Brazil Focus – David Fleischer
Phone/FAX: 55-61-3327-8085
Cell: 9218-2771 e-mail: fleischer@uol.com.br
GLOSSARY
Symbols, Abbreviations and Terms used in Brazil
(Expanded and updated as of 30th June 2009)
ABA
- Associação Brasileira de Antropologia
(Brazilian Anthropological Assoc.)
ABACC
- Agência Brasileiro-Argentina de Contabilidade e Controle de Materiais Nucleares
(Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting & Control of Nuclear Materials)
ABAG
- Associação Brasileira de Aviação Geral
(Brazilian Association of General Aviation)
ABAL
- Associação Brasileira de Alumínio
(Brazilian Aluminum Assoc.)
ABAR
- Associação Brasileira das Agências Reguladoras
(Brazilian Assoc. of Regulatory Agencies)
ABC
- Agência Brasileira de Cooperação
(Brazilian Cooperation Agency – part of MRE- Itamaraty)
ABC
- Região metropolitana de São Paulo
(greater SP industrial region)
 Santo André, São Bernardo do Campo & São Caetano
ABCD – Includes Diadema
ABCP
- Associação Brasileira de Ciência Política
(Brazilian Political Science Assoc.)
ABDD
- Associação Brasileira de Defesa da Democracia
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(Brazilian Assoc. for the Defense of Democracy)
ABERT
- Associação Brazileira de Emissoras de Rádio e Televisão
(Brazilian Assoc. of Radio and TV Stations)
ABI
- Associação Brasileira de Imprensa
(Brazilian Press Association)
ABIn
- Agência Brasileira de Inteligência
(Brazilian Intelligence Agency, succeeded SNI)
ABINNE
- Associação Brasileira das Indústrias Elétricas e Eletrônicas
(Brazilian Assoc. of Electric and Eletronic Industries)
ABM
- Associação Brasileira de Municípios
(Association of Brazilian towns and Cities)
ABN AMRO - Large Dutch bank, acquired Banco Real in 1998. In 2007, ABN
AMRO was acquires by a consortium involving the Spanish Banco
Santander that took over Banco Real. Santander had already acquired
Banespa, and is now Brazil’s 3rd largest private bank after Itaú-Unibanco and
BRADESCO.
ABNT
- Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas
(Brazilian Assoc. of Technical Standards)
ABONG
- Associação Brasileira de Organizações Não-Governamentais
(Brazilian Association of NGOs)
ABPO
- Assoc. Bras. do Papelão Ondulado
(Brazilian Assoc. of Cardboard Manufacturers)
ABRA
- Associação Brasileira de Reforma Agrária
(Brazilian Assoc. for Agrarian Reform)
ABRAS
- Associação Brasileira de Supermercados
(Brazilian Association of Supermarkets)
ABRACE
- Associação Brasileira de Grandes Consumidores Industriais de Energia
(Brazilian Assoc. of Large Industrial Consumers of Electrical Energy)
ABRAP
- Associação Brasileira de Prefeitos
(Brazilian Assoc. of Mayors)
ABRAVE
- Associação Brasileira de Revendadores Autorizados de Veículos
(Brazilian Assoc. of Automobile Dealers)
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ABRIG
- Associação Brasileira de Relações Institucionais e Governamentais
(professional assoc. of lobbyists and those who conduct “legislative
liaison” and government relations
ABRINQ
- Associação Brasileira das Indústrias de Brinquedos
(Brazilian Assoc. of Toy Manufacturers)
AC
- State of Acre
ACC
- Adiantamento de Contrato de Câmbio
(bank credit operation, especially for exporters)
ACESITA
- Companhia de Aços Especiais de Itabira
(Special Steels Company of Itabira, MG)
ACM
- Senator Antônio Carlos Magalhães (DEM-BA)
 political leader in Bahia since 1954 – state & federal deputy,
Mayor of Salvador, Governor, Senator, Minister of Communications
- born 1927, died 20 July 2007
ACM
- Associação Cristã de Moços
(YMCA)
ACSP
- Associação Comercial do Estado de São Paulo
(SP Chamber of Commerce)
ACT
- African Coalition for Trade
ADA
- Americans for Democratic Action
ADA
- WTO Anti-Dumping Agreement
Adbib
- Associação Brasileira de Infra-Estructura e Indústrias de Base
(Brazilian Assoc. for Infrastructure and Capital Goods Industries)
ADEMI
- Associação dos Dirigentes de Empresas do Mercado Imobiliário
(Assoc. of Directors of Real Estate Firms)
ADESG
- Associação dos Diplomados da Escola Superior de Guerra
(Assoc. of ESG Graduates)
ADIn
- Ação Direta de Inconstitucionalidade
(suit filed at STF by parties and other entities to challenge the constitutionality
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of acts, laws and decisions)
ADM
- Archer Daniels Midland – leading cornethanol producer in the US
- top grain producer and trading firm in Brazil
ADR
- American Depositary Receipts
(receipts in US$ for stocks or bonds of foreign firms, issued by a
US depositary bank)
AEB
- Agência Espacial Brasileira
(Brazilian Space Agency)
AEB
- Associação de Exportadores Brasileiros
(Brazilian Exporters Assoc.)
Aero Lula
- nickname given to Brazil’s new A-320 Presidential jet
Aero Vodochody – Czech aircraft manufacturer seeking to supply parts to Embraer
AFA
- Academia da Força Aérea
(Brazilian Air Force Acedemy, in Pirassinunga, SP)
AGOA- African Growth and Opportunity Act – promots Africa-US trade
AGU
- Advocacia-Geral da União
(Solicitor General for Federal Government)
AI-5
- Ato Institucional Número 5
(5th Institutional Act, December 1968)
AIDS
- Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
(SIDA)
AIEA
- Agência International de Energia Atômica
(IAEA-International Atomic Energy Agency, UN unit, HQ in Vienna)
AIG
- American Insurance Group – 18th largest public company in the world
- until the US financial blowout, AIG was associated with Unibanco
AL
- State of Alagoas
AL
- Assembléia Legislativa
(State Legislature)
ALADI
- Associação Latino-Americana de Integração
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(Latin American Integration Assoc.)
ALALC
- Associação Latinoamericana de Livre Comércio
(Latin American Free Trade Assoc.-LAFTA)
ALBA
- Alternativa Bolivariana para as Américas
(Bolivarian Alternative for the Peoples of our Americas)
 Hugo Chávez’s substitute for CASA
ALCA
- Acordo de Livre Comércio das Américas
(FTAA-Free Trade Agreement of the Americas)
ALCAN
- Canadian aluminum firm accquired by Rio Tinto for US$38 billion in 2007
ALCOA
- Aluminum Company of America – US aluminum giant
ALSTOM
- French manufacturer of hydro-electric generators and turbines
AM
- State of Amzonas
AMAN
- Academia Militar das Agulhas Negras
(Army Military Academy in Agulhas Negras, RJ)
 the Brazilian West Point
AMB
- Associação dos Magistrados Brasileiros
(Assoc. of Brazilian Magistrates)
AMB
- Associação Médica Brasileira
(Brazilian Medical Assoc.)
AMB
- Associação Municipalista do Brasil
(Brazilian Municipal Assoc.)
Amber Box Subsidies – 30 WTO members have commitments to reduce their trade-distorting
domestic supports in the amber box [“yellow light, beware”]  to reduce the “total aggregate
measurement of support (AMS). Nations outside this 30-nation group have to keep within 5%
of the value of production (10% limit in the case of developing nations.
AmCham
American Chamber of Congress
(in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro)
AMCI
- AMCI Australia Holdings PTY LTD
(in March 2007, CVRD acquired this large coal mining firm)
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AMERIPOL – Comunidade de Polícias da América Latina e do Caribe
(Community of Police Forces in Latin America and the Caribbean)
AMS
- Aggregate Measure of Support
- WTO term referring to level of subsidies
ANA
- Agência Nacional de Águas
(National Waters Regulatory Agency)
ANAC
- Agência Nacional de Aviação Civil
(National Civil Aviation Regulatory Agency)
 replaced DAC
ANAPA
- Associação Nacional dos Produtores de Álcool
(National Alcohol Producers Assoc.)
ANATEL
- Agência Nacional de Telecomunicações
(National Telecommunications Regulatory Agency)
ANBID
- Associação Nacional dos Bancos de Investimento
(National Assoc. of Investment Banks)
ANC
- Assembléia Nacional Constituinte
(National Constituent Assembly, 1987-1988)
ANCA
- Associação Nacional de Cooperação Agricola – linked to MST
(National Assoc. of Acriculutral Cooperation; “fiscal front” organization
Operated by the MST – like CONCRAB)
ANCAP
- Administración Nacional de Combustibles, Alcololes y Portland
(Uruguay’s national petrol firm, equivalent to Petrobrás)
Ancine- Agência Nacional de Cinema
(National Film Regulatory Agency)
ANDES
- Associação Nacional de Docentes do Nível Superior
(National University Professores Assoc.)
ANDI
- Associação Nacional dos Direitos da Infância
(National Association for Children’s Rights)
ANDIFES
- Assoc. Nacional de Dirigentes de Instituições Federais de Ensino Superior
(National Assoc. of Rectors of Federal Universities)
ANDIMA
- Associação Nacional das Instituições de Mercado Aberto
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(National Assoc. of Open Market Institutions)
ANEEL
- Agência Nacional de Energia Elétrica
(National Electrical Energy Regulatory Agency)
ANEFAC
- Associação Nacional de Executivos de Finanças, Administração e Contabilidade
(National Assoc. of Executives in Finance, Administration & Accounting)
ANFAVEA
- Assoc. Nacional dos Fabricantes de Veículos Automotores
(National Assoc. of Auto Makers)
Anginhos
- “little angels” – nickname for first term deputies [Freshmen]
 never served in the Chamber before, free from sin
Angra
- City on southern coast of RJ state. Angra-I and Angra-II are current nuclear power
plants [electricy generation], Angra-III is planned.
ANL
- Aliança Nacional Libertadora – Moscow line popular front
(National Liberation Alliance, 1935)
ANM
- Agência Nacional de Mineração – first discussed in 2001
(National Regulatory Agency for Mining – contemplated in 2001)
ANP
- Agência Nacional de Petróleo
(National Petroleum Regulatory Agency)
ANPEC
- Assoc. Nacional de Centros de Pós-Graduação em Economia
(National Assoc. of Economics Graduate Programs)
Antaq
- Agência Nacional de Transportes Aquaviários
(National River Transportation Regulatory Agency)
ANTT
- Agência Nacional de Transportes Terrestres
(National Land Transportation Regulatory Agency)
Anvisa
- Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária
(National Health & Drug Agency)
AOSIS- Association of Small Insular States
(Associação dos Pequenos Estados Insulares)
AOL
- America On Line, large US internet company
AP
- State of Amapá
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AP
- Ação Popular
(Popular Action – student activist movement in the 1960s)
AP
- Associate Press, news wire service
APAE
- Associação de Pais e Amigos dos Excepcionais
- Assoc. of Parents and Friends of Exceptional Persons
APEC
- Asian-Pacific Economic Cooperation – founded in 1989
(Cooperação Econômica da Ásia e do Pacífico) – 21 members in 2008
Arapongas
- Brazilian slang term for spooks – clandestine investigators linked to the SNI (during
the military period), the ABIn (currently), or “free-lance” spooks
ARENA
- Aliança Renovadora Nacional
(National Renovation Alliance, 1966-1979)
ASA
- American Sugar Alliance
ASEAN
- Assoc. of Southeast Asian Nations – founded in 1967
(Assoc. de Nações do Sudeste Asiático) – 10 members in 2008
ATPDEA
- Andean Trade Promotion and Drug Eradication Act
AT&T
- American Telephone & Telegraph
AUC
- Auto Defesas Unidas da Colombia
(United Self-Defense Units in Colombia)
Avibrás
- Avibrás Indústira Aeroespacial – HQ in São José dos Campos, SP
(Brazilian aero-apace industry, produces Astros II rocket launchers)
AZTECA
- retail store chain owned by Mexican billionaire Ricardo Salinas
- installed first store in Brazil (Elektra do Brasil) in Recife, in March 2008
Azul
- AZUL - Linhas Aéreas Brasileiras (new Brazilian airline)
- founded by David Neeleman (founder of JetBlue)
- began flying with Embraer 190 jets in December 2008
BA
- State of Bahia
BACEN
- Banco Central [do Brasil], BC, BCB
(Brazil’s Central Bank)
Banco del Sur – South American Development Bank – concept presented by Hugo Chávez
with support from Argentine President Néstor Kirchner (replace World Bank)
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BAD
- Banco Africano de Desenvolvimento
(ADB-African Development Bank)
Baixo Clero - “lower clerics”, some 400 little known, “invisible” federal deputies
BAMERINDUS – Banco Mercantil e Indústria, com sede em Curitiba, PR,
BC declarou a falência deste banco em 1997 e vendeu para HSBC
(Bank liquidated in 1997 and sold to HSBC)
Bancada da Bala – “Pro-gun” caucus in the Brazilian Congress
Bancada Ruralista – Rural Caucus in Brazilian Congress, very powerful
BANERJ
- Banco do Estado do Rio de Janeiro
(bank owned by Rio de Janeiro state – privatized)
BANESPA
- Banco do Estado de São Paulo – vendido a Santander
(Bank of the State of SP - sold to Santander)
BANESTADO – Banco do Estado do Paraná – vendido ao Banco Itaú
(Bank of the State of Paraná – sold to Banco Itaú)
BASA
- Banco da Amazônia)
(Amazonas Development Bank)
BASF
- Badische Anilin-und Soda-Fabrik
(Baden Aniline and Soda Factory)
- German Chemical Co. – the largest chemical company in the world
-HQ in Ludwigshafen, Germany & Florham Park, NJ
BATS
- Better Alternative Trading System
- HQ in Kansas City, alternative (3rd largest) stock market in the US
- associated with Claritas BATS plans to establish an alternative
stock market in Brazil to compete with BM&F Bovespa
BB
- Banco do Brasil
(Bank of Brazil)
BBC
- Bônus do Banco Central
(Central Bank Bonds)
BBC
- British Broadcasting Corp.
