide range of solar architecture on offer.
Financial resources
Investment in the growth of the RE industry sector normally comes from private investors – as such the
lay-out from the city is minimal. In Freiburg the city contributed in some cases by selling land for
reasonable prices to assist the developers. By giving incentives (e.g. reduced interest rates) the city
and the banking community cooperated to draw new investors. In-house training is normally conducted
as the opportunities for formal training is still limited.
Conclusion and recommendations
The interaction and mutual support of the city and the RE industry provide a situation of reinforcement,
with additional spin-offs for both sides. These include job creation, income generation for the city
(through taxes, and from drawing tourists).
The interest of the German media has helped this process along. The regular focus on environmental
issues and clean energy on national and regional television, radio and in the printed press has led to a
high level of public awareness on these topics.
Contact point for further information
Stadt Freiburg im Breisgau
Umweltschutzamt / Bürgermeisteramt Dezernat II
79095 Freiburg
Germany
Tel:
+49 761 201 646
+49 761 201 6148
Fax:
+49 761 201 6099
Email: [email protected]
Web : http://www.freiburg.de
http://www.solarregion.freiburg.de
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FR8 – Implementation of a sustainable transport concept
Objective
The city conceived the idea to encourage both local inhabitants and visiting tourists to use the public
transport network, thereby reducing the number of vehicles in the city centre and assisting with
emissions reduction. Different means of transport were included – from bicycles to regular tram, bus
and train lines.
Description
Freiburg has an excellent public transport network. Every year, Freiburger Verkehrs-AG carries
67 million people on its five tram and 22 bus lines. The city’s motto is: "change your means of transport
- change your attitude". Buses and trams can get people from point A to B quickly, safely and
comfortably, while also supporting the concept of sustainable transport. Freiburg received the first
European Public Transport Award for its excellent public transport system.
One type of ticket the city introduced – also to support tourists – is the REGIO24, a 24-hour ticket. This
is widely used by visitors and locals alike, and encourages the use of public transport. It costs EUR 4.60
for one person, or EUR 6.50 for 5 people. The ticket for one person covers one adult and up to four
children under the age of 14. REGIO24 for 5 people can also be used by 2 adults and up to four
children under the age of 14.
The bicycle station and mobility centre, situated near the Freiburg train station, provides extensive
services for cyclists: secure bicycle parking, rent-a-bike and repair services. The station also provides
information and tickets for public transport. In 2003 the city Freiburg set up 23 bicycle stations to extend
the linkage of public transport catchment area and strengthen pollution-free traffic. The bicycle stations
are promoted in the context of the Bike&Ride program by the province of Baden-Württemberg. Bicycles
and parking space can be rented. This concept is interesting for commuters using the train – then by
bicycle to work and back to the train station.
Financial resources
No data available.
Conclusion and recommendations
A strategy that addresses sustainable transport can very effectively affect the reduction of harmful
emissions. Cities have tried many different versions – from restricting motor car use in specific parts of
a city to allowing the only on specific days. In Freiburg the effectiveness of the system is directly linked
to the city wide implementation, regularity of available public transport, and the high level of awareness
of the local inhabitants on the need for ecological transport.
The testing of new technologies for public transport such as fuel cells and bio-diesel for buses was also
considered. However, due to the financial risk involved in some of these testing phases most cities are
waiting for fully-fledged technologies.
Contact point for further information
Stadt Freiburg im Breisgau
Dezernat für Bauen und Verkehr
Technisches Rathaus
Fehrenbachallee 12
79106 Freiburg
Germany
Email: [email protected]
Regio-Verkehrsverbundes Freiburg (RVF)
Tel:
+49 761 - 4 51 15 00
(VAG)
Tel:
+49 761 - 3 61 72
(SBG).
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Solar Cities - Good Practice Guide
FR 9 – RE and EE projects implemented in schools
Objective
Initiate projects that allows the involvement of school children and staff, with the projects to have an
educational and environmental impact.
Description
There are several different types of projects that have been implemented in schools in Freiburg. These
can either start from a concept from a local inhabitant or NGO, or from the municipality and the local
utility. There are numerous projects, each with a different approach and dimension.
One of the more interesting projects is the ECO-Watt Project, which had as aim to build a ‘Negawatt’
Power Plant in the Staudinger Comprehensive School, with 1,200 students. The main idea climate
protection as a form of capital investment and bringing together ecology and the economy. The basic
elements of the project are:
-
inform students and teachers about efficiency technologies and sustainable energy resources,
as well as about the necessity to save limited natural resources
-
an educational component of the project ensures that the students and teachers at the school
were involved in the project
-
and that they benefited from its financial success.
-
energy-saving contracting which involves financing through namely citizen participation.
To highlight the marked energy savings potential that exists in public buildings, a concept was
developed for realising this savings potential, and for documenting the fact that energy-saving and
climate protection measures can be economically profitable. The objective was to build a "negawatt
power plant" at a local-authority school in Freiburg, using private capital. An organisation (ECO-Watt
GmbH) was created in May 1998 to implement the project. Besides retrofitting the lighting system,
efficiency improvements were made to the ventilation and heating system. In addition, two solar plants
(thermal and PV) were installed.
The cost savings for energy and water achieved through the "Negawatt power plant" work out at more
than € 65,000 per year. A saving of more than 350 tonnes of CO2 per annum will be achieved through
the project.Although the city of Freiburg derives financial benefit from the project, with cost savings of
approximately € 500,000, it was very difficult to win the city's co-operation.
Financial resources
The investment for the ECO-Watt Project as a whole was € 280,000. To finance the investments,
membership in the organisation was offered to potential investors, with priority given to parents of the
school’s students. The ECO-Watt company pays interest on the capital according to the reduced energy
costs resulting from the project. The payback time for the capital investment is eight years, which is the
term for the contract between ECO-Watt and the City of Freiburg. The interest rate will be 3 – 6%.
Conclusion and recommendations
This concept developed in the Freiburg pilot project will now be multiplied in North Rhine-Westphalia. It
is recommended that the local municipality actively encourage inhabitants to come up with ideas that
could be considered for implementation at schools – not only can the awareness benefits be high, but
financial savings can be made on energy and water costs, which in turn can be reinvested in schools.
Contact point for further information
Mr. Dieter Seifried
Consulting company Büro Ö-quadrat
Ökologische u. Ökonomische Konzepte
Turnseestr. 44
79102 Freiburg
Germany
Tel:
+49 761 707 9901
Email: [email protected]
Web: www.oe2.de
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FR1
Industry Sector
FR1
Transport Sector
FR1
FR2
FR3
FR4
FR6
FR7
FR1
FR1
FR8
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FR1
FR2
FR4
FR5
FR1
FR7
FR1
FR2
FR2
FR1
FR1
FR2
FR1
FR7
Policy &
Standards
Economic
Advantages /
Job creation
Public Sector
FR3
FR4
FR1
FR2
FR3
FR4
FR5
FR6
Financial
Mechanisms
(incl.
Subsidies)
FR1
FR4
FR5
Awareness &
Campaigns
Residential Sector
Education &
Training
Matrix – Freiburg im Breisgau
Technology
Developed /
Tested
2.4.8.3
FR8
FR8
Solar Cities - Good Practice Guide
3.
City network overview
3.1
Introduction
The city network overview is based on collated material that was used to identify good practices of
different European city networks, within the context of sustainable or solar cities. The focus has
primarily been on the built environment, with the networks studied addressing energy efficiency and
renewable energy utilisation in their partner or member cities.
In order to present the networks’ good practices it was necessary to structure the material collected in
such a manner that the essential aspects of each network would be comparable to the rest. As such a
basic framework was identified, information gathered was structured accordingly, and finally best
practices were identified and analysed (see par 3.4 Networks in brief for the comparisons).
Throughout this activity it was also necessary to become familiar with the approaches used by the
different initiatives, and identifying the most useful aspects of each network – specifically the replicable
strategies and activities, within the relevant context (e.g. country focus or participating partner type).
The results on the European city networks studied, as listed below, provide a useful insight in how they
function in general. The identified good practises of the BCEN, EGCN and RESETnet (listed in
Chapter04) are interesting for replication by other networks or for cities that are considering joining any
of these networks.
Information is provided on the following networks (detailed information in Annex 3):
Brundtland City Energy Network (BCEN)
Energie Cités Association (EnergieC)
European Green Cities Network (EGCN)
Renewable Energy Strategies for European Towns (RESETnet)
European Sustainable Cities and Towns Campaign (Sust-CTC).
3.2
Comparative framework used
Specific information on each network - in particular that which is relevant for the ‘Solar Cities’ concept was collected and studied. The end result, containing the essential information as well as the analysed
results are available in the Good Practice Guide for energy / environmental networks:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)
(vii)
Name of network
Timeframe of the network activities
Structure of the network and types of participants
Network description and its main aims, goals and strategies
An outline of the work programme, from which good practices were identified
Primary network dissemination activities or tools (how activities are presented)
Contact information & website listing.
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3.3
City networks in brief – table format
Brundtland City Energy
Network
Energie Cités Association
European Green Cities
Network
Renewable Energy
Strategies for European
Towns
(RESETnet)
Started 1994 – open ended
European Sustainable
Cities and Towns
Campaign
(Sust-CTC)
Launched in 1994 – open
ended (EC projects
concluded)
The network consists of 35
European cities.
The network consists of
around 8 European cities.
10 Local authority networks
and over 1,650 cities and
towns from 39 European
countries are active.
• A network that
disseminates information
and experiences
regarding sustainable
urban development in
order to:
• stimulate market
development
• help speed up
innovation.
• Experiences from more
than 11 demonstration
projects have been shared,
as well as information on
activities in other networks
(EHEN and PRESCO).
• Aim to generally inspire
and inform stakeholders.
• A growing network
based on results from the
RESET Project - assessed
the feasibility of RE
penetration in 4 partner
metropolitan areas with
specific conditions:
• large industrial
infrastructure
• high unemployment,
• high levels of pollution
or environmental
vulnerability.
• The results of the
building targeted
demonstration project are
used to inform on innovative
energy-environmental
integration on a city scale.
• Promotion of urban
sustainability in Europe
• Encourage the
exchange of experience
• Dissemination of best
local practice
• Influence sustainable
development policy at
European Union, Member
States, regional and local
levels
• The work of the
campaign is guided and
supported by 10 local
authority networks.
(EnergieC)
(BCEN)
Timeframe Started 1999 – open-ended
(EC project ended in 2003).
First 2 Brundtland Cities
(BCs) identified in 1990.
The network consists of 17
Structure
towns and cities from 15
Eastern and Western
European countries.
14 have been active in the
network.
Experts are also involved to
guide the cities.
Description • An initiative to link cities
& Main
and towns in Europe in
Goals
addressing sustainable
energy use, promoting
energy conservation and
renewable energy (RE),
and sustainability.
• The network partners
aim to reduce their energy
use by up to 30% (on a 5
year time schedule from
when the city is appointed a
BC).
• Exchange of knowledge
and experience, including
the sharing of positive and
negative experiences.
• Enlargement of network.
Started 1990 – open ended
(EC funded project started
in 1994)
The network consists of 111
European cities.
A permanent team of 11
members incl. municipalities
and inter-municipal
structures, local energy
management agencies,
municipal companies.
• An association that
provides expertise on
sustainable local energy
policies to municipalities,
cities, ministries, institutes
and private partners.
• Aim to strengthen the
role and powers of
municipalities in the field of
energy, as well as energy
efficiency, renewable energy
and protection of the
environment. Provides
assistance in defining
energy strategies, promotes
debate on EU policies in the
field of energy, environment
and urban policy.
(EGCN)
1996 – 2005
(EC funded project ends in
2005)
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Solar Cities - Good Practice Guide
Network
Good
Practise
BCEN
EnergieC
EGCN
RESETnet
Sust-CTC
• Development of a
database on participating
cities as a useful Brundtland
tool.
• Development of criteria
and guidelines for
Brundtland cities to enhance
their implementation efforts.
• A public website with
information on results to
provide feedback and
encourage other cities to join
the network.
• The network expands as
a result of spreading
motivation and interest to
other cities (from 7 cities to
17).
• A local Brundtland city
team is elected by each new
city – thus clear commitment
for local implementation.
• Technical and financial
action plans are produced to
show how to reach the
energy reduction targets.
