SIMIRA WALTERI SILVA NETO & CALLADO (RUBIACEAE, SIMIREAE): A NEW SPECIES FROM RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL. Sebastião José da Silva Neto & Cátia Henriques Callado Programa Mata Atlântica, Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Pacheco Leão 915, Rio de Janeiro, 22460-030, Brazil. [email protected]; Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Departamento de Biologia Vegetal, Rua São Francisco Xavier 524, PHLC - sala 523, Maracanã, 20550-013, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. [email protected] During the revision of the extra-Amazonian species of Simira from Brazil, a new species was recognized. Simira walteri Silva Neto & Callado occurs in the state of Rio de Janeiro in southeastern Brazil within the Atlantic Forest region, mainly in shady areas, at elevations to 600 m. Trees to 25 m tall, leaves elliptic, glabrous, apex acute or slightly acuminate, base acute, 5.1–11.4x1.3–3.3 cm; inflorescence axillary, 6-9-flowered, peduncles 2.9–3.5 cm; flowers greenish white, tube 3–4(–5) mm, split longitudinally once or twice, externally and internally glabrous, except at basal filament attachment; fruits capsules ovate, woody, glabrous, 4.7–6.7x2.9–3.8 cm, 2-valved, valves splitting and bipartite. It was collected in flower in September and in fruit in November. This species might be qualified as Vulnerable (VU) according to IUCN Red List criteria because of its restricted area of occupancy. It is an endemic species from Brazil, where a single population is known. It was discovered 10 years ago, and the population was protected in the Biological Reserve of Tinguá. Apart from habitat destruction, no specific threats are known. The new species is named after Walter da Silva for his significant contribution to floristic surveys of the Atlantic Forest. He was born on 27 November 1942 in the Atlantic Forest region. He has been working hard to improve knowledge of this ecosystem, and his name has been cited in the acknowledgments of several scientific papers, books, and theses. The new species resembles S. viridiflora (Allemaão & Saldanha) Steyerm., which also occurs in the Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil. S. walteri mainly differs in having elliptic leaves with apices acute to slightly acuminate, base acute, tufted pocket-domatia, and a single row of colleters on the internal stipule base. (Fundação O Boticário de Proteção a Natureza) Key words: Brazil, IUCN Red List, Rio de Janeiro, Rubiaceae, Simira, Simireae.