BBVA
- Banco Bilbao Viscaya
(Spanish bank and international financial services group)
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BC
- Banco Central
(Brazilian Central Bank)
BCE
- Banco Central Europeu
(European Central Bank)
BCG
- Bacilo Calmette-Guérin
(vaccine against crupe and tuberculosis)
BEC
- Batalhão de Engenharia de Construção
(Brazilian Army Construction Batallion)
BEC
- Banco do Estado do Ceará
(bank owned by the state of Ceará)
BES
- Banco Espírito Santo (Portuguese)
BESC
- Banco do Estado de Santa Catarina
(bank owned by state of SC, intervened by Central Bank, and
acquired by the Banco do Brasil in 2007)
BH
- Belo Horizonte, capital of Minas Gerais
BHP Billiton - Anglo-Australian based mining firm
BID
- Banco Interamericano do Desenvolvimento
(IADB-InterAmerican Development Bank)
BIRD
- Banco Internacional de Reconstrução e Desenvolvimento
(WB-World bank)
BIS
- Bank for International Settlements - Switzerland
Blackstone Group – US investment firm associated with Brazil’s Patria
Bloquinho
- The “little bloc” of parties on the Left (75 deputies)
- PSB, PCdoB, PDT, PMN & PRB
Blue Box Subsidies – A WTO exemption from the general rule that all subsidies linked to
production must be reduced or kept within defined minimal (de minimis) levels –
covering payments directly linked to acreage or animal numbers
BLUM- Brazilian Land Use Model
(Modelo Brasileiro de Use da Terra)
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 used to show that ethanol is not responsible for Amazon deforestation
BM&F
- Bolsa de Mercadorias e Futuros
(Brazilian Commodities & Futures Market)
BMG
- Banco de Minas Gerais
(private bank in MG, accused of involvement with “Mensalão”
BNB
- Banco do Nordeste do Brasil
(Bank of the Northeast of Brazil)
BNDES
- Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Econômico e Social (ex-BNDE)
(Brazilian Economic and Social Development Bank)
BNH
- Banco Nacional de Habitação
(National Housing Bank, created by military regime in 1965)
Bolsa Família – Monthly income supplement (allowance) for poor families
Bombardier - Canadian aircraft manufuacturer – competes with Embraer
Bope
- Batalhão de Operações Especiais
(PM Special Operations Battalion)
BOVESPA
- Bolsa de Valores do Estado de São Paulo
(São Paulo Stock Exchange)
BRA
- BRA Transportes Aéreos (Brasil Rodo Aéreo) was Brazil’s 3rd largest passenger
airline, began with charter flights and ended operations on 6th November 2007
BRADESCO - Banco Brasileiro de Descontos
(Brazil’s largest private bank)
“Bradies”
- “Brady Bonds” – issued after 1994 for emerging nations, at times called C-Bonds
(created when Nicholas Brady was US Treasury Secretary)
BRASA
- Brazilian Studies Association – HQ in Nashville, TN
BRASCAN
- The holding company that resulted from the nationalization of Canadian
energy investments in Brazil [Light], became a major investment firm
HQ in Rio.
Brasiguaios - Brazilian farmers who migrated to Paraguay in the 1960s and 1970s in search of
cheap land to plant soybeans, coffee, etc.
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BRASKEM - large petrochemical firm in Brazil
Brazucas
- Brazilian immigrants living in the US.
BRB
- Banco Regional de Brasília – owned by GDF
(Regional Bank of Brasília)
Brenco
- Brazilian Renewable Energy Co.
BRICs
- Brazil, Russia, India & China
- a term coined by Goldman Sachs economists Jim O’Neill in 2001
BROU
- Banco de la Republica Oriental de Uruguay
(Central Bank of Uruguay)
BrT
- Brasil Tele Com
(large telecommunications firm in Brazil)
BSG
- Banco Société Générale (large French bank)
BTN
- Bônus do Tesouro Nacional (no longer used)
(National Treasury Bonds, used to finance public debt)
BTUs
- British Thermal Units
BVRJ
- Bolsa de Valores de Rio de Janeiro
(Rio de Janeiro Stock Exchange)
C-130
- four-engine, turbo prop military transport plane (flying box car)
CAC
- Paris stock exchange index
CACEX
- Carteira do Comércio Exterior do Banco do Brasil
(foreign trade unit at BB)
Cade
- Conselho Administrativo de Defesa Econômica
(Brazilian Anti-Trust, pro-competition unit, at Finance Ministry)
CAE
- Comissão de Assuntos Econômicos
(Senate Committee on Economic Affairs)
CAF
- Corporación Andino de Desarrollo
(Andean Development Corporation)
CAFTA
- Central America Free Trade Agreement
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(CAFTA-DR included the Dominican Republic)
CAGED
- Cadastro Geral de Empregados e Desempregados
(monthly survey of employment/unemployment, by Labor Ministry)
CAIC
- Centro de Atenção Integrada à Criança
(Center/School for Full Time Attention to Children)
CAINDR
- Comissão da Amazônia, Integração Nacional e Desenvolvimento
(Chamber of Deputies Committee for the Amazon, National Integration &
Development)
Caixa Dois
- “off-the-books” campaign contributions
(also, double set of books used by firms to avoid taxes)
CALC
- Cúpula da América Latina e Caribe – met in Bahia 16-17 December 2008
(Summit of Latin American and Caribbean Nations)
- with Cuba, without the US and Canada
CAN
- Correio Aéreo Nacional – operated by FAB
(national air mail service, began in 1931)
CAOA
- Carlos Alberto Oliveira Andrade – mega-investor in auto dealerships
- entered joint-venture with Hyundai to install a factory in Anápolis, GO
CAPES
- Comissão para o Aperfeiçoamento do Pessoal de Educação Superior
(Graduate studies training unit within MEC – fellowships)
CAPADR
- Comissão de Agricultura, Pecuária, Abastecimento e Desenvolvimento
(Chamber Committee for Agriculture, Livestock, Supply & Development)
CARICOM - The Caribbean Community – HQ in Georgetown, Guyana
 economic cooperation group began in 1973
CAS
- Comissão de Assuntos Sociais
(Senate Committee on Social Affairs)
CASA
- Communidade Sul-Americana de Nações
(South American Community of Nations)
- Brazil’s attempt to extend Mercosul to all of South America
Casa Civil
- President’s Chief of Staff – very powerful position
Casa da Moeda – the federal mint (in Rio de Janeiro)
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Cassado
- loss of political rights – for 10 years during military regime (1964-1985)
- loss of political mandate (in the post-1985 period)
CBA
- Código Brasileiro de Aeronáutica
(Brazilian Aeronautical Code)
CBA
- Companhia Brasileira de Aluminio
(Brazilian Aluminum Co.)
CBE
- Cia. Brasiliana de Energia – Brazilian Energy Company
- created in 2003 when BNDES renegotiated AES debts
- BNDES now controls 53.80% of CBE
CBERS
- China-Brazil Earth-Resources Satellite
(Satélite Sino-Brasileiro de Recursos Terrestres)
 began in 1988, launch 4 satellites by 2010
CBF
- Confederação Brasileira de Futebol
(Brazilian Soccer Confederation)
CBIA
- Centro Brasileiro de Infância e Adolescência
(Brazilian Center for Infancy and Adolescence)
CBIE
- Centro Brasileiro de Infra Estrutura
(Brazilian Center for Infrastructure)
CBN
- Central Brasileiro de Notícias
(Globo’s 24-hour news radio network)
CBPF
- Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas
(Brazilian Center for Physics Research – in Rio)
CBTU
- Companhia Brasileira de Trens Urbanos
(Brazilian State Firm for Urban Trains)
CCBB
- Centro Cultural Banco do Brasil
(Banco do Brasil Cultural Center)
CCBC
- Brazil-Canada Chamber of Commerce
CCEE
- Câmara de Comércio de Energia Elétrica
(Chamber of Commerce for Electrical Energy)
CCIR
- Certificação de Cadastro de Imóvel Rural
(Certificate of Registry of Rural Property)
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CCJC
- Comissão de Constituição e Justiça
(Chamber of Deputies’ Committee on Constitution, Justice &
Citizenship)  same symbol in the Senate
CCPs
- Counter-Cyclical Payments
- introduced by the 2002 Farm Security and Rural Investment Act
- income support programs for US farmers
 some call this “subsidies”
CCT
- Comissão de Ciência, Tecnologia, Inovação, Comunicação e Informática
- Senate Committee for Science, Technology, Innovation, Communication,
and Informatics
CCT
- Conditional Cash Transfer
CCTCI
- Comissão de Ciência e Tecnologia, Comunição e Informática
(Chamber of Deputies’ Committee on Science & Technology,
Communication & Informatics)
CD
- Câmara dos Deputados
(Chamber of Deputies)
CDB
- Certificado de Depósito Bancário – bank time deposit
(bank deposit certificate, term & rates subject to negotiation)
CDC
- Comissão de Defesa do Consumidor
(Chamber of Deputies’ Committee on Consumer Protection)
CDC
- Crédito Direto ao Consumidor
(installment credit for consumers, usually “white line”)
CDEIC
- Comissão de Desenvolvimento Econômico, Indústria e Comércio
(Chamber of Deputies’ Committee on Economic Development, Industry &
Commerce)
CDI
- Certificado de Depósito Interbancário
(time deposit, similar to CDB)
CDH
- Comissão de Direitos Humanos e Legislação Participativa
Senate Committee for Human Rights and Participatory Legislation
CDN
- Conselho de Defesa Nacional
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(National Defense Council)
CDR
- Comissão de Desenvolvimento Regional e Turismo
- Senate Committed for Regional Development & Tourism
CDU
- Comissão de Desenvolvimento Urbano
(Chamber of Deputies’ Committee for Urban Development)
CDHM
- Comissão de Direitos Humanos e Minorias
(Chamber of Deputies’ Committee on Human Rights and Minorities)
CE
- State of Ceará
CE
- Comissão de Educação
(Senate Committee on Education)
CEB
- Companhia de Eeletricidade de Brasília
(Electriticy Company owned by Brasília government [GDF])
CEBs
- Comunidades Eclesias de Base
- Community Nuclei for Lay Roman Catholics
 associated with the doctrine of “Liberation Theology”
CEBRAP
- Centro Brasileiro de Análises e Planejamento
(think tank organized by FH Cardoso & others in SP in 1970)
CEC
- Comissão de Educação e Cultura
(Chamber of Deputies’ Committee on Education and Culture)
CEDEC
- Centro de Estudos da Cultura Contemporânea
(think tank organized by CEBRAP dissidents)
CEE
- Comunidade Econômica Europeia
(EEC-European Economic Community)
CEF
- Caixa Econômica Federal
(Federal Savings/Social Bank)
CEG
- Companhia Estadual de Gás
(Rio natural gas distribution company)
CEGRAF
- Centro Gráfico do Senado Federal
(Brazilian Senate printing office)
Cehab
- Companhia Estadual de Habitação e Obras
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- state government unit for housing and public works
CEI
- Comissão Especial de Investigação
(Special Investigating Committee)
CELAM
- Conferência Episcopal da América-Latina e Caribe
(Conference of Latin American Catholic Bishops; the 5th CELAM
met in SP in November 2007)
CEME- Central de Medicamentos
(federal government medicine distribution unit)
Cemig
- Centrais Elétricas de Minas Gerais
(MG state-owned electric company)
Cenargen
- Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia
(National Center for Genetic and Biotech Research, EMBRAPA)
CENDEC
- Centro de Treinamento para o Desenvolvimento Econômico
(Ministry of Planning Training Center)
CENINAR
- Centro de Informações da Marinha
(Navy Intelligence Center – very active during military regime)
Cenipa
- Centro de Investigação e Prevenção de Acidentes Aeronáuticos
(Center for Investigation and Prevention of Aeronautical Accidents)
Centrão
- the “Big Center” (majority conservative coalition in the ANC)
CEO
- Chief Executive Officer
Cepal
- Comissão Econômica das Nações Unidas para América Latina e Caribe
- ECLA, United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and
the Caribbean – HQ in Santiago, Chile
CERA
- Cambridge Energy Research Assoc.