• Monitoring of the cities’
energy consumption, with
regular reporting and a clear
reduction target.
• Local information
activities to inform city
inhabitants (awareness,
support and public
endorsement).
• Assist municipal
initiatives through the
exchange of experience,
the transfer of know-how
and organisation of joint
projects.
• Development of a
public database to present
European good practice
cases in the field of
sustainable local energy
policies - grouped in four
fields:
• sustainable urban
development
• energy efficiency
• renewable
energy/CHP
• urban mobility
(Approx. 300 case studies
are available).
• Regular publications
providing information on
the theme of sustainable
local energy.
• Expansion of the
association as a result of
spreading motivation and
interest to other cities.
• A secretariat manages
the EGC demonstration
projects, thus encouraging a
similar project approach.
• The network has
expanded from original 11 to
35 European cities, showing
success in the exchange of
inspiration and information
(also with other networks).
• Work towards a
decrease of market barriers
for planners, producers,
contractors and end-users.
• The website is the main
media used, with useful
information, links, and tools:
• The “Green Build”
monitoring tool has been
tested and used by partners,
but not yet available on the
web. It is used as a tool for
builders, architects,
developers, financial
institutes, politicians and
other decision-makers.
• The degree of
sustainability for specific
housing projects is
evaluated.
• Recommendations for
sustainable urban housing
projects, and developed for
partners.
• Financial institution
experts are involved to set
up a suggested “Green
• Exchange of partner
cities’ experiences was used
to developed the RESET
Action Plan, with an external
observer city allowed to
participate and learn from
the experiences.
• New operational
schemes and tools were
developed, some of them
adapted and successfully
experimented with for the 1st
time on a city scale (i.e. the
Local Scenario Workshop).
• The RESET procedure
of Action Planning received
strong interest from other
cities, that initiated a similar
process.
• The RESET Action Plan
consists of a number of
steps, from commitment to
implementation phase - all
fully tested and applied in
new partner cities.
• All RESET cities
progressed in the RE action
planning process, depending
on level of involvement and
local situation.
• A unique integrated
approach to urban strategies
has been envisaged in
RESET Action Planning, that
can be used to ease
decision-making processes
at city level, (may be
• Interest in the network
has resulted in an increase in
participating cities – now it is
the largest European initiative
for local sustainable
development and Local
Agenda 21.
• Development of
sustainability guidance
materials.
• Exchange of
experiences, and
dissemination of good
practice
• Hosting international
conferences.
• Organisation of awards
• The coming together of a
number of local authority
networks in a co-ordinated
manner has been one of the
major benefits of the
Campaign.
• The Campaign has
played a role in shaping
sustainable development
policy at European Union,
Member State, regional and
local levels.
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Bonds” system to provide
financial preferences for
sustainable house building.
• The implementation of
actual demonstration
projects supports the “best
practice” showcases and
provides visible inspiration
and information to a variety
of people / organisations.
• Conferences and
workshops are organised to
share experiences at a wider
level on Sustainable Urban
Housing.
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applicable to other planning
topics, e.g. environment,
economy, employment
policies).
Solar Cities - Good Practice Guide
BCEN
EnergieC
EGCN
RESETnet
Sust-CTC
Primary
Dissemination
• A public website is used
as the main dissemination
method.
• The Brundtland Bulletin
(newsletter) provides
updates on the work of the
BCEN and its members.
• Paper presented at the
EuroSun 2002 conference in
Bologna, Italy (June 2002)
• Languages: EN
• A public website has
been created with access
to the case studies
collected.
• A large number of
publications have been
issued (see detailed report
on this network)
• Regular newsletters
for partners as well as for
public consumption.
• Languages: EN, FR,
DE, SP, IT, PT
• Website is active for the
exchange of information
among the network partners
and for the users.
• Project feedback is
provided on three projects:
• RESET
• RESTART
• RESETnet Report:
“CLICK into the near edge of
the future” (June 2000)
• Campaign newsletter
produced on a quarterly year
basis and is available in
various languages –
promotes good practice and
awareness-raising
• Continual development of
the Campaign Website which
is updated on a weekly basis
• Monthly e-mailing service
for the members
Contact
Brundtland City Energy
Network
C/o Esbensen Consulting
Engineers A/S
Moellegade 54
6400 Soenderborg
Denmark
Energie-Cités Main Office
2, Chemin de Palente
25000 Besançon
France
• Public website with
information in English,
including:
• Project report in EN, DE,
FR, IT and SP.
• Project results from
European Green Cities
target projects incl. the final
report (also on
www.ecobuilding.dk).
• Results from the Green
Solar Regions.
• Dissemination at
conferences:
- Kempen October 2002 Warsaw February 2003
- Turin October 2003
- Budapest April 2004
• Papers presented at
several conferences
EGCN Secretariat
C/O Green City Denmark
A/S
Gl. Kongevej 1
1610 Copenhagen
Denmark
RESETnet Main Office
via Cernaia, 1
10121 Torino
Italy
Campaign Office
Rue de Trèves/ 49-51
Box 3
1040 Brussels
Belgium
Tel: +45 73 42 3100
Fax: +45 73 42 3101
[email protected]
www.brundtlandnet.com
Tel: +33 3 81 65 36 80
Fax: +33 3 81 50 73 51
[email protected]
www.energie-cites.org/
Tel: +45 33 26 89 89
Fax: +45 33 26 89 80
[email protected]
[email protected]
www.europeangreencities.c
om
- 137 -
Tel: +39 11 5622289
Fax: +39 11 540219
[email protected]
www.resetters.org
Tel: +32 2 230 53 51
Fax: +32 2 230 88 50
[email protected]
www.sustainable-cities.org/
www.sustainable-citiesshare.org
4.
City network good practices
In this Chapter the strategies and activities of a city network as a whole are addressed, and the
following information provides an interesting outline of what is generally being done at network level.
As many of the existing European networks essentially have a similar approach, a few samples were
selected, focusing on strategies or activities seen as having particular value in this context of
implementing EE and RES in an urban environment.
Although the focus of this report is on identifying positive aspects that can be replicated, some negative
experiences and problems encountered are also addressed, in as far as these could be identified.
These may be assist other cities and networks to avoid similar pitfalls and time-delaying experiences
when implementing their own activities.
4.1
Overview of city network good practices
The city network GPs are of a different nature than those of the city GPs, and thus the rating and
generic GPs approach that was used for cities is not useful here. However, as the identified city network
GPs are relatively spoken few, and many of them are similar, it was decided to present these according
to the type of approach - with an indication of the level they have been primarily conceived and
developed for.
The level designations are as follows:
I
= Individual project
N
= Neighbourhood level
C
= City level
The tables below have been generated to provide an overview of the city network GPs, and as such
give “a pointer” towards one or more of the GPs, where more detailed information about the whole
network approach can be found.
Technical approach
GP and level
BC7, C
Energy survey of energy consumption of the Brundtland Cities (BCs).
BC8, I
Evaluation of project options for energy saving measures and RE, primarily in
public buildings and in the public sector.
BC9, C
Development of a preliminary technical and financial action plan for
implementing energy saving measures and renewable energy projects.
EG3, I
RES3, I
Implementation of demonstration projects as European “best practice”
showcases.
Financial mechanisms (incl. subsidies)
GP and level
BC9, C
Development of a preliminary technical and financial action plan for
implementing energy saving measures and renewable energy projects.
EG5, C
Organising green financing to support the implementation activities.
- 138 -
Education & training
GP and level
BC5, C
Definition of criteria and guidelines for new potential BCs.
BC6, N
Establishment of a local BC project team for each newly designated community to
address BCEN objectives and start with implementation activities.
BC7, C
Energy survey of BCs energy consumption.
EG4, C
RES4, C
Organising conferences, workshops and training sessions to share expertise
and information on experiences.
Awareness & campaigns
GP and level
BC1, C
Development and organisation of the BCEN network of towns and cities
committed to energy conservation and RE.
BC2, C
Creation of a BCEN database.
BC3, C
Dissemination activities including a network website and electronic bulletins.
BC4, C
Identification of potential partners and expansion of the BCEN.
BC5, C
Definition of criteria and guidelines for new potential BCs.
BC6, C
Establishment of a local BC project team for each newly designated community to
address BCEN objectives and start with implementation activities.
BC10, C
Creation of a new organisation and secretariat to handle network activities.
EG1, C
Implementing network management to ensure coordination of activities and
planning.
EG2
I, C
Website and information dissemination on projects.
EG3
I
Implementation
showcases.
of
demonstration projects as
European
“best
practice”
EG4, C
RES4, C
Organising conferences, workshops and training sessions to share expertise
and information on experiences.
EG5, C
Organising green financing to support the implementation activities.
EG6, C
Establishment of a “Green Build” value system as a checklist of sustainability and
other necessary elements.
RES2, C
Website and information dissemination on projects.
- 139 -
Policy & standards
GP and level
BC1, C
Development and organisation of the BCEN network of towns and cities
committed to energy conservation and RE.
BC4, C
Identification of potential partners and expansion of the BCEN.
BC5, C
Definition of criteria and guidelines for new potential BCs.
BC6, N, C
Establishment of a local BC project team for each newly designated community to
address BCEN objectives and start with implementation activities.
BC10, C
Creation of a new organisation and secretariat to handle network activities.
EG1, C
Implementing network management to ensure coordination of activities and
planning.
EG3,
Implementation
showcases.
I
EG6, C
RES1, C
RES5, C
RES6, C
of
demonstration projects as
European
“best
practice”
Establishment of a “Green Build” value system as a checklist of sustainability and
other necessary elements.
Implementing network management to ensure coordination of activities and
planning. Management of the thematic network of cities’ officials, institutions and
experts in the field of energy and sustainability in cities
Organising Renewable Energy Action Plans on the city scale to support the
implementation activities.
Development of a ”10-Step RE Procedure” to assist the implementation of the
Renewable Energy Action Plans at city level.
- 140 -
4.2
City network good practices in detail
4.2.1
Brundtland City Energy Network (BCEN)
BC1 – Development and organisation of the BCEN network
Objective
In order to formalise a structure for the existing Brundtland Cities (BCs) and coordinate their activities
within an organised network, the Brundtland City Energy Network (BCEN) was created.
Description
The first BCs were identified in 1990, namely Toftlund (DK) and Bredstedt (DE) – these were cities that
supported the Brundtland report recommendations. Other cities joined these two later on, but a formal
network was only established in 1999. The network was created to formalise contact and cooperation
between partner towns and cities, resulting in the exchange of information and the transfer of
experiences, but also created contact to other cities that were in the process of becoming BCs or
planning to do so.
A network coordinator - Toftlund – handles the administration of the network, and manages the
secretariat together with ISES-Europe (represented by the Danish company Esbensen Consulting
Engineers). The city’s success with its own activities made it an ideal choice to encourage the interest
of other potential partner cities. It undertook to launch information exchange activities and demonstrate
the results achieved in the two original BCs - Toftlund and Bredstedt.
Regular meetings were organised to coordinate activities of the partners, discuss relevant issues and
share experiences.
Overall results
Toftlund serves as the co-ordinator and hosts the secretariat, which was established in 2000. A
technical / financial committee and an editorial group was also established. ISES-Europe / Esbensen
Consultants assisted with the development and establishment of the network, action plan and technical
issues.
In total eight tasks were formulated for the BCEN and responsible partners were identified. The tasks
include, putting the structure in place, developing a database, identifying criteria and guidelines for
future BCs, hosting information activities, actual selection of new BCs, project organisation at local
level, technical survey of energy conditions, and the development of preliminary technical and financial
action plans.
The steering committee consisted of:
•
Toftlund (represented by Ole Toft)
•
TFC Associates (represented by Alison Patterson)
•
ISES Europe (represented by Torben Esbensen and Lotte Gramkow)
The steering committee assists the partner cities and towns to exchange and transfer their experiences,
by providing centralised information. The exchange is make primarily through the website, the database
and at project meetings.
The existing BCs include Toftlund (DK), Bredstedt (DE), Rheinsberg (DE), Viernheim (DE), Rajec (SK),
Grong (N), Falun (SE) and Mikkeli (FIN).