CESP
- Centrais Eléctricas de São Paulo
(State of SP electric company, privitization attempted in 2008)
CETIP
- Central de Custódia e Liquidação de Títulos
(where bonds and notes are registered, held and liquidated)
CFC
- Comissão de Fiscalização e Controle
(Senate Committee on Oversight & Control)
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CFFC
- Comissão de Fiscalização Financeira e Controle
(Chamber of Deputies’ Committee on Financial Oversight & Control)
CFMEA
- Centro Feminista de Estudos e Assessoria
(Feminist Studies Center in Brasília)
CFN
- Companhia Ferroviário de Nordeste
(Northeast Railroad Co. – controlled by CSN)
CFN
- Corpo de Fuzileiros Navais
(Marine Corps)
CFR
- Council on Foreign Relations – HQ in New York
- publishes Foreign Affairs
CFT
- Comissão de Finanças e Tributação
(Chamber of Deputies’ Committee on Finance and Taxation)
CFTC
- US Commodity Futures Trading Commision
CGD
CGU
- Center for Global Development
- Controladoria-Geral da União
(Federal Controller General – internal control)
CGT
- Confederação Geral dos Trabalhadores
(General Workers’ Confederation – labor union central in São Paulo)
CHALACO - Aluminum Corporation of China
Chery
- Small size Chinese auto to have new factory in Jacareí, SP
CHESF
- Companhia Hidro-Elétrica do Vale do São Francisco
(San Francisco Valley Hydro-Electric Firm)
CHETA
- Certificado de Homologação de Empresa de Transporte Aéreo
(ANAC certificate for an airline to operate in Brazil)
CHS
- CHS International Trade – 3rd largest grain trader n the US
- formed jint venture with Coopermibra in 2008
CI
- Comissão de Serviços de Infra-Estrutura
(Senate Committee on Infrastructure)
CIA
- Central Intelligence Agency (US)
19
(Agência Central de Intelligência)
CIA
- Centro de Inteligência da Aeronáutica
(Air Force Intelligence Center)
CIC
- Cadastro Individual do Contribuinte  CPF
(personal income tax ID number)
CIDA
- Canadian International Decvelopment Agency
Cide
- Contribuição de Intervenção no Domínio Econômico
 motor fuels tax for maintenance and repair of federal highways
CIEx
- Centro de Informações do Exército
(Army Intelligence Unit, very active during the military regime)
CIMI
- Conselho Indigenista Missionário
(Indian Missionary Council-Roman Catholic Church)
CINDACTA - Centro Integrado de Defesa Aérea e Controle de Trafego Aéreo
(the four centers for air traffic control, under FAB jurisdiction)
CIR
- Conselho Indeginista de Roraima
(Indian Counsel for State of Roraima)
CL
- Câmara Legislativa
(legislature in the Federal District – Brasília)
Claro
- Brazilian cell phone operator, owned by Telmex (Carlos Slim Helú)
CLA
- Centro de Lançamento de Alcântara
(Alcântara Rocket Launching Center, in Maranhão)
CLASCO
- Consejo Latinoamericano de las Ciencias Sociales
(Latin American Social Science Council)
CLAT
- Central Latino-Americana dos Trabalhadores
(Latin American Workers’ Central - in Caracas, Venezuela)
CLDF
- Câmara Legislativa do Distrito Federal
- local legislature in the Federal District (Brasília)
CLP
- Comissão de Legislação Participativa
(Chamber and Senate Committees for Popular Initiative Legislation)
20
CLT
- Consolidação da Legislação Trabalhista
(Brazil’s complex labor legislaiton, CLTformal labor contract)
CMA
- Comissão de Meio Ambiente, Defesa do Consumer e Fiscalização e
Contrôle
- Senate Committee for Environment, Consumer Protection, and
Oversight
CMA
- Comando Militar da Amazônia
(Amazon Region Military Command)
CMADS
- Comissão de Meio Ambiente e Desenvolvimento Sustentável
(Chamber of Deputies’ Committee on Environment & Sustainable
Development)
CMB
- Casa da Moeda do Brasil
(Brazilian Mint, located in Rio de Janeiro)
CMDA
- Code Division Multiple Access
(cell phone system that voice & data into radio signals)
CME
- Comissão de Minas e Energia
(Chamber of Deputies’ Committee on Mines and Energy)
CMN
- Conselho Monetário Nacional
(National Monetary Council)
CMO
- Comissão Mista de Orçamento
(Congressional Joint Budget Committee)
CMSE
- Comitê de Monitoramento do Sistema Elêtrico
(Committee for Monitoring the Electric System)
- attached to MM&E, created in August 2004
CMSE
- Comando Militar do Sudeste
(Military Command of the Southeast Region)
CN
- Congresso Nacional
(Brazil’s National Congress)
CNAE
- Comissão Nacional de Atividades Espaciais
(National Commission for Space Activities)
CNA
- Confederação Nacional de Agricultura
21
(National Agriculture Federation)
CNAA
- Companhia Nacional de Açúcar e Álcol
(private sector, National Sugar and Alcohol Co.)
CNB
- Comando Naval de Brasília
(Brasília Naval Command – Marine Corps base)
CNBB
- Conferência Nacional dos Bispos do Brasil
(National Conference of Brazilian [Roman Catholic] Bishops)
CNC
- Confederação Nacional de Comércio
(National Commerce Confederation)
CNDM
- Conselho Nacional de Direitos da Mulher
(Natonal Council on Women’s Rights)
CNEN
- Comissão Nacional de Enegria Nuclear
(National Nuclear Eneergy Commission)
CNI
- Confederação Nacional da Indústria
(National Industry Confederation)
CNJ
- Conselho Nacional do Judiciário
(National Council of the Judicial Branch)
 External Control body for the Judiciary
CNM
- Comando Naval de Manaus
(Manaus Naval Command)
CNMP- Conselho Nacional do Ministério Públic
(National Council for Public Prosecutors
 external control of prosecutors, similar to CNJ
CNOOC
- Chinese National Offshore Oil Corporation
CNPCP
- Conselho Nacional de Política Criminal e Penitenciária - MJ
(National Council for Criminal and Prison Policy – Ministry of Justice)
CNPE
- Conselho Nacional de Política Energética
(National Council for Energy Policy)
CNPJ
- Cadastro Nacional da Pessoa Jurídica
(corporate income tax ID number)
22
CNPq
- Conselho Nacional de Pesquisas
(National Research Council, within MCT)
CNT
- Confederação Nacional de Transportes
(National Transportation Confederation)
CNTC
- Confederação Nacional dos Trabalhadores no Comércio
(National Confederation of Commercial Workers)
CNTE
- Confederação Nacional dos Trabalhadores em Educação
(National Confederation of Workers in Education)
CNTI
- Confederação Nacional dos Trabalhadores na Indústria
(National Confederation of Industrial Workers)
CNTM
- Confederação Nacional dos Trabalhadores Metalúrgicos
(National Confederation of Metal Workers)
CNTS
- Confederação Nacional dos Trabalhadores na Saúde
(National Confederation of Health Workers)
COAF
- Conselho de Controle de Atividades Financeiras – at Finance Ministry
(Council for Control of Financial Activities – anti-money laundering)
Cobra
- Computadores e Sistemas Brasileiros
Brazilian Computers and Systems – now extinct)
Codevasf
- Companhia de Desenvolvimento dos Vales do São Francisco e Paraníba
(Company for the Development of the São Francisco & Paraníba Valleys)
COFACE
- Compagnie Française d’Assurande pour le Commerce Extérieur
- French Insurance Group – insurable trading risks – HQ Paris
- Coface university created in 2007
- Annual conferences held in January
COSIPAR
- Companhia Siderúrgica do Pará
(Iron & Steel Company of Pará State)
COMGÁS
- Companhia Municipal de Gás in SP
(SP municipal gas comapny, initial investment by British in 1872,
then Light in 1912, nationalized in 1959, control to CESP in 1984,
privatized  BG Group and Shell in 1999.
Conab
- Companhia Nacional de Abastecimento
(National Food Supply Company)
23
CONAC
- Conselho Nacional da Aviação Civil
(National Civil Aviation Council)
CONAMA
- Conselho Nacional de Meio Ambiente
(National Environment Council)
Conasp
- Conselho Nacional de Segurança Pública (MJ)
National Council for Public Security – Ministry of Justice)
CONCRAB - Confederação das Cooperativas de Reforma Agrária do Brasil
(“fiscal front” organization operated by the MST in order to receive funds
from Brazilian and foreign sources – like ANCA)
Condor
- Operação Condor – joint intelligence survailance of anti-military
regime militants by Chile, Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay and Brazil
 torture, murder, capture/”extraditon” , “officially” established in 1975
CONFAZ
- Conselho Nacional de Política Fazendária
(Natonal Council for Tax Policy, state secretaries of finance)
Confins
- Contribuição para Financiamento da Seguridade Social
(“contribuion” tax on gross incomes of private firms;
reduce the social security deficit)
CONTAG
- Confederação Nacional dos Trabalhadores na Agricultura
(National Confederation of Agricultural Workers)
COOPERMIBRA – Cooperativa Mixta Agropecuária do Brasil
(Brazilian Agro-Livestock Cooperative – joint venture with CHS in 2008)
COPOM
- Comitê de Política Econômica (at BC)
(Central Bank Monetary Policy Committee)
Coppe
- Coordenaçào de Programas de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia (UFRJ)
(Graduate engineering research center at RJ Federal Univ.)
Corregedor
- “Ethics Magistrate” – investigates alleged “breaches of ethics” in Senate and
Chamber of Deputies and prepares reports for the respective Ethics Councils that
may reccommend expulsion of the accused [cassação]
Cosban
-- Comissão Sino-Brasileira de Alto Nível de Concertação e Cooperação
(Chinese- Brazilian High-Level Comission for Negotiation & Cooperation)
CPA
- Conselho para Política Aduaneira – Min. Fazenda
24
(Customs Policy Council – Finance Ministry)
CPCM- Comissão Parlamentar Conjunto do Mercosul
(Joint Parliamentary Commission for Mercosul)
CPD
- Centro de Processamento de Dados
(Data Processing Center)
CPF
- Cadastro de Pessoas Físicas
(personal income tax ID number, used like SS# for ID in the US)
CPI
- Comissão Parlamentar de Inquérito)
(Congressional Investigating Committee)
CPI
- Corruption Perception Index (used by TI)
(compiled yearly by Transparency International – HQ in Berlin)
CPLP
- Comunidade de Países de Língua Portuguesa
(community of Portuguese-speaking nations)
CPMF
- Contribuição Provisório sobre Movimentação Financeira
(“temporary tax” of financial transactions, began in 1992)
CPOR
- Centro de Preparação de Oficiais da Reserva
(Reserve Officers Training Center)
CPqD
- Centro para Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento
(Research and Development Center)
CPRM- Companhia de Recursos Minerais
(Mineral Resources Research Unit at MM&E)
CPT
- Comissão Pastoral da Terra
(Catholic Church Pastoral Land Reform Commission)
CPTEC
- Centro de Previsão do Tempo e Estudos Climáticos
(Weather Forecasting and Climate Studies Center)
CRA
- Comissão de Agricultura e Reforma Agrária
(Senate Committee for Agriculture and Agrarian Reform)
CRE
- Comissão de Relações Exteriores e Defesa Nacional
(Senate Committee on Foreign Relations & Defense)
CREA
- Conselho Regional de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Agronomia
(Regional Council for Engineering, Architecture & Agronomy)
25
CRECI
- Conselho Regonal de Corretores de Imóveis
(Regional Council for Real Estate Agents)
CREDN
- Comissão de Relações Exteriores e Defesa Nacional
(Chamber of Deputies’ Committee on Foreign Relations & Defense)
CRUB
- Conselho de Reitores das Universidades Brasileiras
(Council of Brazilian University Rectors)
CRUSP
- Conselho de Reitores das Universidades de São Paulo
(Council of SP University Rectors)
CSA
- Companhia Siderúrgica do Atlântico
(new Thyssen steel mill in Santa Cruz, RJ, come on line in 2009)
CSGF
- Contribuição Social sobre Grandes Fortunas
(Social Contribution [Tax] on Large Fortunes – exceeding R$10 million)
CSIS
- Center for Strategic and International Studies
(Washington-based think tank)
CSLL
- Contribuição Social sobre o Lucro Líquido
(federal tax levy on net corporate profits)
CSN
- Conselho Nacional de Saúde – Ministério de Saúde
(National Health Council – Ministry of Health)
CSN
- Conselho de Segurança Nacional – Presidência da República
(National Security Council – under the President)
CSN
- Companhia Siderúrgica Nacional – in Volta Redonda
(National Iron & Steel Company – Brazil’s first steel mill
built in the 1940s with US asistance, not privatized)
CSPCCO
- Comissão de Segurança Pública e Combate ao Crime Organizado
(Chamber of Deputies’ Committee on Public Security & AntiOrganized Crime)
CSS
- Contribuição Social da Saúde
(possible new tax on financial transactions to replace CPMF)
CSSF
- Comissão de Seguridade Social e Família
(Chamber of Deputies’ Committee on Social Security & Family)
CTA
- Centro Técnico Aeroespecial
26
(aerospace technical center, FAB in S. José dos Campos, SP)
CTASP
- Comissão de Trabalho and Public Administration
(Chamber of Deputies’ Committee on Labor and Public Administration)
CTBC
- Companhia Telefónica Brasil Central
(Central Brazil Telephone Co., HQ in Uberlândia)
CTC
- Centro Tecnológico de Cana de Açucar – part of Petrobrás
(Sugarcane Technology Center)
CTNBio
- Comissão Técnica Nacional de Biossegurança
((National Technical Commission for Bio-Security)
CTD
- Comissão de Turismo e Desporto
(Chamber of Deputies’ Committee on Tourism & Sports)
CTEEE
- Centro de Treinamento e Estudos em Energia
(Center for Training and Studies on Energy)
CTEx
- Centro Tecnológico do Exército
(Army Tecnological Center – in Brasília)
CUPET
- Cuba’s State Petroleum Enterprise
CUT
- Central Única dos Trabalhadores – linked to PT
(Workers’ Labor Union Central – HQ in São Paulo)
CVC
- Citigroup Venture Capital
CVM
- Comissão de Valores Mobiliários
(Brazilian Securities Commission – like SEC in the US)
CVRD
- Companhia Vale do Rio Doce
(Brazil’s largest mining firm)
CVT
- Comissão de Viação e Transportes
(Chamber of Deputies’ Committee on Transportation)
D2
- 2% bio-diesel additive
DA
- Diários Associados
- powerful media chain (TV, radio & newspapers) established by
Assis Chateaubriand in 1927. TUPI TV network annulled in 1980.
27
DAAD
- Deutsche Akademie Austauschdienst Doktor
(German Academic Exchange Service)
DAC
- Dept. de Aviação Civil
(Civil Aviation Authority – linked to FAB)
 replaced by ANAC
DAS
- Direção e Assessoramento Superior
(1 to 6 classification for federal “confidence” appointments)
DASP
- Departamento Administrativo do Serviço Público
(federal unit to supervise federal public administration
created in 1938, replaced by Planning Ministry in 1970)
Datafolha
- Survey research unit at Folha de São Paulo
DATAMEC - Empresa privada de processamento de dados
(private data processing firm)
DATAPREV – Empresa de Processamento de Dados da Previdência Social
(Data processing unit at Ministry of Social Security)
DBRS
- Dominion Bond Rating Service (Canada)
DCE
- Diretório Central dos Estudantes
(Central Student Organization at each university)
DCN
- Diário do Congresso Nacional
(daily record of the National Congress)
DCNS
- Direction des Constructions Navales Services
(French naval construction firm)
DEA
- US Drug Enforcement Administration – liaison with Brazil
(Agência Americana de Repressão às Drogas)
DECEA
- Departamento do Controle do Espaço Aéreo
(Dept. for Air Space Control – part of FAB)
DEM
- Democratas (partido político)
 political party, replaced the PFL in March 2007
DF
- Federal District (Brasília)
28
DFQF
- Duty free, quota free – international trade access to markets
DGA
- General Armament Delegation (part of French Defense Ministry)
DIAP
- Dept. Intersindical de Assessoria Parlamentar
(top labor union lobbying operation in Brasília)
DIEESE
- Dept. Intersindical de Estatística e Estudos Socio-Econômicos)
(Labor Unions’ Bureau for Statistics & Socio-economic Studies - in São Paulo)
DNER
- Dept. Nacional de Estradas de Rodagem
(National Highway Dept. – replaced by DNIT)
DNIT
- Dept. Nacional de Infra-estrutura de Transportes
(Dept. of Transportation Infrastructure – replaced DNER)
DNOCS
- Dept. Nacional de Obras contra a Seca
(National Dept. of Public Works against the Drought)
DNPM- Dept. Nacional de Produção Mineral – part of MM&E
(National Dept. of Minerals Production)
DOC
- Documento de Ordem de Crédito
(deposit from one bank account to another)
DOF
- Documento Original Florestal
(Original Forest Document)
DOHA- Doha Round of WTO trade talks
DOI-CODI
- Departmento de Operações Internas-Centro de Operações de Defesa Interna
(Detention & Torture Center in SP during Military Regime)
Doleiro
- unauthorized, illegal money changer – used for money laundering
DOU
- Diário Oficial da União
(federal daily record)
DPF
- Dept. da Polícia Federal
(Federal Police)
DRCI
- Dept. de Recuperação de Ativos e Cooperação Jurídica Internacional
(Dept. for Recovery of Assets and International Cooperation, at MJ)
29
DRT
- Delegacia Regional do Trabalho
(regional offices of Ministry of Labor)
DRU
- Desvinculação de Receitas da União
- waiver allowing the government to reallocate up to 20% of
federal revenues out of “earmarked” constitutional revenue sharing;
initiated in 1994 in support of the Real Plan and extended every 4
four years by PEC (Constitutional Amendment)
DSB
- Dispute Settlement Body at the WTO
DST
- Doenças Sexualmente Transmisíveis
(Sexual Transmissable Diseases)
DVS
- Destaque para Votação em Separado
(line item voting)
EAU
- Emirados Arabes Unidos
(United Arab Emirates)
EBAP
- Escola Brasileira de Administação Pública (FGV-Rio)
(Brazilian School of Public Administration at FGV-Rio)
EBC
- Empresa Brasil de Comunicação
(Brazil’s new “public TV” system, nicknamed “TV Lula”)
EBCT
- Empresa Brasileira de Correios e Telégrafos (replaced ECT)
(Brazilian Postal Service – state enterprise)
EBRD
- European Bank for Reconstruction and Development
EBX
- Brazilian holding group founded by mega investor Eike Batista in 1983
EC
- European Community
(Comunidade Europeia  EU)
ECA
- Estatuto da Criança e Adolescente – approved in 1990
(Statute for [Protection of] Children & Adolescents)
ECEMAR
- Escola de Comando e Esrado-Maior da Aeronáutica
(Air Force Officers’ Traning Program, MajorColonel)
ECEME
- Escola de Comando e Estado Maior (do Exército)
(Army Officers’ Training Program, MajorColonel)
30
ECFR
- European Council on Foreign Relations
ECI
- Economic Climate Index, complied by the German Inst. for Economic
Research -- HQ in Munich
ECLAC
- Economic Commission for Latin America & the Caribbean (formally ECLA)
(CEPAL-Comissão Econômica para América Latina e Caribe, UN)
ECO-92
- UN World Summit on the Environment, Rio de Janeiro, June 1992
(also called Rio-92)
ECOSOC
- United Nations Economic and Social Council
ECT
- Empresa dos Correios e Telégrafos (replaced by EBCT)
(Federal Postal Service)
ED
- Esquerda Democrática  PSB
(leftist spinoff from UDN, 1946-1950; formed PSB in 1950)
EDF
- Environmental Defense Fund (1967), HQ New York
EFI
- Economic Freedom Index, complied by the Heritage Foundation and WSJ
EGN
- Escola de Guerra Naval
(Navy War College, located in Rio de Janeiro)
EGSA
- Environmental Goods and Services Agreement
- being negotiated at the WTO Doha Round
EIU
- [The] Economist Intelligence Unit (London and New York)
Eletrobrás
- Federal electrical holding firm
Eletronorte
- Federal electrical holding firm in Northern Region
Eletropaulo - Eletricidade de São Paulo S.A.
(São Paulo Electricity Distribution Company)
EMATER
- Empresa de Assistência Técnica e Extensão Rural
(Rural Extension Service)
EMBI+
- Emerging Markets Bond Index
(compiled daily by JP Morgan)
31
EMBRAER - Empresa Brasileira de Aeronáutica
(Brazilian Airplane Factory, located in São José dos Campos, SP)
Embrapa
- Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agro-Pecuária
(Brazilian Agricultural Research Enterprise)
Embratel
- Brazilian long distance and international telecommunications service
(owned by Telmex  Carlos Slim Helú
Embratur
- Indústria Brasileiro de Turismo
(Federal Tourism Institute)
EMFA
- Estado Maior das Forças Armadas
(Joint Chiefs of Staff, abolished in 1999)
EN
- Escola Naval – in Rio de Janeiro
(Brazilian Naval Academy)
ENAP
- Escola Nacional de Administração Pública (Fundação)
(national government training school – management specialists)
 replaced FUNCEP
ENARSA
- Energia Argentina S.A.
(Argentine energy state enterprise created by the
Kirchner government in 2004)
END
- Estratégia de Defesa Nacional – approved 15th December 2008
(National Defense Strategy)
Engesa
- Engenheiros Especializados S.A.
(Specialized Engineering Firm – arms manufacturer)
ENI
- Ente Nazionale Idrocarburi S.p.A.
(Italian petroleum firm)
EPE
- Empresa de Pesquisas Energéticas
(Federal Energy Research Unit – linked to MM&E)
EPFR Global – Emerging Portfolio Fund Research Inc. - based in Cambridge, MA
EPP
- Empresa de Pequeno Porte
(small size business)
Época
- weekly news magazine published by Globo
32
ES
- State of Espírito Santo
ESA
- European Space Agency
(Agência Espacial Europeia)
ESAF
- Escola de Administração Fazendária
(Ministry of Finance training school)
ESAL
- Escola Superior de Agricultura de Lavras (MG)
(federalized in 1994  UFLa)
ESALQ
- Escola Suprerior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz
(agricultural university of state of SP in Piracicaba)
ESAO
- Escola de Aperfeiçoamento de Oficiais do Exército
(Army Officers Training School)
ESG
- Escola Superior de Guerra
(Superior War College)
ESNI
- Escola do Serviço Nacional de Informação
(former SNI training school)
ETCO
- Brazilian Institute for Ethics in Corporate Competition
ETF
- Exchange Traded Fund
EURO
- the new currency of the European Common Market nations
EXIMBANK – US Export-Import Bank
FAA
- US Federal Aviation Administration (Dept. of Transportation)
FAAP
- Fundação Armando Álvares Penteado
(traditional private university in city of São Paulo)
FAB
- Força Aérea Brasileira
(Brazilian Air Force)
FAC
- Fundo de Aplicação em Cotas
(buys and sells quotas in other funds, the “fund of funds”)
FAO
- Food and Agriculture Organization - UN
(organização da ONU para agricultura e alimentaçào)
33
FARC
- Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia
(largest anti-government guerrilha movement in Colombia)
Farroupilha Day – 20th September – state holiday in Rio Grande do Sul
- marks the begining of the Guerra dos Farrapos in 1835
FASE
- Federação de Órgãos para Assistência Social e Educacional
(Federation of Social Assistance and Educational Groups)
FATF
- Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering
(GAFI-Grupo de Ação Financeira sobre Lavagem de Dinheiro)
FDI
- Foreign Direct Investment
(IED – Investimento Estrangeiro Direito)
FEA
- Faculdade de Economia e Administração (USP)
(USP School of Economics and Administration)
FEBEM
- Fundação Estadual do Bem-Estar do Menor
(SP foundation for juvenile offenders, now called CASA)
FEBRABAN – Federação Brasileira das Associações de Bancos
(Brazilian Federation of Banks)
FED
- US Federal Reserve Bank
FELABAN
- Federação Latinoamericana de Bancos
(Loatin American Federation of Banks)
FENABRAVE – Federação Nacional da Distribuição de Veículos Automotores
(National Assoc. of Automobile Dealerships)
FENAJ
- Federação Nacional dos Jornalistas
(National Journalists’ Federation)
FENTAC
- Federação Nacional de Trabalhadores na Aviação Civil
(National Federation of Civilian Airline Workers)
FFIE
- Fundo Fiscal de Investimento e Estabilização
(Fiscal Investment and Stabilization Fund) – created for the FSB
FGC
- Fundo de Garantia de Crédito
(Bank Deposit Guarantee Fund; like the FDIC in the USA)
34
FIFA
- Fédération Internationale de Football Association
(International Soccer Federation – HQ in Zurich
FGTS
- Fundo de Garantia por Tempo de Serviço
(workers’ severance guarantee fund, 8% “contribution” per month by firms)
FGV
- Fundação Getúlio Vargas
(Getúlio Vargas Foundation – HQ Rio de Janeiro)
FHC
- former president Fernando Henrique Cardoso (1995-2002)
Ficha Suja
- Persons with dirty records - criminal accusations – are allowed to run for office in
Brazil; in 2008, the AMB publicized lists of candidates with fichas sujas.
FIES
- Financiamento do Estudante o Ensino Superior
(federal educational fellowship program for private university students;
based on tax rebates to private univ. that grant these “fellowships”)
- Fundo de Investimentos no Exterior
(domestic investment fund, up to 60% in Brazilian foreign debt)
FIEX
FIF
- Fundo de Investimento Financeiro
(several types of investment funds: fixed rate, DI, derivatives, etc.)
FIERJ
- Federação das Indústrias do Estado de Rio de Janeiro
(RJ state industrial federation)
FINAME
- Agência Especial de Financiamento Industrial
(special fund for industrial expansion)
FINEP- Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos
(federal agency that finances “large” research projects
Fiocruz
- Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
(federal bio-tech research center in Rio de Janeiro)
FIPE
- Fundação Instituto de Pesquisas Econômicas (USP)
(Foundation for Economic Research at USP)
Fisiologismo - Distribuição de nomeações e verbas entre deputados e senadores
(pork barrel distribution of “political goods” to politicians to
guarantee their “consistent” voting in Congress)
Fitch
- Fitch Ratings – HQ in New York
(sovereign risk ratings for 90 countries)
35
FITVM
- Fundo de Investimento de Títulos e Valores Mobiliários
(new category of fund with variable income)
FLACSO
- Facultad Latino-Americana de Ciencias Sociales
(Latin American School for Social Science)
FMI
- Fundo Monetário Internacional
(IMF-International Monetary Fund)
FNDE
- Fundação Nacional de Desenvolvimento da Educação
(National Foundation for Education Development)
FNS
- Força Nacional de Segurança
(National Security Force – recruited from police in the states and trained
to be deployed to insure security and public safety in states and cities)
Focus
- Central Bank survey of economic projections by financial instutitions
- published every Monday
Força Sindical – Labor Union central HQ in São Paulo
Foro privilegiado - “privileged forum” – president, ministers, senators, and deputies
can only be prosecuted by the STF for criminal acts, was
considered equivalent to “impunity” before 2007
Forum de São Paulo – Annual encounter of Left parties and groups in Latin America and
elsewhere, promoted by the PT as of 1990 (Read: Prof. Marco Aurélio Garcia);
includes “inssurectional” some groups like the FARC.
FPM
- Fundo de Participação dos Municípios
(Municipal Participation Fund – federallocal revenue sharing)
FPSO
- Floating Production, Storage and Offloading vessels (petroleum extraction)
FRIDE
- Fundación para las Relaciones Internacionaled y el Diálogo Exterior
(Foundation for International Relations and Foreign Dialogue)
-European think-tank HQ in Madrid, founded in 1999
FSB
- Fundo Soberano Brasil – established in December 2008
(Brazil’s Sovereign Wealth Fund)
FSP
- Folha de São Paulo
36
(Major newspaper in São Paulo)
FTAA
- Free Trade Agreement of the Americas – Miami 1994
(ALCA – Area de Livre Comércio das Américas)
FTSE
- London stock exchange index
Funai
- Fundação Nacional do Índio
(National Indian Foundation)
 replaced SPI-Indian Protection Service
Funarte
- Fundação Nacional de Arte
(National Foundation for the Arts)
FUNCEF
- Retirement fund for CEF employees
FUNCEP
- Fundação Centro de Formação do Servidor Público
(federal public employee training center)
 replaced by ENAP
FUNDEB
- Fundação Nacional de Desenvolvimento da Educação Básica
(National Foundation for Development of Primary and
Pre-School Education) – replaced FUNDEF
FUNDEF
- Fundação Nacional de Desenvolvimento da Educação Fundamental
(National Foundation for Primary School Development)
 replaced by FUNDEB
FUNRURAL – Fundo de Assistência ao Trabalhador Rural
(social security fund for rural workers)
FX
- Foreign Exchange
FX-2
FAB project to buy new 36-plane squadron of jet fighter planes
G-3
- Grupo dos 3 – Group of Three
(Brazil, South Africa & India)
G-4
- Grupo dos 4 – Group of Four
(Brazil, South Africa, India & Japan  UN Security Council)
G4S
- The world’s largest security company
- created in 2004 by a merger of Group 4 Falck (Denmark) + Securicor (UK)
G-7
- Grupo dos 7 – Group of Seven
37
(7 most developed industrial nations)
G-8
- G-7 plus Russia
G-20
- Grupo dos 20 – Group of 20
(emerging nations led by Brazil and India  WTO negotiations)
G-20
- G-8 nations plus 12 emerging nations
 new international economic forum; after Sept./09 “blowout”
GAFI
- Grupo de Ação Financeira sobre Lavagem de Dinheiro
(FATF-Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering)
Galeão
- Rio de Janeiro’s International Airport (Aeroporto Tom Jobim)
GALP
- Portuguese petroleum firm
GAPA
- Grupo de Apoio e Prevenção de AIDS
(Support Group for AIDS Prevention)
GATT
- General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
(replaced by WTO in 1995)
Gazprom
- Russian natural gas firm
GB
- the state of Guanabara
(created in 1960 from old DF; merged with RJ in 1975)
GDF
- Government of the Federal District – Brasília
GDF
- Gaz de France (French gas company)
GECF
- Gas Exporting Countries Forum (the Natural Gas OPEC)
 founded in 2001; approved its formal charter in 2008
GEF
- Global Environmental Facility, began in 1991
GEIPOT
- Grupo de Estudos para a Integração da Políitca de Transportes (within MT)
(Study Group for the Integration of Transportation Policies) – founded 1965
- transformed into Empresa Brasileira de Planejamento de Transportes (1973)
- extinguished in May 2008
GETAT
- Grupo Executivo das Terras do Araguaia-Tocantins
(Executive Group for Land in the Araguaia and Tocantins river basins)
38
GIF
- Global Innovation Forum
GLP
- Gás Liquifeito de Petróleo
(LPG-Liquefied Petroleum Gas)
GM
- Gazeta Mercantil
(business-economics-finance newspaper published in São Paulo)
GMOs
- Genetically Modified Organisms
( OGMs – Organismos Geneticamente Modificados)
GNV
- Gas Natural Veicular
(natural gas fuel for autos, buses & trucks)
GO
- State of Goiás
GOL
- GOL-Linhas Aéreas Inteligentes, fundada em 2001
(no-frills airline founded in 2001, purchased Varig in 2007)
 modeled after Southwest Airlines in US
GPI
- Global Peace Index – incidence of violence, complied by
EIU for 121 nations (Brazil ranked 83rd in 2007)
Gripen NG
- Swedish fighter plane that competed for the FX-2
GSI
- Gabinete de Segurança Institutional
(Office of Institucional Security – linked to the Presidency)
GSM
- Global System for Mobile
(European cell phone system, uses chip)
GSP
- Generalized System of Preferences [via USTR in the US]
(Facilitates access of emerging nation exports to the US market)
GT
- Grupo de Trabalho
(working group, task force)
G-Tech
- US firm (HQ Rhode Island) that administers lotteries, purchased Racimec in 1997
and “inherited” its contract with the CEF to operate its lotteries. G-Tech was
accused of using “pressure techniques” on CEF to renew its contract in 2004.