The first partner meeting was hosted by Toftlund in 2001, where among others the structure, financing
and the BCEN logo were discussed. It was also decided to change the name of the network, seeing as
the name “Brundtland” was not widely known and it was difficult recognize the aspects the network
addressed. The project members decided to add ‘Energy’ to the name, which became the Brundtland
City Energy Network – BCEN. Regular project meetings have been hosted by the new BCs, namely
Karditsa (Greece), Downpatrick (Northern Ireland), Bruck (Austria) and Mszczonów (Poland). The
meetings were held on a regularly basis every 6 months to ensure a flow in the project.
- 141 -
The overall result was the establishment of a network of towns and cities that actively support energy
conservation and renewable energy implementation, in order to reduce energy by up to 30%. The
exchange of knowledge and experiences, both good and bad, as well as the enlargement of the
network are the main issues that are addressed by the BCEN, achieved during the first three years of
the network’s existence.
Conclusion and recommendations
The network creation and management is regarded as a success, furthermore in terms of expanding
and involving other BCs in other countries. The BCEN is now well known in Europe as a network of
energy conservation and renewable energy towns / cities. Another positive aspect is that the partner
cities have committed themselves to work towards energy reductions. Regular meetings and exchange
of experiences support the partners’ commitment, both as an encouraging element and to help identify
potential pitfalls that can be circumvented.
Not all of the original BCs participated in the BCEN meetings - Toftlund, Rheinsberg, Viernheim, Rajec,
Grong and Falun have been active in one or more of the project meetings. Due to a lack of financing
Bredstedt and Mikkeli were not active in the network. Additionally, the lack of available financial support
for travel of representatives to attend meetings was an obstacle if these expenses were not added in
the yearly budget in the municipalities. This was identified as a weakness in the set-up of the network
and the project, the steering committee tried to address this weakness by applying for financial support,
however they were not successful.
As a result of the financial barriers that were identified the system was changed in 2003, with the
concept now that every BC has to pay a network fee of 1.000 Euro per year. These relatively small
network-expenses should be included in the annual budget for the municipalities.
Similar, as is the case with other networks that work across borders, there is a problem of language
barriers and it is very time consuming to get new BCs on board. The coordinator normally plays a very
important role in this, but again adequate financial planning and support is needed to effectively
implement the activities.
Contact Information
Brundtland City Energy Network
C/o Esbensen Consulting Engineers A/S
Moellegade 54
6400 Soenderborg
Denmark
Tel:
+45 73 42 3100
Fax:
+45 73 42 3101
Email: [email protected]
- 142 -
BC2 – Creation of a BCEN database
Objective
The aim was to establish a database and systematise information about the BCs, relevant to the theme
of RE and energy efficiency.
Description
The secretariat developed a format for the database, which was approved by the BCs and the project
partners. The database includes all relevant information about every existing and new BCs on energy
related matters. Data is collected and systematised by the secretariat, which also serves as a contact
point where other interested cities and organisations can obtain information about the energy saving
activities that were implemented.
A set of criteria for the database was discussed and decided on at the first partner meeting. These
involved:
•
flow of information from the BC to the secretariat
•
following up from information from the BC, and
•
creating a relative simple information structure – easy to update. This was important especially
as one partner took over the database responsibility once the EC-funded project was finished in
July 2003.
After the initial work done by the secretariat each town or city provides updates to be added to the
database, also accessible from the BCEN homepage - www.brundtlandnet.com.
Overall results
A database provides information to the BCs and the public on the various energy projects that were
implemented, including information on the following:
•
BC name, country and size (i.e. the whole community (km2), inhabitants in the BC, inhabitants
in the whole community),
•
Information on when it became a BC and contact details,
•
Details about type and number of buildings, major industries, low energy buildings
•
Energy supply
•
Energy management
•
Energy renovation initiatives
•
BC information- and motivation activities.
Conclusion and recommendations
The database is a useful tool to centralise and present information, not only externally but also for the
BCs themselves – as a method of exchange. Given that information is currently available on the
Internet, it is difficult to determine the success of the database in reaching or informing external actors.
However, it can be used as an ‘idea bank’ for other towns and cities, and in this sense it provides
partners with a suitable dissemination option. The database is also easy to handle and access.
Contact Information
Brundtland City Energy Network
C/o Esbensen Consulting Engineers A/S
Moellegade 54
6400 Soenderborg
Denmark
Tel:
+45 73 42 3100
Fax:
+45 73 42 3101
Email: [email protected]
- 143 -
BC3 – Dissemination activities: network website and electronic bulletins
Objective
In support of the overall aim of the BCEN information activities, namely to spread the concept of the
network and motivate further cities to become BCs, a website is necessary to present the relevant
information in a structured manner. The homepage should include all the relevant information on the
BCEN plus information on the various work-packages or tasks that were undertaken in the EC BCEN
project.
Description
Primarily two partners function as the editorial group involved in designing and setting up
homepage. They established a framework agreed upon by the partners. Several areas of
homepage include information on the individual BCs and their projects, while others address
network and its activities. The secretariat collected material based on the guidelines developed for
new and all potential BC’s.
the
the
the
the
The website includes information on the following:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
home – description of network
criteria and guidelines for new BCs
background of the network
cities involved in the network
organisations involved in the network
developments and tasks
overview of the project
Brundtland bulletins (newsletters)
Database
local BC teams
energy survey
action plans
contacts
The electronic newsletters – called the BCEN Bulletin – are used to provide regular updates on the
network activities to assist the exchange of experiences. Two partners are involved in the editorial
group and produce the BCEN Bulletin.
Overall results
A clearly structured website was produced, the first version of the which was drafted in October 2001,
where a virtual BCEN office was established. Here the partners could find an official letterhead, the
minutes from the meetings, the BCEN logo, etc. The current public homepage www.brundtlandnet.com
was launched in January 2002, and is regularly updated. It is accessible by the public, although
information is also specifically provided for municipalities and the network partners.
Partners decided the development of a BCEN-bulletin or newsletter was to provide existing, new,
potential and other interesting partners with information about the BCEN network and the work that are
involved in. Moreover, it was decided to distribute or publish the BCEN-bulletin in electronic format only.
Thus far two BCEN-bulletins have been produced (August 2002 and May 2003).
Other dissemination activities include presentations at conference, for example a paper was presented
at the EuroSun 2002 conference in Bologna, Italy (June 2002) by the secretariat of the BCEN, and was
also published in the conference proceedings.
Conclusion with recommendations
The website has been a useful tool for presenting and for creating broader dissemination about the
network in English. It is used for the exchange of experiences and knowledge between the BCs and
provides information about ongoing activities. As it targets municipalities in several countries where
English is not necessarily well spoken, there is a language barrier. However, it was and remains
possible to reach a relatively wide audience in English with a limited financial means, given that
translating the website into several other languages would be expensive. In this way cities interested in
- 144 -
the BCEN concepts can read the information available and obtain a sufficient overview of the network
and its partners, and take up formal contact should they wish to do so.
Given that the secretariat is responsible for collecting information, which is sometimes not readily
available, all partners agreed providing information is an essential part of their contribution, as
awareness is central to the network goals. The bulletins have proven to be a useful tool supply a brief
overview of developments, and they can be printed by the BCs and used for promotional activities for
the BCEN network.
Contact Information
Brundtland City Energy Network
C/o Esbensen Consulting Engineers A/S
Moellegade 54
6400 Soenderborg
Denmark
Tel:
+45 73 42 3100
Fax:
+45 73 42 3101
Email: [email protected]
- 145 -
BC4 – Identification of potential partners and expansion of the BCEN
Objective
In order to enlarge the BCEN and to increase the impact of the network in the area of energy
conservation and encourage the use of RE, it is necessary to identify and establish contact with
potential new partners. In this way the BCEN can gain interest and grow to become a significant forum
for European local communities regarding the exchange of knowledge and experiences.
Description
To distribute information on the BCEN to new potential BCs the partners should be actively involved in
building on existing good working relations with municipalities also approached for inclusion in the
network. In addition, the respective partners are responsible for getting a municipality from their country
involved in the BCEN.
In general partners promoted the network in various fora (local, regional or national seminars or
conferences). Further the partners were responsible for setting up a local BCEN team to assist
newcomers.
However, not only new partners were targeted - the aim was also to develop motivational activities for
citizens and public building owners to implement energy saving measures and renewable energy
systems. This would assist in encouraging the interest of municipalities and local governments as well.
The secretariat assists and advises the project partners in carrying out the selection activities in their
partner countries and formulates the selection criteria (see BC5). Potential partners are sent a formal
letter of invitation by the BCEN secretariat for joining the BCEN, after the recommendations from the
project partners. The project partners were responsible for negotiation of potential partners becoming a
BC and the creation of a BC team.
Overall results
During the EC-project period (Dec 2000 – July 2003) the network was enlarged from 7 BCs to a group
of 16 BCs in 15 different countries, when towns and cities from Estonia, Latvia, Hungary, Poland,
Slovenia, UK, Greece, Cyprus and Austria joined. Each new BC is supported by a local BC team.
The following European cities and towns joined the network as new BCs:
•
Karditsa, Greece
•
Downpatrick, N. Ireland
•
Gornji Grad, Slovenia
•
Mszczonów, Poland
•
Bruck, Austria
•
Strovolos, Cyprus
•
Tartu, Estonia
•
Aizkraukle, Latria
•
Godöllo, Hungary
Other experiences
To get the towns and cities involved has often proven to be a longer process then originally anticipated.
This was due to cities showing an interest at the same time – thereby dividing the limited resources. Or
cities were not responsive to the first approach due to internal problems. The interest existed but only
after the first or second approach did a potential partner join, or did not join, and thus the effort was
expended but not rewarded.
Another issue that added to the time delays was it was often time consuming to identify and reach the
correct representatives in the municipalities (usually the mayors or other high-ranking politicians), who
make the final decision about joining the network. As such a decision is usually not taken uni-laterally,
the process was slow as the municipalities needed to discuss the membership at several levels and in
meetings. These were held once every month or 2nd month. However, once an interest exists,
communication with the new BCs has proven to be very promising.
- 146 -
Conclusion and recommendations
The BCEN has been expanded from the original 7 partners to now representing 16 BCs - i.e. nine new
partners over a period of 2½ years.
The new BCs have all expressed their satisfaction in being involved in the network, since it has meant
greater awareness and interest in RE and energy efficiency, and thus increased support by inhabitants
among the municipalities’ work forces. The network has also encouraged more ideas for various
projects, both in terms of new plants, refurbishment and of new building projects.
The slow process in getting new partners on board, means an additional burden for the secretariat in
many cases, but also for all the partners involved in getting potential cities and towns interested. It is
recommended that, as far as possible, information be available in a standard format to inform potential
partners of the network. Thereafter contact has to be taken up on a regular basis – the process is
unlikely to speed up, so perseverance is required.
It is recommended, if the budget for finding suitable potential municipalities is fairly small, to initially
concentrate on municipalities that are known for their engagement and interest in energy efficiency and
RE projects. Eventually, as the network grows, the more it should have the capacity and possible
finances to focus on expansion.
Strategies for implementing RE or other energy efficient measures in the municipalities often have longterm schedules. Therefore this must be considered when entering a network that has specific
expectations, namely the reduction of energy use by 30% within 5 years of joining as a BC.
Contact Information
Brundtland City Energy Network
C/o Esbensen Consulting Engineers A/S
Moellegade 54
6400 Soenderborg
Denmark
Tel:
+45 73 42 3100
Fax:
+45 73 42 3101
Email: [email protected]
- 147 -
BC5 – Definition of criteria and guidelines for new BCs
Objective
In order to create equal conditions for the BCs, it was necessary to develop criteria and guidelines for
new cities joining the network. This will ensure they will participate actively in the work and budget for
their planned activities.
Description
The secretariat established the criteria and guidelines. These were discussed at the BCEN meetings,
finalised and agreed upon, and the contents were forwarded to all the partners.
Before inclusion in the BCEN a city must be prepared to agree to the following steps (criteria):
-
organise a local Brundtland Team;
-
participate actively in the BCEN-Network;
-
report on activities, successes and failures;
-
adopt a strategic approach to energy management at the city level;
-
prepare an overall survey of the present use of energy in the City;
-
create a future energy plan for the City (energy efficiency and renewable energy);
-
initiate actions based on the energy plan:
-
review actions and the energy plan annually (not covered by EC funding);
-
share experiences within the Brundtland City Energy Network.