GTZ
- Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit GmbH
(German Technical Cooperation Agency)
39
HABITAT
- UN Conference of Human Habitations
HC
- Hospital das Clínicas
(hospital with diverse clinics)
HDI
- Human Development Index
(index complied by UNDP every year)
HDPE
- High Density Polyethylene
Helibrás
- Helicópteros do Brasil S.A. – former state-owned firm that manufactures
helicopters as of 1978, HQ Itajubá, MG – now owned by Eurocopter (EADS)
HFA
- Hospital das Forças Armadas
(Armed Forces Hospital in Brasília)
HGPE
- Horário Gratuito de Propaganda Eleitoral
(Free Election Propaganda Hour, allocated by TS)
HIV
- Human Inmmunodeficiency Virus
HSBC
- Hong-Kong Shangai Bank Corp.
(acquired Bamerindus in 1999)
Hudson Institute – “Research” Inst. fun by Herman Kahn
- proposed grandiose development plan for the Amazon in 1970s
IAA
- Instituto do Açucar e do Álcool
(sugar and alcohol institute)
IAB
- Instituto de Advogados do Brasil
(Brazilian Institute of Lawyers)
IAB
- Instituto de Arquitetos do Brasil
(Brazilian Institute of Architects)
IADB
- Inter-American Development Bank
(BID – Banco Interamericano do Desenvolvimento)
IAEA
- International Atomic Energy Agency – UN Agency, HQ in Vienna
(AIEA – Agência Internacional de Energia Atômica)
IBAM
- Instituto Brasileiro de Administração Municipal
(private organization in Rio; research & training for local gov’t.)
40
Ibama
- Inst. Brasileira do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Renováveis
(Environmental Protection Inst.)
IBASE- Inst. Brasileiro de Análises Sociais e Econômicos
(Brazilian Inst. for Socio-Economic Analyses – in Rio de Janeiro)
IBC
- Instituto Brasileiro do Café
(Brazilian Coffee Institute, extinct in 1991)
IBES
- Institutional Brokers Estimate System
IBGE
- Inst. Brasileira de Geografia e Estatística
(National Statistics Bureau  inflation indexes & census)
IBICT
- Inst. Brasileiro de Informação em Ciência e Tecnologia
(Brazilian Inst. for Science & Technology Information - MCT)
Ibope
- Inst. Brasileiro de Opinião Pública – in Rio de Janeiro
(Survey Research Firm, does surveys for CNI)
IBRA
- Instituto Brasileiro da Reforma Agrária
(Brazilian Inst. for Agrarian Reform)
IBRAM
- Instituto Brasileiro de Mineração
(Brazilian Mining Inst.)
IBSA
- India, Brazil and South Africa  IBSA Summit (G-3)
(met in South Africa on 17th October 2007)
ICAO
- International Civil Aviation Organization
 UN agency, HQ in Montreal, Canada
ICBC
- Industrial and Commerce Bank of China
ICMS
- Imposto sobre Circulação de Mercadorias e Serviços
(tax on goods and services, replaced ICM)
ICONE
- Inst. de Estudos do Comércio e Negociações Internacionais
(private research inst. for foreign trade issues – HQ in SP)
ICSID
- International Center for the Settlement of Investment Disputes
- World Bank’s dispute resolution forum, HQ in Washington, DC
ICV
- Índice Custo de Vida
(Consumer Cost of Living Index, compiled by Fipe)
41
IDEA
- Inst. for Democracy and Electoral Assistance
(UN organization - HQ in Stockholm)
IDEC
- International Drug Enforcement Conference
IEC
- International Electrotechnical Commission – HQ in Geneva
IED
- Investimento Estrangeiro Direto
(FDI-Foreign Direct Investment)
IEDI
- Instituto de Estudos para o Desenvolvimento Industrial
(private organization to promote industrial development)
IEO
- Independent Evaluation Office – “monitors” IMF
IFATCA
- International Federation of Air Traffic Controllers Assoc.
IFC
- International Finance Corporation – established 1956
(member of the World Bank Group)
IFES
- Instituições Federais de Ensino Superior
(federal universities)
IFES
- International Foundation for Election Systems – HQ in Washington, DC
IFR
- International Financing Review (published by Thomson Reuters)
IFLAPA
- International Federation of Airline Pilots’ Associations
IGP
- Índice Geral dos Preços
(a wholesale price index)
IGP-DI
- Índice Geral dos Preços – Disponabilidade Interna
(general price index, excludes imported goods)
IGP-M
- Índice Geral dos Preços - Mercado
(general price index – market prices)
IICA
- Instituto Interamericano de Ciências Agrícolas
(Inter-American Inst. for Agriculture training & research)
 HQ in Turrialba, Costa Rica
IIPA
- International Intellectual Property Alliance
42
(represents some 1,900 US companies)
IIRSA
- Iniciativa para a Integração da Infra-estrutura Regional Sul-Americana
(South American Regional Infrastructure Integration)
ILO
- International Labor Organization (UN unit in Geneva)
(OIT-Organizão Internatioanl do Trabalho)
ILS
- Instrument Landing System
 ILS-3, the most advanced, sophisticaed version
Imazon
- pro-sustainable development NGO based in Belém, PA
IMD
- International Institute for Management Development
(Switzerland-based business school)
publishes WCY-World Competitiveness Yearbook
IME
- Instituto Militar de Engenharia
(Military Engineering Inst. – run by the Army)
 undergrad. & graduate programs, HQ in Rio
IMF
- International Monetary Fund
(FMI-Fundo Monetário Internacional)
IMG
- International Management Group – ssports & entertainment
- acquired by Theodore Forstmann in 2004
In Nov. 2010, IMG formed a joint venture (IMGX) with Eike Batista
IML
- Instituto Medico Legal
(state government “morgue” – completes autopsies of the dead &
issues death certificates)
IN
- Imprensa Nacional
(Federal Government Printing Office, in Brasília)
INA
- Índice de Nível de Atividade – level of industrial activity (used by Fiesp)
(Index of Level of [Industrial] Activity)
INB
- Indústrias Nucleares do Brasil, S.A.
(Brazilian Nuclear Industry)
INCA
Instituto Nacional de Cancer
(National Cancer Institute)
INCC
- Índice de Preços da Construção Civil
43
(Index for Construction Prices)
INCOR
- Instituto do Coração
(heart institute – hospital in SP)
INCRA
- Instituto Nacional de Colonização e Reforma Agrária
(National Inst. for Colonization & Agrarian Reform)
INEP
- Inst. Nacional de Estudos e Pesquisas Educacionais
(National Inst. for Educational Studies & Research MEC)
INESC
- Instituto de Estudos Socio-Econômicos
(Inst. for Socio-Economic Studies – pro-active NGO in Brasília)
Infraero
- state enterprise that controls and administers Brazil’s airports
Inmetro
- Inst. Nacional de Metrologia, Normalização e Qualidade Industrial
(National Inst. of Standards, Norms & Industrial Quality)
 similar to US National Bureau of Standards
INPA
- Inst. Nacional de Pesquisas Amazônicas – HQ in Manaus
- National Inst. for Research on the Amazon Region
INPC
- Indíce Nacional de Preços ao Consumidor
(Consumer Price Index – up to 8 minimum wages)
INPE
- Inst. Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais
(National Space Research Inst., São José dos Campos, SP)
INPI
- Inst. Nacional de Propriedade Industrial
(Brazilian Patent Office)
INSS
- Inst. Nacional de Seguro Social (replaced INPS)
(National Social Security Inst. – for private sector)
Interpol
- Organização Internacional de Polícia Criminal
(International Criminal Police Organization)
 congregates police from 182 nations
IOB
- Informações Objetivas Publicações Jurídicas Ldta.
(private firm, provides detailed technical business information)
IOF
- Imposto sobre Operações Financeiras
(tax on financial operations)
44
IP
- Industrial Production
IPA
- Índice de Preços por Atacado
(wholesale price index)
IPC
- Instituto de Previdência dos Congressistas
(retirement fund for members of Congress)
IPC
- Índice de Preços ao Consumidor
(a consumer price index – up to 6 minimum wages)
IPC-C1
- Consumer Price Index for the lowest income bracket
- from 1 to 2.5 minimum wages
IPCA
- Índice de Preços ao Consumidor Amplo
(Broad Consumer Price Index, up to 20 minimum wages)
IPEA
- Inst. de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada
(Inst. for Applied Economic Research – at MPOG)
IPHAN
- Inst. do Patrimônio Histórico e Artístico Nacional
(National Inst. of Historic and Artistic Patrimony)
IPI
- Imposto sobre Produtos Industrializados
(tax on industrial products)
IPR
- Intellectual Property Rights
IPRI
- Institute de Pesquisas em Relações Internacionais
(International Relations Research Inst. – part of MRE)
IPSA
- International Political Science Assoc.
IPTU
- Imposto Territorial Urbano
(local real estate tax)
IPU
Inter-Parliamentary Union – HQ in Geneva, founded in 1889
IR
- Imposto de Renda
(income tax; IRPF = personal income tax; IRPJ = corporate income tax)
IRB
- Instituto de Resseguros do Brasil
(Brazilian reinsurance Inst. – public autarky, to be privatized in 2008)
45
IRBr
- Inst. Rio Branco
(diplomat training course at MRE)
IRPF
- Imposto de Renda de Pessoa Física
(personal income tax)
IRPJ
- Imposto de Renda de Pessoa Jurídica
(corporate income tax)
ISO
- International Sugar Organization – HQ in London – since 1954
(OIA-Organização International do Açucar)
ISO
- International Standarization Office – HQ in Geneva
ISS
- Imposto sobre Serviços
(municipal tax levied on services)
IstoÉ
- weekly news magazine
ITA
- Inst. Tecnológico da Aeronáutica
(FAB engineering school, in São José dos Campos, SP)
Itamaraty
- nickname for MRE, Ministry of Foreign Relations
Itaú
- Banco Itaú – Brazil’s 3rd largest private bank
ITR
- Imposto Territorial Rural
(tax on rural lands)
IUPERJ
- Inst. Universitário de Pesquisas de Rio de Janeiro
(private graduate research center in Rio, offers MA & Ph.D.
in Political Science and Sociology)
IURD
- Igreja Universal do Reino de Deus – Bishop Edir Macedo
(Universal Church of the Kingdom of God) – TV Record
IVA
- Imposto de Valor Agregado
(VAT – Value Added Tax)
Jango
- nickname for Pres. João Goulart (1961-1964)
JB
- Jornal do Brasil
(Major newspaper in Rio de Janeiro)
JBIC
- Japan Bank for International Cooperation
46
JEC
- Juventude Estudantil Católica
(Catholic organizaiton for high-school age youth, repressed by military)
JETRO
- Japanese International Trade Organization
JF
- Justiça Federal
(Federal Judiciary)
JICA
- Japan International Cooperation Agency
Jirau
- New hydro-electric project on the Madeira River (Rondônia)
JK
- Juscelino Kubitschek de Oliveira
(former Brazilian President, 1956-1961)
JOC
- Juventude Operário Católica
(Catholic workers’ organization, repressed by military after 1964)
JQ
- Jânio Quadros
(former Brazilian President, 7 months in 1961)
JUC
- Juventude Universitária Católica
(Catholic organization for university students, harshly repressed by the military
after 1964, many militants joined AP and other anti-military organizations)
Jupiter
- large deepwater, “pre-salt” oil field southeast of São Paulo
KAS
- Konrad Adenauer Stiftung
(Konrad Adenauer Foundation, German Christian Democratic Party)
Kasato Maru - First ship carrying Japanese immigrants, docked at Santos on 18th June 1908
Keidanren
- Nippon Keidanren – confederation of Japanese industrial sector leaders
KC-390
- New twin-engine jet cargo transport plane being developed by Embraer
- Will replace the “workhorse” C-130 (1950s vintage) cargo plane
KKR
- Kohlberg-Kravis-Roberts – US private equity firm
KWU
- Kraftwerk Union – Kraftwerksgeschäft von Siemens
(German manufacturer of heavy equipment for nuclear power plants
and other electricity generation facilities)
Laranja
- literally “an orange” [citrus fruit]
- political slang for a “stand in, cover up, eminence gris
47
- a person used (some times involuntarily) to be the person legally
responsible for some entity, for tax evasion purposes
LATAM
- New holding [merger] between TAM and Lan Chile
- announced in August 2010
LBA
- Legião Brasileira de Assistência
(social assistance administered by Brazil’s First Ladies, began with
Darcy Vargas in 1942 – abolished in 1995)
LCA
- São Paulo-based consulting firm – founded in 1993
LCV
- Light commercial vehicle
LDB
- Lei de Diretrizes e Bases da Educação Nacional
(basic education law in Brazil)
LDO
- Lei de Diretrizes Orçamentárias
(Budget Guidelines Law) – finalized by Congress by 30th July every year
LDPE
- Low Density Polyethylene
LG
- LG Electronics, South Korean firm (previously Goldstar until 1995)
(“LG” symbol means – “The World”, “The Future”, “Youth”,
“Humanism” and “Technology”)
LOA
- Lei do Orçamento Anual
(annual budget law) – transmitted to Congress on 1st August every year
LRF
- Lei de Responsabilidade Fiscal
(Fiscal Responbibility Law, penalizes deficit spending by
state and municipal governments)
LSE
- London School of Economics and Political Science
LSN
- Lei de Segurança Nacional
(National Security Law)
LTF
- Letras Financeiras do Tesouro
(national treasury bonds, fixed term, SELIC rate
LTN
- Letras do Tesouro Nacional
(fixed rate treasury bonds)
Luz para Todos – “Electricity for Everyone” – Lula’s rural electrification program
48
MA
- State of Maranhão
MAB
- Movimento dos Atingidos por Barragens
(Movement of those Desplaced by Power Dam Projects)
MAer
- Ministério da Aeronaútica
(Air Force Ministry, incorporated into Min. of Defense in 1999)
MAg
- Ministério de Agricultura e do Abastecimento
(Ministry of Agriculture)
MAN
- MAN AG – Maschinenfabrik Augsburg-Nürnberg – HQ Munich
(large German firm that manufucuters motors and trucks)
- acquired VW truck and bus division in Brazil in January 2009
Mão Santa
- nickname for Francisco de Assis de Moraes Souza
(PMDB Senator and former governor of Piauí)
MARE
- Ministério da Administração Federal e Reforma do Estado
(Ministry for Federal Administration & Reform of the State)
 abolished in 2003
MC
- Ministério das Comunicações
(Ministry of Communications)
MC
- Ministério das Cidades
(Ministry for the Cities)
MCT
- Ministério de Ciência e Tecnologia
(Ministry of Science & Technology)
MD
- Ministério da Defesa
(Ministry of Defense, created in 1999)
MD
- Mobilização Democrática
(Democratic Mobilization, party merger attempted by PPS-PMN-PHS
in early 2007 that did not materialize)
MDA
- Ministério do Desenvolvimento Agrário
(Ministry of Agrarian Development)
MDB
- Movimento Democrático Brasileiro (became PMDB in 1980)
(Brazilian Democratic Movement, 1966-1979)
 opposition party versus military regime
49
MDIC
- Ministério do Desenvolvimento, Indústria e Comércio
(Ministry of Development, Industry & Commerce)
ME
- Ministério dos Esportes
(Ministry of Sports)
ME
- Micro Empresa
(micro business)
MEC
- Ministério da Educação
(Ministry of Education)
Mensalão
- a BIG “monthly allowance” allocated to deputies to “vote the right way”,
in 2003 and 2004, funds from “suspect” sources, mostly “siphoned off”
from public contracts and “laundered” via government propaganda
contracts with advertising firms – scandal exploded in 2005.
Mercosul
- Mercado Comum dos Países do Cone Sul
(South American Common Market)
MEx
- Ministério do Exército
(Ministry of the Army, incorporated into Defense Min. in 1999)
Merval
- Argentine stock market index
MF
- Ministério da Fazenda
(Ministry of Finance)
MG
- State of Minas Gerais
MGE
- Railroad equipment & service firm founded in 2001, acquired by Caterpiller’s
“Progress Rail Sevices” in Latin America in June 2008.
MI
- Ministério da Integração Nacional
(Ministry of National Integration)
MIC
- Middle Income Country
MiG
- Russian jet fighter plane “Mikoyan-Gurevich”
MIGA
- Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency
(Agência Multilateral de Garantia de Investimentos)
Minc
- Ministério da Cultura
(Ministry of Culture)
50
Minc
- Carlos Minc, Minister for the Environment (2008-??)
Minustah
- UN Peace Keeping Mission in Haiti
(commanded by a Brazilian officer, largest contingent of troops from Brazil)
Mittal
- India’s largest steel maker (Mittal family)
MJ
- Ministério da Justiça
(Ministry of Justice)
MLST
- Movimento de Libertação dos Sem-Terra
(Movement for the Liberation of the Landless
- radical splinter from MST led by PT militant Bruno Maranhão
MM
- Ministério da Marinha
(Navy Ministry, incorporated into Defense Min. in 1999)
MMA
- Ministério do Meio Ambiente
(Ministry of Environment)
MM&E
- Ministério de Minas e Energia
(Ministry of Mines and Energy)
MMX
- Mineração e Metálicos – firm owned by mega investor Eike Batista
(Mining and Metals firm)
MODEC
- Mitsui Ocean Development & Engineering Co.
- a Tokyo-based provider of off-shore drilling equipment
MoM
- Month on Month
Montoneros - The largest guerrilla movement in Argentina.
Moody’s
- Moody’s Investor Service – HQ in New York
(sovereign risk ratings for different countries)
MP
- Medida Provisória
(provisional measure, issued by presidentforce of Law)
MPAS
- Ministério da Previdência e Assistência Social
(Social Security Ministry)
MPDFT
- Ministério Público do DF e Territórios, also MPF
(Federal Prosecutors for the DF and federal territories)
51
MPE
- Ministério Público Estadual
(state government prosecutors)
MPEs
- Micro e Pequenas Empresas
(small and micro businesses)
MPF
- Ministério Público Federal (vê PGR)
(Federal Prosecutors, see PGR)
MPM
- Ministério Público Militar (junto ao STM)
(Federal Prosecutors at STM-Superior Military Court)
MPOG
- Ministério do Planejamento, Orçamento e Gestão
(Ministry of Planning, Budget & Management)
MPS
- Ministério da Previdência Social – replaced MTPS & MPAS
(Ministry of Social Security)
MPT
- Ministério Público do Trabalho
(federal prosecutors assigned to labor courts)
MPX
- The electrical energy group linked to EBX – Mega-investor Eike Batista
MRE
- Ministério de Relações Exteriores
(Ministry of Foreign Relations, Itamaraty)
MS
- State of Mato Grosso do Sul
MS
- Ministério de Saúde
(Ministry of Health)
MSCI
- Morgan Stanley Capital International
(stock market index, MSCI-Brazil)
MST
- Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais sem Terra
(Landless Rural Workers’ Movement)
MT
- State of Mato Grosso
MT
- Ministério do Turismo
(Ministry of Tourism)
MT
- Ministério dos Transportes
(Ministry of Transportation)
52
MTA
- Master Top Airlines – hired by ECT to carry air mail in Brazil
- Involved in Erenice Guerra corruption scandal in 2010
MTE
- Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego
(Ministry of Labor & Jobs)
MTPS
- Ministério do Trabalho e Previdência Social  divided into MTE & MPS
(former Ministry of Labor & Social Security)
MTR
- Movimento Trabalhista Renovador, 1960-1965 [Fernando Ferrari]
(Labor Renovation Movement, splinter party from PTB in 1960)
Municípios
- Brazilian municipalities (5,563 towns and cities), within the federal system
NAE
- Núcleo de Estudos Estratégicos
(Strategic Studies Unit, within Sec. for Social Communication)
NAFTA
- North American Free Trade Association
(US, Canada & Mexico – in 1993)
NAMA
- Non-Agricultural Market Access (WTO negotiating point in Doha Round)
Nano
- Mini-automobile launched by Ratan Tata in India
NASA
- US National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NASDAQ
- National Assoc. of Securities Dealers Automated Quotation
(launched in 1971, securities market for large technology firms,
recently merged with AMEX)
NBCs
- Notas do Banco Central
(minimum 3-month term, 6% p.a. + US$ fluctuation)
NCC
- National Cotton Council
NCSL
- National Conference of State Legislatures – HQ in Denver, CO
NE
- Nordeste
(Northeast region of Brazil)
NEC
- Nippon Electronics Company
NFC
- Near Field Communication
NFTC
- US National Foreign Trade Council
53
NIKKEY
- Japanese Stock Market Index
NME
- Non-market economy
NO
- Norte (North)
Nossa Caixa - Bank owned by State of São Paulo, sold to the Banco do Brasil in 2008
Notam
- “Notice to Airmen” – Official communication to pilots
NOVACAP - Companhia Urbanizadora da Nova Capital do Brasil
(state company that built and administers Brasília)
NPT
- Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
(TNP-Tratado de Não Proliferação)
NTBs
- Non-tariff barriers (term in WTO negotiations)
NTN
- Notas do Tesouro Nacional
(variable rate Treasury notes)
Nuci
- Nível de Utilização de Capacidade Instalada
(level of use of installed industrial capacity, index complied by Fiesp)
NYSE
- New York Stock Exchange
OAB
- Ordem dos Advogados do Brasil
(Brazilian bar Association)
OAS
- Organization of American States
(OEA-Organização dos Estados Americanos)
 replaced Pan American Union in 1943
OAS
- Construtura OAS Ltda., HQ Salvador, Bahia, major partner Cesar Mata Pires
(son-in-law of ACM)
OBAN
- Operação Bandeirantes
(SP “clandestine” police organization to surpress anti-military
guerrila organizations with private funding, 1968-1975)
OCB
- Organização das Cooperativas Brasileiras
(Organization of Brazilian Cooperatives)
OCDE
- Organização para Cooperação e Desenvolvimento Econômico)
54
 OECD – Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
ODF
- Open Document Format
ODIC
- Organização dos Indígenas da Cidade
(Organization of Indian City Inhabitants)
OEA
- Organização dos Estados Americanos
(OAS-Organization of American States)
 replaced Pan American Union in 1943
OECD
- Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
(founded in 1948 as OEEC, membership extended to non-European states in 1961
 OCDE – Oganização para Cooperação e Desenvolvimento Econômico)
OELAC
- Organização dos Estados Latinoamericanos e Caribenhos – OAS do B
(Organization of Latin American and Caribbean States)
- proposed during 2008 CALC; with Cuba, without the US & Canada
OEM
- Original Equipment Manufacturer
OESP
- O Estado de São Paulo
(Major São Paulo newspaper)
OGMs
- Organismos Geneticamente Modificados
(GMOs-Genetically Modified Organisms)
OGU
- Orçamento Geral da União
(final version of federal budget) – approved by Congress before 31st December
OGX
- OGX Petróleo e Gas Participações
- Oil and gas firm owned by mega investor Eike Batista
OHL
- Obrascon Huarte Lain S/A
(Spanish construction firm, won highway concessions in Brazil)
Oi
- Brazilian cell phone operator owned by Telemar
OIC
- Organização International do Café
(WCO-World Coffee Organization)
OIE
- Office International des Epizooties
(World Organization fro Animal Health)
OIT
- Organização International do Trabalho
55
(ILO-International Labor Organization)
OMC
- Organização Mundial do Comércio
(WTO-World Trade Organization)
OMS
- Organização Mundial da Saúde
(WHO-World Health Organization)
ONG
- Organização Não-Governamental
(NGO, Non-Governmental Organization)
ONS
- Operadora Nacional do Sistema Elétrica
(coordinates the national electrical “grid”)
OPA
- Operação Pan Americana – launched by Pres. Kubitschek in 1958
(proposal for a massive assistance program, coopted by Alliance for Progress)
OPAS
- Organização Pan-Americana de Saúde – HQ Washington, DC
(PAHO-PanAmerican Health Organization)
OPEC
- Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
(OPEP-Organização de Países Exportadores de Petróleo)
Oscip
- Organizações da Sociedade Civil de Interesse Público
(Public Interest Civil Society Organizations – NGOs with legal status)
ONU
- Oranização das Nações Unidas
(UN-United Nations)
OTCA
- Organização do Tratado de Cooperação Amazônica
(Organization of the Amazon Cooperation Treaty)
PA
- State of Pará
PAC
- Programa de Aceleração do Crescimento – launched by Lula gov’t. in 2007
(Growth Acceleration Program, +5% GDP per year through 2010)
PAEG
- Plano de Ação Econômica do Governo
(Government Economic Action Plan – launched by Pres. Castelo Branco in 1964)
PAHO
- Pan-American Health Organization (HQ in Washington, DC)
(OPAS-Organização Panamericana de Saúde)
PAN
- Partido Agrário Nacional  PSP in 1947
(National Agrarian Party, 1945-1947)
56
PAN
- Partido dos Aposentados da Nação  absorbed by PTB in 2006)
(Party of Retirees of the Nation, 1998-2006)
PARLAMAZ – Parlamento Amazônico
(Amazon Region Parliament)
PARLATINO – Parlamento Latino-Americano
(Latin American Parliament, HQ in São Paulo)
PAS
- Plano de Amazônia Sustentável – created in 2008
(Sustainable Amazon Plan)
PASEP
- Programa de Formação do Patrimônio do Servidor Público,
(supplement of lower income brackets of public servants,
created by military regime in 1970)
Patri
- “Consultancy” in Brasília (with a branch in Washington, DC), that
conducts “institutional relations” and lobby activities
PB
- State of Paraiba
PCB
- Partido Comunista Brasileiro  PPS in 1993
(Brazilian Communist Party, 1945-1947 & 1985-1993)
PCRB
- Partido Comunista Revolucionário Brasileiro
(Brazilian Revolutionary Communist Party, 1968-1975; militants then
transfered to a PT “tendency”-Brasil Socialista and to the MLST)
PCC
- Primeiro Comando da Capital (de São Paulo)
(worst and best organized crime group in SP)
PCdoB
- Partido Comunista do Brasil
(Communist Party of Brazil, 1986- )
PCO
- Partido da Causa Operária
(Party of the Workers’ Cause, 1997- )
PDC
Partido Democrata Cristão
(Christian Democratic Party, 1947-1965)
PDS
- Partido Democrático Social  PPR in 1991
(Social Democratic Party, 1980-1991)
PDT
- Partido Democrático Trabalhista – Leonel Brizola’s party
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(Democratic Labor Party, 1980- )
PDVSA
- Petróleos de Venezuela S.A.