The following guidelines are provided by the BCEN to assist partner cities with the planning and
implementation of their activities:
-
Involve the citizens of the city;
-
Use various motivation factors, competitions and awards;
-
Measure energy consumption for public buildings;
-
Promote the use of renewable energy and, in general, sustainable development;
-
Study experiences from other Brundtland Cities;
-
Organise workshops and seminars;
-
Involve utilities, organisations, information centres;
-
Use the Brundtland Network, for instance for eco-business and eco-travel;
-
Organize educational events (lessons, leaflets etc), especially to address the youth in primary
schools, technical- and high schools;
-
Establish an annual Brundtland City Day;
-
Gather the experiences from other Brundtland Cities for the database.
Overall results
The guidelines are available on the web-site www.brundtlandnet.com.
Conclusion with recommendations
The criteria and guidelines for the BCs serve as useful tools for participation in the network, describing
clearly the basic outline of expectations for potential partners. They have been developed and agreed
upon by the network partners, who have learnt through several years where these specific guidelines
are needed. These also provide a feeling of unity and cooperation for the network partners.
As the guidelines are not enforceable, but primarily there to assist in the process implementation of the
BCs there is no specific follow-up on the side of the network. This can be both positive and negative partners are expected to be committed and implement specific activities that would actively reduce
harmful emissions, but if no additional, or over and above the indicated, activities are implemented the
outcome is likely to be reduced.
- 148 -
Contact Information
Brundtland City Energy Network
C/o Esbensen Consulting Engineers A/S
Moellegade 54
6400 Soenderborg
Denmark
Tel:
+45 73 42 3100
Fax:
+45 73 42 3101
Email: [email protected]
- 149 -
BC6 – Establishment of a local BC project team
Objective
For each new city or town joining the network a BC project team is created, committed to the network,
and assisting with the planning, structuring and implementation process of the new partner.
Description
The EC project partner of the country, or the partner who initiated the new city into the network, is
responsible for putting together a BC project team. The secretariat and the other BCs are not involved
in this process. The individuals who are appointed on the team are normally already know for their work
and interest in sustainability, or represent organisations that are regarded as useful to the networks
objectives. This team also involves relevant local organisations, politicians, consultants, utilities, etc. All
the BCEN partners are involved in this activity to assist with coordination and advice.
Overall results
Since 2000 nine new local BC teams were established (within the EC-project period). The BC project
partner is tasked with gathering, organising and coordinating the new teams in their respective cities.
Other experiences
For each of the individual local BCs a learning and experience list is put together. The following is
information on these experiences from different new BCs:
• Bruck (Austria)
In Bruck/Leitha the non-profit association Energiepark Bruck/Leitha has been working in the field of
climate protection and RE since 1995. Mr. Herbert Stava, the founder of this association, is also a town
councillor. Committed collaboration exists between the town and the association. The Energiepark and
the municipality have decided to form the BC team of Bruck/Leitha, therefore making it quite easy to
start the initiative. For the success of the BC project it is important to retain this collaboration.
• Gornji Grad (Slovenia)
The initial idea that drew this team together was the sharing of experiences in the field of new energy
approaches. The team’s goal was to present the existing district heating system with wood biomass in
Gornji Grad, as an example of a solution to energy and environmental problems in the community. The
starting point was to provide an overview of the situation in the country and introduce some new ideas,
as well as actual experience with organising, financing and managing of the system. Problems
experienced were mainly due to a lack of funds for additional activities.
• Mszczonów (Poland)
In this town a decisive factor was the previous contact with the City Council, helping the procedure and
organisation process for forming the BCEN team. An important element was to form a team, which had
previously participated in EE and environmental protection activities in the city – the understanding of
the BCEN concept was then in place and collaboration was based on the actual awareness of energy
and environment problems. The people who are directly or indirectly involved in the work of the city
council are also usually aware of the necessity of networking for energy efficiency projects.
Conclusion with recommendations
In setting up the local BC teams some issues to consider are who the team members and what the
objectives of the work should be. Recommendations and experiences of previous teams are available
for new members to help streamline the process.
Contact Information
Brundtland City Energy Network
C/o Esbensen Consulting Engineers A/S
Moellegade 54
6400 Soenderborg
Denmark
Tel: +45 73 42 3100
Fax: +45 73 42 3101
Email: [email protected]
- 150 -
BC7 – Energy survey of BCs energy consumption
Objective
To conduct an energy survey for obtaining an overview of the energy conditions of each community.
This is used to evaluate relevant options and to prepare a technical and financial action plan for energy
saving measures and RE systems to be possibly implemented by the BCs.
Description
The secretariat has developed a format for the energy survey to be conducted in each new BC. This
was discussed and agreed on by the partners. A survey of the composition of the energy consumption
of each new BC is done, and also examines existing RES.
All partners are involved in this task and help the local BC team to co-ordinate the technical survey in
the cities. Furthermore each partner assists the network by providing energy consumption figures and
reports to one other upon request. The secretariat also assists and advises the partners in carrying out
the technical survey to ensure homogeneity throughout the surveys.
Overall results
There are three main reasons for defining the energy consumption figures more precisely:
(i)
to get the BCs to study the actual energy consumption, especially in the public sector – this
is often the first time many cities investigate this aspect thoroughly;
(ii)
to identify the consumption figures at the start of joining the BCEN, and
(iii)
to be able to draw up a technical and financial action plan for the BC (using the figures as
indicators for reduction).
Through technical surveys of the BCs energy consumption is monitored and reported on. The survey
helps in obtaining an overview of the energy conditions at the start of all new BCs involvement of the
network. Each town or city has to produce information on the local energy situation. The BCEN partners
discuss this and set up a template using the information at subsequent network meetings.
The information that is provided includes:
•
•
•
•
•
name of city / town
population size
building stock (divided into residential, public, commercial and industrial buildings)
the yearly energy consumption in the buildings (using same category of as above),
heating consumption divided by the different heating installations.
The information is used to get an overview of the energy conditions of each community for preparation
of a technical and financial action plan. Options for energy saving measures, energy efficiency and RE
systems are identified.
Conclusion with recommendations
The survey is a useful tools for investigating the energy consumption in the BCs, and the study proves
to be a good exercise for cities that have never before carefully considered this aspect.
Contact Information
Brundtland City Energy Network
Moellegade 54
6400 Soenderborg
Denmark
Email: [email protected]
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BC8 - Evaluation of options for energy saving measures and RE projects
Objective
Using the energy survey results for an evaluation of the different options that are appropriate for the BC.
The results of the evaluation are used as a basis for the preparation of a technical and financial action
plan for the BC.
Description
An evaluation of the possibilities for implementing energy saving measures and RES, primarily in public
buildings and in the public sector, is conducted.
To assist the evaluation process it was decided to establish an “idea bank” with possible future RE and
EE projects. The BCs were asked to contribute, and to concentrate on the projects that could be
implemented primarily in the public sector of the municipality / BC. Ideas or potential projects were
hereafter evaluated to assess the possibilities of actual implementation in the public sector. All the
partners were involved in this task, since each partner should help co-ordinate the technical survey in
the cities.
Overall results
Realistic potential projects were worked through on paper, and were later used for the technical and
financial action plan for each of the new BCs.
Other experiences
Having brainstorming sessions with the BC team and then evaluating the possibilities of the
implementation potential of the projects has been useful – it sharpened the focus, established
understanding among the team members and a well-studied end-result could be used. Although some
ideas were quite unrealistic, this experience was used to identify them and focus on the more important
and worthwhile proposals that would be used for the technical and financial action plan.
Conclusion with recommendations
An “idea bank” is a useful tool for municipalities, since some of the creative and different ideas are
presented here. Additionally, as they relate to RE and EE projects, they are studied by a mixed
discipline group of experts, and evaluated both technically and financially. Municipalities often report
this was how they got started thinking in a non-traditional manner and subsequently started considering
clean energy concepts.
It would be useful to update this “idea bank” on an annual basis by all partners, as it would be a
prominent sharing and exploration activity, especially for RE and EE renovation projects where diverse
ideas exist. This has, unfortunately, not been the case due to a lack of time, but it remains a task that
would be useful in several ways.
Contact Information
Brundtland City Energy Network
C/o Esbensen Consulting Engineers A/S
Moellegade 54
6400 Soenderborg
Denmark
Tel:
+45 73 42 3100
Fax:
+45 73 42 3101
Email: [email protected]
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BC9 – Development of a preliminary technical and financial action plan of implementation
Objective
To develop the technical and financial plans that would assist in the most economic utilisation and
implementation of energy saving measures and RE projects in the new BCs.
Description
Based on the evaluation of the “idea bank” concepts and the energy consumption survey, a preliminary
technical and financial action plan is developed to assist the implementation of energy saving measures
and RES. The plan should include suggestions for the financing of each activity and potential project.
The activities were divided into two main parts:
(i)
(ii)
to develop an overall technical and financial action plan for implementing energy saving
measures and RES in public buildings in the BC. The plan should also include suggestions
for the financing of the activities, and
to politically endorse each community’s involvement in the BCEN network. Meaning the
plans should be presented to the Council when this was appropriate in each of the new BCs.
The BC team should discuss a local action plan for the city and the Council should then
approve the action plan.
The secretariat prepared a format for the technical and financial action plan, and later assisted and
advised the partners in carrying out the action plans. All partners are involved in this as part of the BC
teams in their respective BC.
The following were included in the technical and financial action plan:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
action to be implemented / planned for;
objective of the planned action;
estimated investment;
estimated yearly savings;
value of the yearly savings;
estimated live time;
departments or persons involved in the plan;
responsibility for carrying out the plan (project manager)
remarks - for instance other benefits such as CO2 reductions etc.
Overall results
The technical and financial action plan is produced specifically addressing how to reach the reduction in
the energy targets for each new BC with clear proposals and financial planning. In order to transform
RE and EE strategies into local development activities, a thorough assessment is undertaken by the BC
team - in terms of the energy profit, the supply chain and the economics of introducing the various
measures.
All new BCs have prepared a technical and financial action plan including the economic status of the
various proposed potential projects. Visit the homepage www.brundtlandnet.com for more information.
The focus of the BCEN partners was primarily on RE and EE in buildings. However mobility,
transportation, waste, economy, financing, information and training could be included in an ongoing
action plan.
Other experiences
The strength of the plans is that the initial feasibility studies that are undertaken and presented to the
Council, making it easier to present alternative ideas, instead of the traditional “fossil fuel projects”. One
weakness however is that the proposal often looks good on paper, but the municipalities lack the
financial nor technical resources to go through a number of evaluations for various projects.
To ensure cooperation and clear communication, as well as the motivation of the people involved, there
has to be regular two-way communication. The similar format used for all projects helps clarity and
understanding.
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Conclusion with recommendations
The focus on proper planning and evaluation can not be stressed enough. Although the required
expertise is not always available at the municipality level, it can be contributed by the network partners.
Working in a multi-discipline team provides different perceptions and approaches can also be valuable
for the implementation of the projects, increasing the likelihood of local acceptance, if different angles
are considered before implementation.
Contact Information
Brundtland City Energy Network
C/o Esbensen Consulting Engineers A/S
Moellegade 54
6400 Soenderborg
Denmark
Tel:
+45 73 42 3100
Fax:
+45 73 42 3101
Email: [email protected]
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BC10 - Creation of a new organisation and secretariat to handle network activities
Objective
To ensure continuation of work done in the network, and by the partner cities after the conclusion of the
EC-funded project, it was necessary to agree on a common financial plan of the action and to change
the organisation.
Description
The intention within the framework of the EC-funded project was to structure and connect existing BCs
in an organised network and to enlarge the network with new partner cities. By December 2003 there
were 17 BCs, however only 14 of these were active in the Brundtland network, mainly due to financial
restrictions.
As there was essentially no more financial support to continue the network, it was decided that each
partner should provide a small regular annual contribution, in support of the secretariat that coordinates
the continuous operation of the network after July 2003.
A future action plan was also developed for the BCEN including a financial plan. The tasks to be
undertaken by the new secretariat were defined, as well as those tasks of the future network.
Overall results
The Danish Ministry of Energy appointed Toftlund as the first BC. The network secretariat was also
hosted here, given this town was very effective in reducing its total energy consumption by 30%
compared to the 1990 level. This has assisted in the awareness of network activities and the expansion
of the network.
Early on in the EC-funded project, it was decided that the network should continue after the project was
formally concluded. This was also made clear when new potential national BCs negotiating to join the
network.
Furthermore it was decided that all BCs should be willing to pay a network fee to help the new
secretariat. A financial plan was developed, including an estimated income expected from member
fees. The partners and the involved new and existing BCs have been asked to submit information on
how much they would be able to support the continuation of the BCEN network financially.
Other experiences
Both at the BCEN meeting in Austria in November 2002 and at the final meeting in Poland in April 2003,
the network discussed the possibilities of continuing the network activities. The secretariat deliberated
ideas for managing the BCEN network in the future at the final meeting in Poland. Strategies were
discussed thoroughly among the participants, the following are some of the activities and ideas that
were flagged:
-
Organisation of 1-2 network meetings per year among the participating cities. The different
network cities host the meetings in turn.
-
Discussion of ideas for new energy saving activities, new motivation campaigns and new
information activities.
-
Updating the homepage every 3 months.
-
Updating the database both for existing city members of the BCEN and for new cities entering
the BCEN.
-
Seeking new potential BCs to join the network and prepare information material and organise
meetings with the cities.
-
Preparation and running common motivation campaigns in as many of the cities as possible.
-
Preparation of common information activities for the network cities (press releases, newsletters,
brochures).
-
Organising public seminars in the BC’s where the network has meetings. Seminars for building
owners, utilities, local organisations with representatives from the different participating BCs as
speakers.
-
Exchanging experiences and know-how among the BCs at the network meetings.
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-
Organising competitions among school children in the network cities on the topic RE and
energy efficiency.
-
Organising craftsmen packages to offer cheaper and more co-ordinated implementation of RE
and energy efficiency measures in buildings in the network cities.
-
Preparation of common proposals to national and international funding agencies regarding cofinancing of co-ordinated demonstration projects and information activities in the network cities.
-
Preparation of a yearly report on the activities and plans in the BCEN-network.
-
A fee of 1.000 Euro per year per BC should be enough to run a BCEN network.
Some of the comments from the participants:
-
Many of the above mentioned actions can also be a part of the municipalities Local Agenda 21
programme.
-
Toftlund (DK) was supported as the host of the secretariat, the other cities shall determine how
much they are willing to pay.
-
Define the targets and identify which partners remain in the network before hand.
Conclusion and recommendations
More or less all BCs have agreed on the continuation of the network. The promotion of energy
conservation and RE in buildings through the BCEN remains one of the main objectives and further
developing an increased general awareness of these themes amongst the BCs citizens is very
important. The network is expected to help establish the frameworks for long term reduced energy
consumption in the participating cities, as well as new BCs, while the expansion of the network remains
an objective.
The network will be of great help for the development of new ideas and technologies, avoiding repetition
of mistakes as well as keeping up a positive spirit and inspiring the participants to continue energy
saving activities.
The BCEN network shall help initiate new energy projects, such starting partner projects in two or more
of the BC municipalities. Financing of these types of projects can hereafter be applied for mutually
meaning several municipalities together.
In view of the fact that it is more time consuming than originally estimated to get municipalities on board
(especially smaller and medium sized municipalities) this task of the secretariat needs to be adequately
financially supported.
Contact Information
Brundtland City Energy Network
C/o Esbensen Consulting Engineers A/S
Moellegade 54
6400 Soenderborg
Denmark
Tel:
+45 73 42 3100
Fax:
+45 73 42 3101
Email: [email protected]
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4.2.2
European Green Cities Network (EGCN)
EG1 – Network management
Objective
In order to effectively manage the city network, as well as the European cities demonstration projects,
the dissemination campaign and the capacity building activities a network management system was
established.
Description
The European Green Cities Network - a thematic network under the EU 5th framework programme –
presents experiences in 11 demonstration projects implemented under the European Green Cities
Thermie project, as well as several on-going demonstration projects in:
-
European Green Cities (EGC)
-
Green Solar Regions (GSR)
-
Green Housing Block (GHB)
-
European Housing Ecology Network (EHEN)
-
Practical Recommendations for Sustainable Construction – PRESCO
The EGCN strives towards presenting useful solutions to take into account the energy costs related to
general price levels in Europe, the local climatic conditions and national technology traditions –
selecting an optimal solution that addresses these aspects (see ‘Optibuild’ and the Ascot tools
developed). The aim is to increase awareness among users and building professionals on these
considerations and encouraging the use of the latest available building technologies – thus encouraging
market penetration based on a realistic judgement.
The EGCN is managed by the Green City Denmark organisation, with Cenergia as the responsible
organisation for the technical co-ordination. Each of them has specific tasks and responsibilities.
Overall results
The EGCN consortium has expanded to include (by the end of December 2003) 22 city partners,
namely: Copenhagen, Kuopio, Portsmouth, Salzburg, Grenoble, Vilanova y la Geltru, Volos, Herning,
Kempen, Brescia, Abruzzo, Torino, Warsaw, Piaczesno, Glostrup, Roskilde, Rawicz, Vilnius, Budapest,
Decsin, Lisle d’Arbeau, Århus.
There are 36 members in the network, including specialist companies from most European countries. In
2003 the EC extended the EGCN project with an "EGCN NAS" amendment (NAS - Newly Associated
States) which included four new Eastern European project partner cities, namely Vilnius, Descin,
Warsaw and Budapest.
Other experiences
The EGCN secretariat provides a natural basis for contacts, encouraging partner searches for new
project applications, answering enquiries about energy efficient building technologies from builders /
architects / students / tenants et cetera, and enquiries from technology producers regarding market
possibilities. This also means providing encouragement and ‘inspiration’ through the information to all
stakeholders – a wide audience to be addressed.
11 Demonstration projects were started (see details below), and have to be managed. The network
cooperation has gradually led to several long lasting relationships amongst five participating housing
associations with common interests in the exchange of experiences, also outside of building issues. In
this sense the project was actually the start of follow-up cooperation and the founding of EGCN
(European Green Cities Network).
Conclusion and recommendations
The EGCN secretariat has played a vital role in increasing visibility for the network, and also assisted in
the expansion of the EGCN. A centralised point of management, with clear tasks and responsibilities, is
- 157 -
necessary for a large network in particular - when it is smoothly managed, the impact of the network is
enhanced.
The dissemination of the latest available quality technologies is also supported by the network and
secretariat providing additional information on request.
Contact Information
EGCN Secretariat
C/O Green City Denmark A/S
Gl. Kongevej 1
1610 Copenhagen
Denmark
Tel:
+45 33 26 89 89
Fax:
+45 33 26 89 80
Email: [email protected]
[email protected]
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EG2 – Website and information dissemination on projects
Objective
A website can be effective in support of the dissemination of activities. In this case, an Internet website
was used to present the latest available quality technologies, as well as for providing information on
demonstration projects and European good practices. In this way the stakeholders and prospective
users are encouraged and informed, thereby:
stimulating market development;
helping to speed up innovation.
Description
As a first step the idea was to create a visible website that would present the close cooperation
between the partners that is periodically updated - (www.europeangreencities.com). It contains:
-
Implemented demonstration projects – see list below;
-
Building equipment / technologies;
-
EGCN activity calendar informing about conferences etc.;
-
Dissemination of results / presentations from conferences etc.;
-
News about EU sustainable building calls (funding calls, etc.);
-
List of EGCN members in all countries with contact details;
-
Information and links to technology producers involved in the demonstration projects.
The following demonstration projects related to the network cooperation, presented on the website:
-
European Green Cities
-
New identity for urban area, Austria – Radstadt
-
Low-income housing with reduced energy costs, Belgium – Houtvenne
-
Tenants´ influence and CO2 reduction, Denmark – Copenhagen
-
Ecology pays pack in lowering rents, Denmark – Herning
-
Energy efficient technology to control costs of modern architecture, Finland - Kuopio
-
Introduction of local district heating in Spain - Vilanova Ila Geltru
-
Improving efficiency of urban energy supply systems, France – Grenoble
-
High-tech preservation of architectural heritage in Greece - Volos
-
Renewable energy supply to a "Green Region", Italy – Abruzzo
-
A new "tune up" of innovative technologies, Italy – Brescia
-
Leamington House – Highly efficient heating system for improving thermal performance in
Portsmouth, UK.
Green Housing Block:
-
L'isle d'Abeau – Reduction of running costs in social housing through energy and water saving
in Grenoble, France
-
Hillside Rd - Utilisation of polluted building sites through sustainable housing in Portsmouth,
UK.
Green Solar Regions:
-
Innovative solar energy solution cuts heating costs in Piedmont, Italy
-
Szaserow Army Hospital - Use of solar technology on public buildings in Warsaw, Poland
-
Munkesoegaard – Sustainable building practices in an ecological community, Denmark
-
A link also exists to several examples of low energy housing in Austria.
Overall results
EGCN website has stimulated interests for energy and environmentally efficient building technologies
and the implemented demo projects. The number of registered visits on the website is monitored and
have increased steadily:
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Jan - June 2002 approx. 1000 visits
July - Dec 2002 approx. 1940 visits
Jan - June 2003 approx. 3890 visits.
Conclusion and recommendations
One aspect that is important for a network is allocating adequate resources for dissemination purposes
– in particular if awareness-raising and information is a primary aim of the network. Here it was found
that some of the members did not allocate the necessary resources for periodically updating information
on the demonstration projects, minimizing the spread of information and the planned effects.
Another difficulty encountered was with the presentation of cross-border information - the information on
technologies, often lacked details addressing important national differences (from different standards to
the type of technology preferred by the different nations). This should be addressed at the start of a
dissemination campaign, to ensure each primary national partner is identified and assigned tasks to
highlight specific local or national requirements
The growing number of visitors at the EGCN website indicates an interest in the information provided.
Although it is difficult to gauge the actual effect in providing encouragement and inspiration, as well as
awareness-raising on sustainable building initiatives and available technologies, a website is one of the
most efficient ways of reaching out to the public using limited resources. The EGCN website, and the
tools provided, give useful support, in particular, for building designers, manufacturers, users and
decision-makers. It has certainly added to the heightened visibility of the EGCN network, and also
effectively facilitates network communication.
Contact Information
EGCN Secretariat
C/O Green City Denmark A/S
Gl. Kongevej 1
1610 Copenhagen
Denmark
Tel:
+45 33 26 89 89
Fax:
+45 33 26 89 80
Email: [email protected]
[email protected]
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EG3 - Implementation of demonstration projects as European “best practice” showcases
Objective
To present integrated and sustainable solar building designs using a low energy approach with the best
available technologies, both for new buildings and building renovation projects. The energy and
environmental assessments are used as a basis within the context of the total energy used and as an
economical approach.
Description
The EC-funded project involved the implementation of 11 low energy building demonstration projects in
nine EU countries (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Greece, Italy, Spain and the United
Kingdom) involving a total of 645 dwellings. They were implemented between September 1996 and
December 2000. The demonstration projects present European “good practice” showcases and are
useful to inspire citizens and end users, as well as manufacturers, builders, authorities, consultants,
private and public energy utilities, R&D institutions, et cetera, to apply similar solutions at a local level.
Overall results
On completion, the 11 demonstration projects showed significant energy savings compared to
traditional building projects. A large number of different technologies for energy conservation and
renewable energy production were demonstrated, tested and evaluated in the eleven projects (The
reader is referred to www.ecobuildings.dk or www.euroepeangreencities.com, as well as Annex EGCN
1 for more details on the results).
Useful common tools were developed by “horizontal activities” within the Management Team, such as
‘Opti-build’, aimed to help select the most economically viable building components.
With the focus on close private-public cooperation in the “Green City” concept of each demonstration
project, the primary targets involved were city mayors and builders as key players. This helped to
strengthen the cooperation and local / regional dissemination by sharing lessons learned.
Other experiences
It was difficult to provide a budget agreed upon by every partner for the organisation / management
team of the eleven builders. The initial contribution agreed on was reduced in the final approval
process. As finances are crucial for all partners in such projects, a lot of time and resources were
required to reach a new agreement amongst the high number of builders.
Included during the joint partner meetings were visits to the actual implemented demo projects (Italy,
Spain, Austria, Finland et cetera), encouraging long lasting cooperation among the partners and
promoting available European quality technological solutions.
Conclusion and recommendations
Cooperation on different levels and between a wide range of actors (from the network of builders and
technicians to city mayors) has assisted in shaping the success of this network. By providing a
European focus on building technologies and demonstration projects, it supports the local RE industry,
as well as the EC’s aims regarding RE and EE.