(Venezuela’s petroleum state enterprise)
PE
- State of Pernambuco
PEA
- População Economicamente Ativa
(economically active population, those working or looking for jobs)
PEC
- Proposta de Emenda Constitucional
(Proposed Constitutional Amendment)
PED
- Pesquisa de Emprego e Desemprego
(monthly survey of employment/unemployment by Dieese)
PED
- Processo de Eleição Direta
(PT – direct election of state and national party officers)
Pedágio
- Toll collected by highway concesison holders.
Pelé
- Esdon Arantes do Nascimento, born Três Coraçoes, MG in 1940;
became the “King” of Brazilian soccer – a national idol
PEMEX
- Petroleos Mexicanos
(Mexican Petroleum State Enterprise)
Petrobrás
- Petróleo Brasileiro S.A.
(Brazil’s large petroleum state enterprise)
Petros
- Retirement fund for Petrobrás employees.
PFL
- Partido da Frente Liberal  Democratas (DEM) em março 2007
(Liberal Front Party, 1985-2007)
PGFN
- Procuradoria-Geral da Fazenda Nacional
(Chief Prosecutor at Finance Ministry)
PGO
- Plano Geral de Outorgas – revised by Pres. Lula in 2008
(General Plan of [Telecom] Authorizations)
PGR
- Procurador-Geral da República
(Chief Federal Prosecutor)
Phenon
- The Embraer corporate jet plane
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PHS
- Partido Humanista da Solidariedade, 1997- (former PSN)
(Humanist Solidarity Party)
PI
- State of Piauí
PIB
- Produto Interno Bruto
(GDP – Gross Domestic Product)
PIIGS
- Portugal, Italy, Ireland, Greece and Spain
- the five EU nations with the worse budget deficits
PIM
- Polo Industrial de Manaus
(Industrial Sector in the City of Manaus)
PIS
- Programa de Integração Social
(Program of Social Integration)
PJ
- Partido da Juventude (1986-1989)  PRN
(Party of Youth, 1986-1989  PRN)
PJEG
- Communist Party of Vietnam
PL
- Partido Libertador
(Liberator Party, 1945-1965)
PL
- Partido Liberal  became PR in 2006
(Liberal Party, 1985-2006)
PL
- Participação no Lucro
(profit sharing)
P/L
Índice Preço/Lucro
(price/profit index, compares stock prices)
Planalto
- Palácio do Planalto
(President’s office building on the Three Powers Square)
PM
- Polícia Militar
(uniformed police organization in states)
PMDB
- Partido do Movimento Democrático Brasileiro
(Brazilian Democratic Movement Party, 1980- )
PME
- Pesquisa Mensal de Emprego
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(Monthly Employment Survey)
PMN
- Partido da Mobilização Nacional
(National Mobilization Party, 1985 - )
PMR
- Partido Municipalista Renovador, succeeded by PRB in 2005
(Renovating Municipal Party, 2005) – linked to IURD
PNAD
- Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios
(IBGE national sample of residences)
PNUD
- Programa das Nações Unidas para o Desenvolvimento
 UNDP-United Nations Development Programme
PNUMA
- Programa das Nações Unidas para o Meio Ambiente
 UNEP-United Nations Evironment Programme
Portobrás
- Empresa estatal para administrar os portos brasileiros (1975-1990)
(state firm for administration of Brazil’s ports, 1975-1990)
Postalis
- Inst. de Seguridade Social da Empresa Brasileira de Correios e Telégragos
(Pension fund for EBCT)
PP
- Partido Popular (joined PMDB in 1982)
(Popular Party, 1980-1982)
PP
- Partido Progressista  became PPB in 1995
(Progressive Party, 1993-1995, result of PTR + PST merger in 1993)
PP
- Partido Progressista (former PPB)
(Progressive Party, 2005 - )
PP-G7
- Pilot Programme for the Protection of Brazil’s Tropical Forests
(Programa Piloto para a Proteção das Florestas Tropicais Brasileira)
PPA
- Plano Plurianual
(Multiyear Plan)
PPdoB
- Partido Proletário do Brasil, transformed into PST in 1950
PPB
- Partido Progressista Brasileiro  became PP in 2005
(Brazilian Progressive Party, 1995-2005)
PPG-7
- Programa Piloto para Proteção das Florestas Tropicais do Brasil
(Pilot Program for Tropical Forest Protection, G-7 funds via World Bank)
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PPI
- Projeto Piloto de Investimentos
(pilot program for investments, that would be excluded from the
primary surplus “target” (4.25% of GDP) – via IMF sanction
PPPs
- Parcerias Público-Privadas
(public-private partnerships, for infrastructure development)
PPR
- Partido Progressista Republicano  became PPB in 1995
(Progressive Republican Party, 1993-1995)
PPS
- Partido Popular Sindicalista  joined PSP in 1947
(Popular Sindicalist Party, 1945-1947)
PPS
- Partido Popular Socialista
(Popular Socialist Party, 1993 - ) – former PCB
PR
- State of Paraná
PR
- Partido Republicano, 1945-1965 [Arthur Bernardes]
(Republican Party, derived from the PRs in 1898-1930 period)
PR
- Partido da República, created by PL+Prona merger in 2007
(Party of the Republic, 2007 - )
PR
- Proportional Representation (RP in Portuguese)
(Brazil uses “open list PR”)
PRB
- Partido Republicano Brasileiro [Vice-President José Alencar]
(Brazilian Republican Party, 2005- ), successor of PMR, linked to IURD
PRBN
- Partido da Revolução Bolivariana Nacional
(National Bolivarian Revolution Party, registered in Rio de Janeiro by
Hugo Chávez sympathizers in December 2006)
PRC
- Partido Revolucionário Comunista (PCB splinter during military regime0
(Revolutionary Communist Party)
PRD
- Partido Republicano Democrático, became PRT in 1950
(Democratic Republican Party, 1945-1950)
Previ
- Retirement fund for Banco do Brasil employees
PRF
- Polícia Rodoviário Federal
61
(Federal Highway Police – Ministry of Justice))
PRN
- Partido da Reconstrução Nacional (party created by Fernando Collor de Mello)
(National Renovation Party, 1989-2003)  became PTC
PROBEN
- Programa Brasileiro de Ecologia Nuclear
(Brazilian Program for Nuclear Ecology)
PROCON
- Serviço de Proteção do Consumidor
(consumer protection service)
PRODECER – Programa para o Desenvolvemento dos Cerrados
(Program for the Development of the Cerrado Region)
PROER
- Programa de Estímulo à Reestruturação e ao Fortalecimento do Sistema Financeiro Nacional
(program to “recover” finanical inst. in “dificulties – began in Nov. 1995)
Prona
- Partido da Reedificação da Ordem Nacional  Enéas Carneiro
(Party for Rebuilding the National Order, 1989-2006)
 merged with PL to form PR in January 2007
PRONAF
- Programa Nacional de Fortalecimento da Agricultura Familiar
(program do strengthen the family farm)
Pronasci
- Programa Nacional de Segurança Pública com Cidadania
(National Program for Public Safety with Citizenship)
 Lula’s anti-crime, anti-violence program in cooperation with
state governments
PROUNI
- Programa Universidade para Todos
(federal scholarship program for poor students at private universities)
PROVAP
- Programa de Valorização da Pequena Produção Rural
(Program to Promote Small Farms)
PRP
- Partido Republicano Populista  PSP in 1947
(Popular Republican Party, 1945-1947 – founded by Adhemar de Barros)
PRP
- Partido Representação Popular – party led by Plínio Salgado)
(Popular Representation Party, 1947-1965)
PRS
- Partido das Reformas Sociais, 1990-1991
(Party of Social Reforms, organized by Hélio Garcia in 1990)
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PRT
- Partido Rural Trabalhista, successor of PRD in 1950
(Rural Labor Party, 1950-1965
PSB
- Partido Socialista Brasileira
(Brazilian Socialist party, 1947-1965 & 1985- )
PSC
- Partido Social Cristão
(Social Christian Party, 1990- )
PSD
- Partido Social Democrático
(Democratic Social Party, 1945-1965)
PSDB
- Partido Social Democrático Brasileiro
(Brazilian Social Democratic Party, 1988- )
PSL
- Partido Social Liberal, 1994 –
(Social Liberal party founded in 1994)
PSN
- Partido da Solidariedade Nacional, became PHS in 1997
(National Solidarity Party, 1991-1997)
PSoL
- Partido do Socialismo e Liberdade, organized by dissidentes
(Socialism & Liberty Party, 2005- )
PSP
- Partido Social Progressista, fundado por Adhemar de Barros em 1947
(Social Progressive Party, 1947-1965 and 1989 - )
PST
- Partido Social Trabalhista, successor of PPdoB in 1950)
(Social Labor Party, 1950-1965 & 1989-1993)
PSTU
- Partido Socialista dos Trabalhadores Unificado, splinter from PT in 1991
(Unified Socialist Workers Party, 1991- )
PT
- Partido dos Trabalhadores
(Workers’ Party, founded 1980)
PTdoB- Partido Trabalhista do Brasil, 1996-2006
(Labor Party of Brazil, merger with PL and Prona  PR in 2006)
PTB
- Partido dos Trabalhista Brasileiro
(Brazilian Labor Party, 1945-1965 & 1980- )
PTC
- Partido Trabalhista Cristão, successor of PRN
(Christian Labor Party, 1990- )
63
PTN
- Partido Trabalhista Nacional
(National Labor Party, 1947-1965)
PTR
- Partido Trabalhista Ruralista
(Ruralist Labor Party, 1947-1965)
PTR
- Partido Trabalhista Renovador, merged with PST  PP in 1993
(Renovation Labor Party, organized by Joaquim Roriz in DF in 1989)
PTRB
- Partido Trabalhista Renovador Brasileiro, 1997  ?
(Brazilian Renovation Labor Party organized in 1997)
PUC
- Pontifícia Universidade Católica
(Catholic university)
PV
- Partido Verde
(Green Party, 1993- )
QE-2
- Quantitative Expansion – the Fed buys back gov’t bonds from banks
Quattor
- Joint venture (Petrobrás + Unipar) in petrochemicals formed in June 2008
QonQ
- Quarter on Quarter
Radiobrás
- Empresa Brasileira de Comunicação  EBC in 2007
(State TV and Radio Enterprise)
Rafale
- French Dassault fighter plane that competed for the FX-2.
RBS
- Rede Brasil Sul de Comunicações
(Southern Brazil media firm, TV, radio & press in RS and SC)
 owned by Sirotsky family
RDB
- Recibo de Depósito Bancário
(fixed rate time deposit)
RDS
- Reserva de Desenvolvimento Sustentável
(Sustainable Development Reserve)
Real
- Brazil’s currency adopted on 1st July 1994 (R$).
Real
- Banco Real, private bank HQ in Minas Gerais, sold to ABN AMRO
(largest Dutch bank) in 1999, which in turn was sold to a consortium
including Banco Santander that took over Banco Real.
64
REDD
- Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation
- plan that will be discussed at the Copenhagen Summit in December 2009
Repsol
- Spanish petroleum firm, operates in Brazil and Argentina
RESEX
- Reservera Extrativista
(Extractivist Reserve)
Reuni
- Reforma Universitária – expansion program for federal universities,
initiated in 2008
RFS
- Renewable Fuel Standard, expanded by the US Congress in 2007.
RG
- Registro Geral
(ID number for national ID card system)
RGE
- Rio Grande Energia – serves northern part of the State of Rio Rande do Sul
(electricity distribution firm privatized in 1997 – part of CPFL Group
RH
- Recursos Humanos
(Human Resources)
RI
- Regimento de Infantaria
(Army infantry regiment)
RIO-92
- United Nations Conference on Environment and Development
 held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992 [ECO-92]
RIO-2007
- Symbol of the Pan American Games held in Rio de Janeiro in July 2007.
Rio Group
- GRIO, created in Rio de Janeiro in 1986, with the merger of the Contadora Group
(Mexico, Colombia, Venezuela and Panamá) and the Support Group (Argentina,
Brazil, Uruguay and Peru)
 analyze and propose solutions for war-torn Central America
RJ
- State of Rio de Janeiro
RM
- Região Militar
(Military Region, Brazilian Army term)
RN
- State of Rio Grande do Norte
RO
- State of Rondônia
65
RODOANEL – Anel Rodoviário Metropolitano de São Paulo
(circumvential highway bypass around metro SP area)
RP
- Representação Proporcional
(Proportional Representation, Brazil uses “open list” PR)
RPK
they fly.
- the number of paying passengers times the number of kilometers
RR
- State of Roraima
RS
- State of Rio Grande do Sul
RSF
- Reporters sans Frontiéres
(Reporters without Boundaries)
- Paris-based NGO that publicizes coercion against journalists
worldwide & defends freedom of the press
RSS
- Raposa Serra do Sol – Indian reservation in the State of Roraima
RTP
- Rádio Televisão Portuguesa
(Portuguese Radio and TV Network)
S.A.