Contact Information
C/O Green City Denmark A/S
Gl. Kongevej 1
1610 Copenhagen
Denmark
Tel:
+45 33 26 89 89
Fax:
+45 33 26 89 80
Email: [email protected]
[email protected]
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EG4 – Conferences, Workshops & Training
Objective
To address capacity building, awareness raising and information exchange by organising events on
sustainable urban energy management and other technical aspects. The long term objective is to
achieve visible results by implementing low-energy and sustainable building principles, as well as
implement “Green Action Plans” on a city level - in line with the characteristics of an environmentally
conscious “Green City”. The courses and conferences need to address a wide range of actors
(technicians, developers, city representatives, builders and end-users) to inspire them to implement
sustainable building initiatives by providing targeted training.
Description
The training process consists of two main parts, starting with a joint workshop in Denmark in the 2001
to prepare the local training processes, and followed by local training in 11 cities.
The planning and completion of the joint workshop in Denmark on 22-24 March 1999 formed the basis
for following local training activities:
-
-
-
Introduction to updated knowledge on low-energy and sustainable building principles including
building integrated solar energy, healthy building material/construction, optimised energy supply
systems, total energy and environmental analysis, sustainable solutions for water, waste and
sustainable urban planning.
Presentation of a manual and guidelines for Urban Ecology Housing Projects systematically
going through an actual building project for assessment of possible energy and environmental
improvements.
Site visits for presentation of actual implemented projects, including aspects of urban planning,
energy supply, tenants involvement, etc.
Working groups doing case studies concerning the building initiatives, local processes for
involving tenants et cetera, and concerning the local city level process.
The first training workshops organised were an integrated part of the EGCN demonstration projects.
Events were held in:
-
Salzburg in the Spring of 2002
-
Kempen in October 2002
-
Warsaw and Turin during February 2003
-
Grenoble in June 2003
-
Copenhagen in January 2004
Conferences are organised to handle wider dissemination, awareness and information exchange:
-
Building integrated solar energy technologies and advanced energy efficient glazing (Kempen
October 2002)
-
Healthy / emission free building materials and energy efficient ventilation systems (Turin
October 2003)
-
Upcoming conferences:
o
Budapest in April 2004: "Environmental Friendly Building in Europe"
o
Volos in October 2004: Renewable energy integrated energy supply for heating /
cooling at building / district level.
After the inclusion of the NAS states, two additional EGCN conferences and four training workshops
were added to the schedule - to be carried out in Lithuania, Hungary, Poland and Czech Republic in
2004/5. Here additional Eastern European cities will be targeted for disseminating energy and
environmentally efficient building technologies. Six partner meetings and conferences have been held
since the network was established in 2001.
Overall results
Local training was based on the Green City model of linking demonstration project implementation to
monitoring results on energy, environment and economy. As well as to information to tenants, citizens,
technicians, technology producers, public city departments, and furthermore to political levels of
decision-making for city building strategies, etc.
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As a first direct result the participants in the training process were updated with state-of-the-art
knowledge about energy efficient and environmentally sustainable residential building principles.
Participants were taught to use practical guidelines for a systematic general assessment of possible
improvements for an actual building or building project.
Participants from the 11 cities and the management team made the following suggestions on how to
proceed in the local training process:
-
Based on a general standard from Green City Denmark, local partners could specify the local
“tools” available for local Green Actions, such as methods of public influence, possible public
incentives/support, other fiscal measures, and how to involve political actors/tenants et cetera.
-
Response from each of the 11 local teams made it possible to set up a local Green Action Plan,
worked out in co-operation with the Green City Denmark and the management team.
-
Arranging of local/regional conferences in the surrounding area for each participating city to
present the European Green Cities project by highlighting observed/expected “success stories”
and future perspectives related to the implemented local project.
-
Using the Green City database for showing low-energy building projects complemented with the
11 local projects, an “Inspiration Guide” and for presenting the local Green Action Plan.
-
Within the individual local Green Action Plans it was suggested to establish training
programmes for certain local target groups like schools, housing associations, and relevant
municipal departments.
-
Dissemination of the local “success stories”, Green Action Plans and ideas for future local
improvements in the building sector.
One important result of the training and awareness activities was the strengthening of local co-operation
between house owners / builders / tenants and the public departments or private companies involved in
the processes for energy supply, urban planning, building project approval, environmental control etc.
Other experiences
Regional effects of these local training processes were most visible in the Radstadt demonstration
project in the Salzburg region (Austria), from Houtvenne demo project in the Antwerp region (Belgium)
and from Pierto School demo project in the Kuopio region (Finland). Local training also resulted in a
number of follow-up initiatives, such as local community energy consultants to be trained in Austria.
Conclusion and recommendations
The development of local training courses for eleven different European cities (in local languages and
organised by the local partners, with input from the other partners) was part of an effective
dissemination campaign at the regional level. The interest shows that there is a need among cities for
such training activities. The close public-private cooperation visible during the local training also
generated an interest from other city politicians and technicians, which in turn also supported the
dissemination process. The process of involving key people in city departments, as well as tenant
representatives and other groups targeted, is very time consuming. One has to have a clear idea how to
motivate the different groups to encourage their participation.
Contact Information
EGCN Secretariat
C/O Green City Denmark A/S
Gl. Kongevej 1
1610 Copenhagen
Denmark
Tel:
+45 33 26 89 89
Fax:
+45 33 26 89 80
Email: [email protected]
[email protected]
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EG5 - Green financing
Objective
To stimulate market development, sustainable urban housing must be a competitive alternative to
traditional housing and the general public must be familiar with the principles of urban ecology.
Description
Green Financing
Convinces financial institutions to support sustainable solutions through development of a
system that gives financial preference to energy and environmentally sustainable building
projects.
An opportunity for authorities to subsidise environmentally sustainable housing projects;
Gives end-users an economic incentive to invest in sustainable housing projects;
Gives developers and contractors an incentive to specialise in sustainable urban housing.
Overall results
Not yet available.
Other experiences
EGCN is cooperating with the Danish Merkur Bank. More than 80% of the total loans of Merkur Bank go
to ecological, social and cultural projects.
Conclusion and recommendations
A scheme for financing of PV projects is being developed in relation to the Copenhagen Solar Stock
Exchange, where people can buy shares in PV projects.
Contact Information
EGCN Secretariat
C/O Green City Denmark A/S
Gl. Kongevej 1
1610 Copenhagen
Denmark
Tel:
+45 33 26 89 89
Fax:
+45 33 26 89 80
Email: [email protected]
[email protected]
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EG6 - Establishment of a “Green Build” value system
Objective:
The intention is to use the “Green Build” system as an energy and environmental checklist and point
system helping the user appreciate the value of technological measures and to introduce special
requirements in, e.g., the briefing documents. It is also used as a monitoring tool where indicators for
different technologies projects and the urban approach are checked according to agreed upon
performance specifications.
Description
The “Green Build” value system:
measures to what extent the building project meets the political priorities for sustainable urban
housing;
compares the degree of sustainability of projects and identifies best practices for future
inspiration and market development;
-
initiates an environmental management system that can lead to the development of a European
Green Cities Certificate.
The system is being tested by several municipalities in Denmark and will be presented by other EGCN
partners during 2004. It will be useful as a tool for politicians, builders, architects, developers, financial
institutes and other decision makers. City planners will be involved in setting up a possible extension of
the “Green Build” tools from individual buildings to an urban district or neighbourhood level.
Overall results
A “Green Build” questionnaire was developed, see: http://www.greenglobal21.com, and also covers
suggestions for energy and environmental improvements.
Other experiences
“Green Build” can be used both in renovation and new building projects.
Conclusion with recommendations
The Green Build point system can be particularly effective as part of a Green Awareness campaign in
the New EU member countries. The intention is that the Green Build energy and environmental point
system will promote the development of energy efficient and healthy buildings throughout Europe.
Conclusions on the effects will be identified in the beginning of 2005 when it has been implemented in
the partner countries.
Contact Information
EGCN Secretariat
C/O Green City Denmark A/S
Gl. Kongevej 1
1610 Copenhagen
Denmark
Tel:
+45 33 26 89 89
Fax:
+45 33 26 89 80
Email: [email protected]
[email protected]
- 165 -
4.2.3
Renewable Energy Strategies for European Towns (RESETnet)
RES1 – Network management
Objective
In order to manage the thematic network of cities’ officials, institutions and experts in the field of energy
and sustainability in cities, a network Main Office was established at RESET g.e.i.e. in Turin, and local
offices were created in cities, corresponding to the other seven countries participating in RESETnet.
Description
Since 1994, RESET has been addressing and assessing the feasibility of the penetration of renewable
energy in four European metropolitan areas, namely A.M.Barcelona (ES), Glasgow (UK), Grand Lyon
(FR) and Turin (IT). In addition, St. Petersburg (RUS) participated as an observer city to learn from the
network. These European cities joined together for the purpose to launch an EC-funded initiative,
looking for less conventional renewable-source solutions, which could contribute towards a new urban
quality.
From this cooperation of cities, a building targeted demonstration project was started in 1996, grouping
the cities of A.M.Barcelona, Glasgow, Grand Lyon and Turin together with Rotterdam (NL),
Copenhagen (DK), Porto (P), and South Dublin (IR). The RESTART project was promoted under the
framework of the THERMIE Integrated Quality Targeted Project. Its aim was to provide a few
"Exemplary Urban Projects" concerning innovative energy-environmental integration on city scale, to
the public authorities, institutions and professionals of these industrial European cities.
RESETnet is managed by RESET e.e.i.g., a European Economic Interest Group comprising leading
national research institutions and consultancy groups in the field of energy and environment, with
SOFTECH, Italy, as technical coordinator.
Overall results
A relevant contribution to the implementation of the Local Agenda 21 Environmental Action
Plan
The RE Action Plan is a realistic, if ambitious, road map outlining the contribution which RE can make
to a sustainable future for European cities. Successfully implementing a RE Action Plan will:
-
help to improve the city’s environment;
-
contribute to reversing global warming through reduced carbon dioxide emissions;
-
improve the health and welfare of the local population;
-
improve employment and economic development opportunities;
-
add a sustainable development perspective to industrial peri-urban areas;
-
make the concept of a sustainable city more of a reality;
-
reduce the city’s reliance on imported energy.
A relevant contribution to European Good Practices in urban energy projects
Technology experts and professionals form an essential part of RESETnet projects. They participate in
all steps of the process, pursuing the following tasks, which are a common link for all City-Projects:
Energy Assessment at the Design Stage - Set-up of methods of comparing energy features
incorporated in buildings, by normalising data for each country to allow direct comparison.
Environmental Assessment of Building Districts - Development and application of evaluation tools at the
urban level for the environmental impact assessment of new or renovated building settlements.
Technology Catalogue - The catalogue of energy technologies involved in City Projects that covers the
current state of the art.
Monitoring and Post-Occupancy Evaluation - Establish a structure and method for energy usage
collection and comparison, energy monitoring and post occupancy evaluation.
- 166 -
Other experiences
RESETnet was a catalyst of interests among the participating cities focusing on the perspective of
introducing RE in their planning and urban programmes.
The RESETnet projects consisted of a mix of technical and non-technical interventions, and were
pervasive enough to involve all aspects of the decision-making process: planning schemes, design
criteria, new regulations, building re-organisation, economic development of the site, social aspects and
quality of life - with the aim of facilitating the penetration of innovative urban technologies and
maximizing the rational use of energy.
Conclusion and recommendations
The cooperation among the participating cities has maximised the use of the results, in terms of
expanding available knowledge resulting from a comprehensive demonstration, which includes:
-
Low energy design - to allow a strong reduction in the use of non-renewable fossil fuels and a
consistent reduction of "greenhouse gases".
-
Low environmental impact - to exemplify new technology applications and planning strategies in
order to minimise the environmental impact caused by building settlements (eco-districts).
-
Low maintenance needs - to assume building maintenance as a design parameter.
Decision makers in a wide range of activities were brought into the dialogue regarding urban innovation
processes. This result of the network can be strongly recommended.
Contact Information
RESET e.e.i.g. – SOFTECH
Mr. Roberto Pagani
via Cernaia 1
10121 Turin
Italy
Tel:
Fax:
Email:
Web:
- 167 -
+39 011 5622 289
+39 011 540 219
[email protected]
www.resetters.org
www.softech-team.it
RES2 – Website and information dissemination on projects
Objective
The RESETnet website is a support tool for the dissemination of information on the network activities.
The aim was to promote through the website:
•
•
•
•
the RESETnet strategy
the Renewable Energy Planning Projects (RESET)
the Urban Demonstration Projects (RESTART)
the list of RESETnet members in all cities with their contact details.
Description
The following demonstration projects related to the network cooperation are presented on the
RESETnet website (see also Annex 4 with some details on these examples):
-
Area Metropolitana de Barcelona - District heating with biomass in 695 dwellings in Molins de
Rei.
Glasgow - The Lighthouse of C.R. Mackintosh was renovated and accommodates a major
retailer, offices and an Architecture and Design Centre.
Greater Lyon - Solar Habitat, more than 200 renovated dwellings, which use a set of measures
to reduce the energy consumption, including passive greenhouses and solar systems.
Turin - The Environment Park, a sustainable science and technology park, has become an
asset for the city of Turin.
Rotterdam - A new district of 800 low energy dwellings, with an emphasis on passive and active
solar energy in buildings.
Copenhagen – A visible balance of resources in the renovation of an urban block from the 1870
– 1900 period, located in a residential area.
Porto – Renovation process in the historical centre, associated with an urban rehabilitation
programme of more than 300.000 m2 of degraded buildings.
South Dublin - More than 500 housing units constructed, with a focus on energy efficiency.
Overall results
The RESETnet website was a powerful tool used in organising the activities of the network and linked
the participants to the various projects. The website www.resetters.org now has a new form, which
includes the presentation of the final reports of the network activities. On the website, special emphasis
is placed on matching the information with the needs of communication directed to city administrators
and citizens.
Conclusion with recommendations
Adequate financial resources must be allocated for dissemination activities and the website tends to be,
more and more, the major and most powerful medium. In addition to this, visible documents and
publicity spots on the network activities and demonstration projects should be downloadable, in order to
allow an extensive information on the results obtained by the network programmes.
Contact Information
RESET e.e.i.g. – SOFTECH
Mr. Roberto Pagani
via Cernaia 1
10121 Turin
Italy
Tel:
Fax:
Email:
Web:
- 168 -
+39 011 5622289
+39 011 540219
[email protected]
www.resetters.org
www.softech-team.it
RES3 - Implement demonstration projects as European “best practice” showcases
Objective
To provide the public authorities, institutions and professionals of European cities with some "Exemplary
Urban Projects", concerning innovative energy-environmental integration on the city scale. The exemplary
projects take into account homogeneous criteria, which have provided a homogeneous background to all
City-Projects.
Description
RESTART is an EC targeted demonstration project coordinated by RESET (Renewable Energy Strategies
for European Towns) in conjunction with A.M. Barcelona, Glasgow, Grand Lyon, Turin, Rotterdam,
Copenhagen, Porto and South Dublin.
RESTART aims at providing the public authorities, the institutions and the professionals of these eight
industrial European Cities with some "Exemplary Urban Projects", concerning innovative energyenvironmental integration on the city scale. The exemplary projects take into account the following
criteria, which have provided a homogeneous background to all City-Projects:
-
-
-
Each city has selected a site for the demonstration, generally located in a downtown area (area to
be re-converted to different functions, former industrial sites, etc.) where a regeneration project
was starting, with new comprehensive rules;
The area of influence of each City-Project is large enough to allow a strong impact on the
decisional mechanisms of the city and a high visibility for the inhabitants;
Mix of functions - housing, tertiary and commercial, institutional, recreational buildings, high-tech
industrial settlements - are encompass in RESTART, representing the complexity of urban
situations;
Emphasis is given to cross-demonstration activities and to a new way of promoting urban
demonstration projects, with a multi-actor and multi-sector approach.
Overall results
The following are the building demonstration projects co-ordinated within RESTART:
Area Metropolitana Barcelona – Biomass District Heating in Molins de Rei
Biomass district heating supplies space heating and hot water to 695 dwellings (253 public and 442
private) in "La Granja", a new development area of Molins de Rei. The collective centralised system
allows the comfort conditions and the individual energy control and billing in each flat. An energy
service company, participated by the town of Molins de Rei, manages the district heating.
-
dwellings
saving (Euro/y)
techno-investment (Euro)
extra-cost (Euro/m2)
maintenance (Euro/y)
pay-back period (y)
695
170.000
812.500
14,60
77.550
8,8
Glasgow - The Lighthouse of C.R. Mackintosh
The Lighthouse has become Scotland's Centre for Architecture and Design, and accommodates a
major retailer, offices and an Architecture and Design Centre. The Lighthouse hosts the renewable
energy advice centre for the promotion of RE. Natural lighting, active solar systems, photovoltaic
modules and passive ventilation and cooling systems are implemented.
- saving (kWh/y)
3.432
- renewable energy %
32%
- techno-investment (Euro)
1.028.101
Greater Lyon - Solar Habitat
Greater Lyon has adopted a strategic action plan for the development and wider use of RE. RESTART
initiated the implementation of the action plan on the building sector, with social housing. The project
concerns over 200 dwellings, which use innovative technologies to reduce the energy consumption by
- 169 -
20%. In the future, it is expected that, each year, 20% of residential buildings in the Lyon area will be
built using these technologies.
- dwellings
213
- saving (Euro/y)
910.000
- techno-investment (Euro)
1.001.662
- extra-cost (Euro/m2)
6,54
Turin - The Environment Park
The Science and Technology Park for the Environment (Environment Park) has become an asset for
the city of Turin. It represents an opportunity for revitalising a district of 1.000.000 m2. The project was
created using the concept of environmental sustainability, with extensive use of environmentally-friendly
materials, renewable energy sources, and ventilated facades. The feature: low buildings blending into
the greenery of the natural park.
32.000
- surface (m2)
- saving (Euro/y)
189.420
- techno-investment (Euro)
780.242
24
- extra-cost (Euro/ m2)
- maintenance (Euro/y)
73.875
- pay-back period (y)
6,7
Rotterdam - A district of 800 low energy dwellings
The project concerns a district of 800 dwellings in the Stoopweg area, in Rotterdam. The emphasis of
the district is on energy efficiency and sustainable buildings. A total of 80 dwellings demonstrate an
energy efficient system that is 40% below the current national standard, and another 40 dwellings that
make optimal use of solar energy. The emphasis in the sub-district area (400 dwellings) is on both
passive and active solar energy.
- dwellings
380 high performance
- saving (Euro/y)
138.273
- techno-investment (Euro)
1.189.426
39,60
- extra-cost (Euro/ m2)
- pay-back period (y)
8,6
Copenhagen -Visible Balance of Resources in Urban Blocks
The urban renewal block is located in a residential area built during 1870 - 1900. The aim of the project
was to create a balance in the consumption of resources and the production of waste. It demonstrates
how residents can be positively influenced to change their behaviour in the consumption of water,
electricity and heat, by establishing "green" common construction and re-use of materials. At the start,
the settlement housed 450 inhabitants.
- dwellings
303 and 37 shops
- saving (Euro/y)
109.905
- techno-investment (Euro)
1.025.068
34
- extra-cost (Euro/ m2)
- maintenance (Euro/y)
6.700
- pay-back period (y)
9,9
Porto - Rehabilitation Process in the Historical Centre
This project in Porto is associated with an urban rehabilitation programme in which 300.000 m2 of
degraded buildings have to be renovated in the historic centre, which is classified as part of the World
Heritage Site as listed by UNESCO. It is an urban agglomeration of great historic, artistic, cultural and
architectural value, with medieval urban features. The CRUARB Building is a 1080 m2 built area,
hosting the technical body for the Historic Centre of the Porto Municipality. It is a refined and cultured
example of use of natural lighting in a city’s historic centre.
- 170 -
South Dublin - RESTART Ireland
In the RESTART-Dublin project, 500 housing units have been constructed, mainly in South Dublin but a
few also in other parts of Ireland. The project constitutes the single most important initiative in Ireland
directed at addressing the potential for the design and construction of more energy-efficient housing. It
has attracted considerable attention from local authorities, semi-state bodies, as well as the commercial
sector.
Other experiences
A lot of innovation was put into this targeted project: methods, tools, process and products. Many
partners have learned “how-to” design and build in a more cooperative and sustainable way, with the
participation of all players.
The replication potential of tools and methods adopted by RESETnet is very high, and currently
followed in all cities of the network, on an independent basis. Most of the cities involved in RESETnet
projects are now working on other new demonstration projects in Europe.
Conclusion and recommendations
RESTART activated and motivated an appropriate mix of individuals, namely:
administrators (planning and regulation promoters)
entrepreneurs (technology manufacturers, promoters, builders)
experts (designers, consultants)
citizens (community representatives, associations)
Each actor involved in the Demonstration Process was interested by a "targeted action", in such a way
to involve a multi-targeted set of actions in each project.
Contact Information
RESET e.e.i.g. – SOFTECH
Mr. Roberto Pagani
via Cernaia 1
10121 Turin
Italy
Tel:
Fax:
Email:
Web:
- 171 -
+39 011 5622289
+39 011 540219
[email protected]
www.resetters.org
www.softech-team.it
RES4 – Organising workshops & training sessions
Objective
Organising workshops and training sessions to share expertise and information on experiences.
Description
A considerable part of RESETnet activities is devoted to the production of new ideas or to learning
processes: “discovering something new altogether”. Strong attention is placed on the elaboration of new
ideas and on the solicitation of the participants visioning.
The main events performed by RESET in this area are the following:
Community Planning
Amongst the main objectives of this task of the RESET Project was to ensure the relevance of the
project to the local communities and to form community partnerships which could play important roles in
successfully establishing RE projects. It was essential that the views of the local community were fully
understood during the process of developing RE strategies. Each city took direct responsibility for its
own events. The concepts of ‘Planning for Real’ and EC Scenario Workshops were combined by each
of the cities to produce four community planning events, each contributing towards RESET in a special
way. Community planning events were held in: Glasgow, Turin, Lyon and Barcelona.
Inter-Services Working Groups
In each city, a group of individuals, mainly involved in the local authority and other public administration
functions, was charged with the continuous assessment of the Demonstration Projects, in order to get
information and methods for expanding the boundaries of the demonstration to the city limits. The InterServices Working Group at the City level is considered a small group of carriers in action. It is a group
of individuals (10 to 15 persons) who are interested in facilitating the penetration of innovative urban
technologies, maximising the application of RE. These groups include city officers, professional
employees of the local authority and community representatives, and were organised in: Turin,
Barcelona, Lyon, Rotterdam, Dublin, Glasgow.
Design Ateliers
A cross-demonstration activity involving a great number of local professionals and constituting an
example of "involvement" is represented by the "Design Ateliers". The Design Ateliers were organised
with the participation of local young professionals (architects and engineers), with a school of
architecture or with an academy. The Design Atelier is a one day workshop, held during the periodic
General Meetings in the RESET cities, in which 20 to 30 participants, organised in design tables, have
the role of revising, from sketch, the demonstration project of the hosting city - with the assistance of the
local designers and RESETnet coordinators. The Design Ateliers were held in: Rotterdam, Barcelona,
Porto, Lyon, Copenhagen, Glasgow, Dublin.
Overall results
-
Emphasis on the responsibility of each group of the actors living and working in the city,
Defining the kind of engagement different actors of the urban scene choose to perform,
Stressing the concept of targeted partnership and cooperation,
Enhancing a strategy based on investment and not only on awareness.
Other experiences
Each city has developed its own plan for dissemination, by organising conferences and workshops of
these topics. In particular, strong emphasis is given to the link between the RESET goals and the
Agenda 21 perspectives at the local level.
Conclusions and recommendations
The multi-targeted strategy of RESETnet involved the fulfilment of the following goals:
Create a vision (Administrators, Planners - Governance)
Plan together (Community - Involvement and Partnership)
Unite the forces (Local Carriers, Professionals - Best Practice)
Do the right things (Suppliers, Builders - Technologies)
- 172 -
This inter-disciplinary and multi-actor approach is the main outcome of the network projects and the
main topic for dissemination.
Contact Information
RESET e.e.i.g. – SOFTECH
Mr. Roberto Pagani
via Cernaia 1
10121 Turin
Italy
Tel:
Fax:
Email:
Web:
- 173 -
+39 011 5622289
+39 011 540219
[email protected]
www.resetters.org
www.softech-team.it
RES5 – Organising Renewable Energy Action Plans
Objective
Organising Renewable Energy Action Plans on the city scale to support the implementation activities.
Description
As indicated in the Madrid Declaration, approved by the European Commission and presented at the
European Parliament, the RESETnet objective was to contribute to the substitution of fossil energy with
RE in European cities.
The important questions raised at the city level were:
-
The major part of the existing infrastructures are large centralised systems - is it possible to
combine this situation with local technical solutions and promote many micro-economies?
Who has the responsibility of developing ecological functions - the local organisations, families,
or citizens who collaborate at an intermediate level?
Which technologies can be used to resolve or prevent which problems?
RESETnet organised its activity into three main working phases:
• Background - The first phase was devoted to assessing the resources on which the future of the
cities' economies are based, in order to transform the Renewable Energy strategy into local
development, through the collection of existing main data and information on the energy and
environmental system of the four industrial areas, structured in a comparable form.
• Community Planning - The second phase was aimed at developing a Community Planning activity in
each city. The case studies selected for the Community Planning activity can represent the first
steps to be undertaken by the local governments in order to strengthen the feasibility of the General
Planning. These workshops can become social and political birth processes to motivate new
initiatives and increase commitment and information.
• General Planning - The third phase defined the energy action plans of the cities, assessing the
effectiveness of energy substitution programmes in conjunction with the necessary investments, by
documenting each single action of the plan with its technical feasibility, its economic implications,
and the related employment opportunities.
Overall results
The general planning figures out which policies and actions would be the most convenient for each city in
order to promote a strong "reversion" towards RES.
In each city of the RESET network a global strategy concerning RES was formalised, by bringing
together politicians, decision makers, experts and citizens representatives. After having created various
scenarios for the year 2010, with the selection of the mix of technologies to link the future quality of life
and energy needs, the preferred scenario was detailed and assessed.
Renewable Energy Technologies were not the end results of these general planning sessions, but rather
the background of a multi-objective strategy that each RESET City hopes to realise within the projected 15year life of the plan, addressing the following elements:
•
•
•
•
•
housing and life-style
public building
transportation and land use
economic development and utility facilities
information and training
The planned format for each RESET City presents planning policies, followed by actions related to the
policy. The policy helps to guide the change of specific rules, the development of regulations, budgets
or programme area plans. The action describes the specific measures to be promoted or supported by
the Municipality and by the other local actors, and provides a global assessment of that measure:
-
potential energy substitution,
environmental impact,
employment effects and related social opportunities,
total costs.
- 174 -
The result of this process can not be easily summarised, since many issues belong to the urban “policy”
and “decision making” area. However, all cities participating in the RESETnet effort reached a quantified
estimate of the feasible energy substitution by the tear 2010, summarised below:
EXPECTED RESULT of energy substitution for the year 2010
A.M.Barcelona
Energy Saving & Substitution
Percentage on actual energy consumption
Energy Saving & Substitution
Percentage on actual energy consumption
245.591
6,45
11,15
404.544
14,7
TOE/year
% min.
% max.
TOE/year
%
Glasgow
Great Lyon
Energy Saving & Substitution
Percentage on actual energy consumption
389.935
16,2
TOE/year
%
Torino
Energy Saving & Substitution
Percentage on actual energy consumption
302.913
17,6
TOE/year
%
Other experiences
All cities were engaged in the start-up of Local Agenda 21 programmes. Now the Renewable Energy
Action Plans are operating as part of the Local Agenda 21 in Turin, Barcelona and Lyon.
Conclusions and recommendations
The Renewable Energy Action Plans progressed as follows:
•
Validation of the Renewable Energy Policies outlined by the Action Plan, having as a reference
the participants to the Community Planning forums in the different RESET cities.
•
Local meetings with representatives of the municipalities and the representatives of the Municipal
Districts, in order to illustrate and receive comments on the list of actions which emerged from the
project.
•
Revision of the proposed actions by those responsible in local municipal, and gathering the
proposed amendments from the Municipal (or sub-district) Councils in order to proceed with the
adoption of the RE Action Plan by the cities.
Contact Information
RESET e.e.i.g. – SOFTECH
Mr. Roberto Pagani
via Cernaia 1
10121 Turin
Italy
Tel:
Fax:
Email:
Web:
- 175 -
+39 011 5622289
+39 011 540219
[email protected]
www.resetters.org
www.softech-team.it
RES6 – Development of a 10-Step Renewable Energy Procedure
Objective
Develop a ‘10-Step RE Procedure’ to assist the implementation of the RE Action Plans at city level.
Description
The RESET Cities have experienced the following process towards RE Action Planning
Phases
1. City commitment
Indicators
• Formal expression - letter, act, charter - of the political
will of the City administration to commit itself on such
items and to the process.
2. City background
• Completeness of the exercise in order to be aware of
how factors outside their control may affect the
process and how such effects can be addressed.
3. Energy & Environmental
Balance
• Direct involvement of public functionaries of the City in
the development of the activity.
4. CO2 reduction targets
• Form community partnerships to assist successfully
establishing RE projects.
• At Local Scenario Workshop (LWS) provide one
detailed questionnaire to all the participants to
determine the effectiveness of the experience.
• Set up a LWS report to inform the General Action Plan
(GAP).
• The percentage of RE provided by the plan and the
number of the sectors involved - housing,
transportation, waste..
• One detailed questionnaire: to the LWS participants
about the personal evaluation of the document - GAP
– received.
5. Creation of Local Team
• Capability to build a real team consistent in terms of no. of
persons and multidisciplinary competencies.
• The “CO2 Action Team” organises meetings with local
council representatives to illustrate and amend the
description of policies and actions emerging from the Action
Plan.
• The official adoption of the Action Plan by the city with the
Municipal Resolution.
6. CO2 reduction plan
• A detailed description of “policies” and “actions”
• No. of stakeholders who decide to invest money, human
resources, means of action implementation.
7. Design of actions
Shows the phases and sub-phases to be carried out, the
time scale, the responsibilities for each phase, the
disaggregated cost and the financial cover.
A minimum number of actions must be selected for
establishing a visible start-up.
8. Action implementation
Official resolutions by the City to start with the
implementation of the 5 Key Actions
- 176 -
The implementation phase starts, requiring the formal
approval from a specific Municipal Resolution
9. Monitoring of implemented
actions
10. Feedback implementation
• Monitoring, reviewing and evaluating the CO2 reduction
process.
• Monitoring and reviewi report on the implementation
process (determine key indicators, collect information
and work out the implementation figures).
Overall results
This procedure has been applied in seven cities involved in RESETnet.
Conclusion with recommendations
One of the objectives of CO2 reduction policies is to ensure the relevance of RES to the local
communities, and to form community partnerships which will play an important role in successfully
establishing RE projects. It is essential that the views of the local community are fully understood during
the process of developing RE strategies.
The implementation of this Action Plan in the RESETnet cities has provided valuable information on
implementation processes and has led to substantial CO2 reduction goals. However, this is also an ongoing process in all these cities and the CO2 reduction targets also need to be revised as new data
about consumption becomes available.
Contact Information
RESET e.e.i.g. – SOFTECH
Mr. Roberto Pagani
via Cernaia 1
10121 Turin
Italy
Tel:
Fax:
Email:
Web:
- 177 -
+39 011 5622289
+39 011 540219
[email protected]
www.resetters.org
www.softech-team.it
Table of Acronyms and Abbreviations
ACRR
Association of Cities and Regions for Recycling
ADEME
Agence de l'Environnement et de la Maîtrise de l'Energie
AEM
Agenda Energica Municipal
ATEE
Association technique énergie environnement
BauGB
Baugesetzbuch (Germany)
BC
Brundtland City
BCEN
Brundtland City Energy Network
BHPS
block heating power stations
BEST
Bologna Energy Study
BlmSchG
Federal Law for Emission Protection (Germany)
BlMmSchV
Federal Emission Protection Act - Small Furnace Installation Regulations
(Germany)
BMU
Bundesministerium für Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit /
Ministry of Environment, Nature and Reactor Safety (Germany)
BMVIT
Bundesministerium für Verkehr, Innovation und Technologie (Austria)
CCP
Cities for Climate Protection
CEEP
Center for Energy and Environmental Policy (USA)
CEMR
Council of European Municipalities & Regions
CFC
Chloroflourocarbons
CH4
Methane
CHP
Combined Heat and Power
CLER
Comité de Liaison Énergies Renouvelables
CO
Carbon Monoxide
CO2
Carbon Dioxide
DKK
Danish Krone
DWT
ducted wind turbines
€
Euro
EC
European Commission
ECCP
European Climate Change Programme
EDUCAREE Education for saving and rational use of electric energy
EE
Energy Efficiency
EEC
European Economic Council
EEMS
Environmental and Energy Management System
EFDB
Emission Factors Database
EGCN
European Green Cities Network
EHEN
European Housing Ecology Network
EMC
Environmental Management System
EPK
Association of the Energiepark Bruck/Leitha / Verein Energiepark
EPP
Environmental Policy Plan
ERU
Emission Reduction Units
ERS
Energy Resource Statement
EU
European Union
ESCO
Energy Service Company
GAF
Gemeindeausgleichsfonds / Community equalisation fund
GEF
Global Environment Facility
GHG
Green House Gas
GEMIS
‘Gesamt-Emmission Model Integrierte System’
GSR
Green Solar Regions
GHB
Green Housing Block
HFC
Hydroflourocarbons
IEA
International Energy Agency
ICLEI
International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives
IEA
International Energy Agency
IPCC
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
IPCC-NGGIP National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme
ISES
International Solar Energy Society
ISO
International Organization for Standardization
LA21
Local Agenda 21
MCU-UTO
Fédération mondiale des cités unies / World Federation of United Cities
NFFO
Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation
NGO
Non-governmental Organisation
NIE
Northern Ireland Electricity
NMVOC
Non-methane volatile organic compound
NOx
Nitrogen Oxides
NAS
Newly Associated States
NOK
Norwegian Kroner
O3
Tropospheric Ozone
OECD
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
OIB
Österreichischen Institutes für Bautechnik
OPUS
Open Platform for Urban Sustainability
P.En.Co
Turin City Energy Plan
PHC
power-heat co-generation
PFCs
Perfluorinated carbons
PRESCO
Practical Recommendations for Sustainable Construction
PV
photovoltaics
R&D
Research and Development
RAVE
Regeneration in Urban Areas Via Energy
RE
Renewable Energy
RES
Renewable Energy Resources
RESETnet
Renewable Energy Strategies for European Towns network
RESTART
Renewable Energy Strategies and Technologies for Regenerating Towns
RETs
Renewable Energy Technologies
RTD
research technology and development
SF6
Sulphur Hexafluoride
SIR
Salzburger Institut für Raumordnung und Wohnen
SME
Small and medium enterprise
SKK
Slovak Koruna
Sust. Cities
European Sustainable Cities and Towns Campaign
SynPack
Synergy Package Approach
SOx
Sulphur Oxides
SO2
Sulphur Dioxides
TFI
Task Force on National Greenhouse Gas Inventories
UNDP
United Nations Environment Programme
UNFCCC
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
UBA
Umweltbundesamt / German Federal Environmental Agency
UBC
Union of the Baltic Cities
VkU
Verband kommunaler Unternehmen e.V. / German Association of Local
Utilities
VOC
Volatile Organic Compound
WHO
World Health Organisation
WMO
World Meteorological Organization
Table of Units
Bn
billions
C
degree Celsius
GJ
gigajoule
Ha
hectare
Gcal
gigacalories
g/kWh
gram per kilowatt hour
km
kilometre
2
km
square kilometre
kTOE
thousands of tons of oil equivalent
kW
kilowatt
kWh
kilowatt hour
2
kWh/m a
kilowatt hour per square meters and year
M
millions
3
m
cubic meters
MJ/a
megajoule per annum
MWh
mega watt hour
t
tons
tons/capita
tons per capita
TOE
tons of oil equivalent
TOE/y
tons of oil equivalent per year
U-value
measure of heat transfer, mostly used for windows (also called K-value)
W
watt
W/m²
watt per square meter
W/m²K
watt per square meter kelvin
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Good Practice Guide