- Sociedade Anônima
(firm with public share holders)
SAE
- Secretaria de Assuntos Estratégicos
(secretariat for strategic affairs, replaced SNI in 1990)
SAIS
- School of Advanced International Studies
- Washington branch of the Johns Hopkins University
Sanguessugas - Deputados acusados de participar do “esquema” de distribuição de
ambulâncias, escandalo explodiu em meados de 2006
(literally blood suckers, deputies accused of participation in the
Ambulance distribution scandal in mid-2006
SBDC
- Sistema Brasileiro de Defesa da Concorrência
(Brazilian System for Defense of Competition)
SBPC
- Sociedade Brasileira para o Progresso da Ciência
(Brazilian Society for the Progress of Science)
SBT
- Sistema Brasileiro de Televisão
(Brazilian TV System, owned by Silvio Santos)
66
SC
- State of Santa Catarina
SCPC
- Serviço Central de Proteção de Crédito
(bad check, non-payment, “dead beat” reference service)
SDE
- Secretaria de Direito Econômico
(Finance Ministry, Secretariat of Economic Rights, consumer rights
watchdog, oversight on economic competion)
SDS
- Social Democracia Sindical
(labor union central linked to PSDB)
SE
- State of Sergipe
Seade
- Fundação Sistema Estadual de Análise de Dados (SP)
(organizes, interprets, and publishes demographic and socio-economic
data, collects and publishes unemployment data with DIESSE
Sebrae
- Serviço Brasileiro de Apoio äs Micro e Pequenas Empresas
(similar to the US Small Business Adminisration-SBA)
Sedex
- Overnight express postal service (by ECT)
Selic
- Sistema Especial de Liquidação e Custódia
(basic interest rate set by Copom, every 6 weeks)
Senac
- Serviço Nacional de Aprendizagem Comercial
(national training service for retail sales)
Senai
- Serviço Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial
(National Industrial Arts Training Program)
SENASP
- Secretaria Nacional de Segurança Pública (at Justice Ministry)
(Minisry of Justice, National Secretariat for Public Safety
Sensus
- Survey research firm in Belo Horizonte, MG - does polls for CNT
Sephan
- Secretaria do Partrimônio Histórico e Artístico Nacional
(National Secretariat for Historical Preservation)
Seplan
- Secretaria de Planejamento  MPOG
(Planning Secretariat)
67
Seppir
SERASA
- Secretaria Especial de Promoção das Políticas de Igualdade Racial
(Special Secretariat for Promotion of Racial Equality Policies)
- cabinet-level unit created by Pres. Lula in 2003
- Brazilian credit analysis service, acquired by Dublin-based
Experian Group PLC in 2007
Serpro
- Serviço Federal de Processamento de Dados
(Federal Data Processing Service)
SF
- Senado Federal
(Federal Senate)
SFH
- Sistema Financeiro de Habitação (início em 1964)
(federal housing mortgage system, via CEF, began in 1964)
SGP
- Sistema Geral de Preferências (GSP-Generalized System of Preferences)
- facilitates access of emerging market exports to developed nations
SHV
- Steenkolen Handels-Vereeniging] Holdings N.V. was created in the
Netherlands in
1896 via a merger of eight large coal trading family firms. In
Brazil, SHV controls
Makro, Minasgás and Supergasbras.
SIAFI
- Sistema Integrado de Administação Financeira (do Governo Federal)
(Integrated System of Financial Administration (of he Federal Government)
SICA
- Sistema de Integração Centro-americano
(Central American Integration System)
SIDA
- Sindrome de Imunodeficiência Adquerida
(AIDS)
Sinduscon
- Sindicato da Indústria de Construção Civil do Estado de São Paulo
(Assoc. of the Civil Construction Industry in the State of SP)
SINE
- Sistema Nacional de Emprego
(job placement service, Labor Ministry)
Sinopec
- Chinese petroleum firm
SIPAN- Sistema de Proteção Amazônica
SIVAN
- Sistema de Proteção Amazônica
(radar surveilence system for the Amazon Region)
68
SIVORAM
- Sistema de Vigilância Orinoco e Amazônico
(radar surveilence system for Orinoco and Amazon rivers)
SND
- Sistema Nacional de Debêntures
(part of the CETIP system, registers all debentures in circulation)
SNEA
- Sindicato Nacional de Empresas Aéreas
(National Syndicate of Airline Firms)
SNI
- Serviço Nacional de Informações
(National Information Service, replaced by SAE and later by ABIn)
SOA
- School of the Americas – located in the Panama Canal Zone
- US military training school for Latin American officers
- after 1999, the SOA was transferred to Fort Benning, GA
and in 2001 renamed the Western hemisphere Inst. for Security
Cooperation (WHINSEC)
Sobeet
- Sociedade Brasileira de Estudos de Empresas Transnacionais e
da Globalização Econômica
(Private group that studies the role of transnationals in globalization)
SOMA- Sociedade Operadora de Mercado de Acesso
(over the counter stock market operators)
SRF
- Secretaria da Receita Federal
(Federal Tax Service)
SP
- State of São Paulo
S&P
- Standard & Poor’s – HQ in New York
(stock market and sovereign risk evaluation agency)
SPC
- Serviço de Proteção de Crédito
(credit protection service – for retail sales)
SSM
- Special safeguard mechanism (term in WTO negotiations)
STF
- Supremo Tribunal Federal
(Supreme Court)
STJ
- Superior Tribunal de Justiça
(Highest Federal Appeals Court)
69
STM
- Superior Tribunal Militar
(Superior Military Court)
STN
- Secretaria do Tesouro Nacional
(Federal Treasury)
Suape
- Modern port facility in Recife, PE
Sucesu
- Sociedade dos Usuários de Computadores e Equipamentos Subsidiários
(private society for computer users)
SUDAM
- Superintendência do Desenvolvimento da Amazônia
(Development Agency for hte Amazon Region)
SUDENE
- Superintendência do Desenvolvimento do Nordeste
(Development Agency for the Northeast Region)
SUDHEVEA – Superintendência de Desenvolvimento da Borracha
(Federal program for development of rubber plantations)
Suframa
- Superintendência da Zona de Livre Comércio de Manaus
(Amazon Free Trade Zone in Manaus)
Sukhoi
- Modern Russia jet fighter plane – Sukhoi-35
Supar
- Subchefia de Assuntos Parlamentares
(President’s Congressional Relations Office)
Suplente
- alternate who [temporarily or permanently] assumes seat when Senator or Deputy
vacates office -- a Senator’s suplente is elected on same ticket, a deputy’s
suplente is the next candidate on the PR open list
SUS
- Sistema Único de Saúde
(Single, unified Health System)
SUV
- Sport Utility Vehicle
SWAp
- Sector Wide Approach
(Abordagem Setorial Ampla)
SWF
- Sovereign Wealth Fund
Symetrix
- US computer chip manufacturer
TAL
- Technical Assistance Loan
70
(Empréstimo de Assistência Técnica)
TAM
- Transportes Aéreos Marília
(one of Brazil’s leading airlines)
TAP
- Transportes Aéreos Portugueses
(Portugal’s “flagship” airline)
TBF
- Taxa Básica Financeira
(basic financial rate, with no “reduction clause”, like the TR
TCA
- Tratado de Cooperação Amazônica
(Amazon Cooperation Treaty)
TCEs
- Tribunais de Contas Estaduais
(state level accounting courts)
TCU
- Tribunal de Contas da União
(federal accounting court, external control)
TDA
- Títulos da Dívida Agrária
(bonds used in land expropriations, considered “rotten paper”
TDMA
- Time Division Multiple Access
(cell phone system that permits multiple users)
TEC
- Tarifa Externa Comun
(common external tarrif)
TED
- Technology, Entertainment & Design
Telebrás
- Telecomunicações Brasileiras S.A.
(former Brazilian telecommunications state enterprise)
 privatized in 1998
Telos
- Retirement fund for Telebrás and telecommunications employees
Temasek
- Singapore Sovereign Wealth Fund
TEP
- Tribunal Electoral Paraguayo
(Paraguay’s Election Court)
TI
- Transparency International – HQ in Berlin
TIAR
- Tratado Interamericano de Assistência Recíproca
71
(Inter-American Mutual Assistance Treaty)
TIFA
- Trade and Investment Framework Agreement
(a trade pact which establishes a framework for expanding trade
and resloving outstanding disputes)
TIM
- Telecom Italia Mobile
(Brazilian cell phone operator, owned by Telecom Italia)
Tiradentes
- Joaquim José da Silva Xavier, martyr of Brazilian independence,
(captured and excecuted by Portuguese colonial administration in 1792)
TJ
- Tribunal de Justiça
(State Supreme Court)
TJLP
- Taxa de Juros de Longo Prazo
(long-term interest rate, used by BNDES for development loans)
TNP
Tratado de Não Proliferação
(NPT-Non-Proliferation Treaty)
TO
- State of Tocantins
TR
- Taxa Referencial de Juros
(created by the Collor Plan II in 1991, currently used as a monthly and
daily rate for several types of investments)
Tractebel
- Tractebel Energia S.A.
(Suez-Tractebel responsible for 20% of electricity generated in Brazil,
HQ in Santa Catarina)
Transbrasil
- Founded as Sadia Transportes Aéreas in 1955,
- with an IPO in 1973  Transbrasil S.A.
(major Brazilian airline, began in 1955, bankrupt in 2001)
TREs
- Tribunal Regional Eleitoral
(regional electoral courts in each state)
TRF
- Tribunal Regional Federal
(Regional Federal Court)
Trips
- Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectural Property Rights
(unit within the WTO)
TRT
- Tribunal Regional do Trabalho
72
(Regional Labor Court)
TSE
- Tribunal Superior Eleitoral
(Superior Election Court)
TST
- Tribunal Superior do Trabalho
(Superior Labor Court)
Tucano
- the toucan bird, symbol of the PSDB
Tucuruí
- large hydro electric installation on the Tocantins River in Pará
Tupi
- large deep-water, “pre-salt” oil field southeast of São Paulo
UBES
- União Brasileira de Estudantes Secudários
(National high-school student assoc.)
UBS
UBS AG, Union of Swiss Banks, after merger with Swiss Bank Corp.
in 1998.
UDN
- União Democrática Nacional
(National Democratic Union, political party, 1945-1965)
UDR
- União Democrática Ruralista
(Democratic Ruralist Union – land owners who combat MST)
UE
- União Européia
(European Union)
UERJ
- Universidade Estadual de Rio de Janeiro
(state university of RJ)
UFABC
- Federal University of ABC (region), HQ in Santo André, SP
UFAC
- Federal University of Acre
UFAL
- Federal University of Alagoas
UFAM- Federal University of Amazonas
UFAP
- Federal University of Amapá
UFBA
- Federal University of Bahia
UFCE
- Federal University of Ceará
UFGO
- Federal University of Alagoas
UFERSA
- Federal University of the Semi-Arid Region
UFES
- Federal University of Espírito Santo
UFF
- Federal University Fluminense (Niteroi)
UFGO
- Federal University of Goiás
UFJF
- Federal University of Juiz de Fora( MG)
UFLA
- Federal University of Lavras (MG)
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UFMA- Federal University of Maranhão
UFMG
- Federal University of Minas Gerais
UFMS
- Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul
UFMT
- Federal University of Mato Grosso
UFOP
- Federal University of Ouro Preto (MG)
UFPA
- Federal University of Pará
UFPB
- Federal University of Paraiba
UFPE
- Federal University of Pernambuco
UFPel
- Federal University of Pelotas (RS)
UFPI
- Federal University of Piauí
UFPR
- Federal University of Paraná
UFRGS
- Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
UFRJ
- Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
UFRRJ
- Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
UFRN
- Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte
UFRO
- Federal University of Rondônia
UFRPE
- Federal Rural University of Pernambuco
UFRR
- Federal University of Roraima
UFSC
- Federal University of Santa Catarina
UFSCar
- Federal University of São Carlos (SP)
UFSE
- Federal University of Sergipe
UFSM
- Federal University of Santa Maria (RS)
UFTO
- Federal University of Tocantins
UFTM
- Federal University of the Triângulo Mineiro (in Uberaba, MG)
UFU
- Federal University of Uberlândia (MG)
UFV
- Federal University of Viçosa (MG)
UnB
- University of Brasília
UNEF
- State University Northern Rio de Janeiro (Campos, RJ)
UNESP
- University of the State of São Paulo
Unicamp
- University of Campinas (SP)
UNIFAP
- Federal University of Amapá
Unifesp
- Federal University of São Paulo (former Escola Paulista de Medicina)
UNIR
- University of Rondônia
Unisinos
- Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos – São Leopoldo, RS (private univ.)
Unifasf
- Federal University of the São Francisco Vally
USP
- University of São Paulo
UTFPR
- Federal Technical University of Pará
UIA
- Unión Industrial Argentina
(Federation of Argentine Industrialists)
UJS
- União da Juventude Socialista – linked to PDT
(Union of Socialist Youth)
Ultra Group - an industrial group founded in SP by Ernesto Igel with participation of the Monteiro
Aranha Group. Includes Ultragaz & Brazilgás, plus Ultracargo & Oxiteno.
74
In 2007. acquired Petróleo Ipiranga with Petrobrás and Braskem. In 2008,
the Grupo Ultra acquired Texaco do Brasil.
UNASUL
- União das Nações Sul-Americanas
(Union of South American Nations)
UNCTAD
- United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
(Conferência das Nações Unidas sobre Comércio e Desenvolvimento)
UNDP
- United Nations Development Programme
 PNUD – Programa das Nações Unidas para o Desenvolvimento
UNE
- União Nacional dos Estudantes, repressed by military in 1964
(National Student União, repressed by military in 1964,
resuscitated in 1979)
UNEP
- United Nations Environment Programme
 PNUMA – Programa das Nações Unidas para o Meio Ambiente
UNESCO
- United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Oorganization
UNESP
- Universidade do Estado de São Paulo
(multi-campus SP state university system)
 USP and Unicamp are separate units
Unica
- União das Indústrias de Cana de Açucar
(Union of Sugar Cane Industries)
Unicef
- United Nations Children’s Fund
(Fundo das Nações Unidas para a Infância)
UNRISD
- UN Research Inst. for Social Development
UNSC
- United Nations Security Council
UPI
- União Parlamentar Interestadual
(União of State Legislatures)
URV
- Unidade Real de Valor
(daily currency index rate for prices and salaries used during
the pre-Real period, Feb. 1st July/94)
USAID
- US Agency for International Development
USI
- União Socialista Internacional
75
(International Socialist Union)
USIMAR
- Usina Siderúrgica de Marabá
(Marabá Steel Mill).
USIMINAS - Usinas Siderúgicas de Minas Gerais S.A.
(steel mill complex in Ipatinga, MG)
USTR
- US Trade Representative
UTE
- Unidade termo-elétrica
(Thermal electric generating unit – combustion engine or via steam turbine)
UTI
- Unidade de Tratamento Intensivo
(ICU-Intensive Care Unit)
VASP
- Viação Aérea de São Paulo
(major Brazilian airline, founded 1933, bankrupt in 2005
VARIG
- Viação Aérea Rio-Grandense S.A.
(Brazil’s former “flagship” airline, purchased by GOL in 2007)
VAT
- Value Added Tax
(IVA - Imposto de Valor Agregado)
Vavá
- Genival Ignácio da Silva
(Pres. Lula’s oldest brother)
VCP
- Votorantim Celulose e Papel
(Votorantim’s Cellulose & Paper subsidiary)
Veja
- weekly news magazine published by the Abril Group
Vereadores
- city council members
Verticalização - Verticalization – a concept imposed by the TSE in 2002 & 2006 elections.
- presidential coalitions must be replicated (same parties) in state elections
Via Campesina – militant group of landless rural workers in Latin America
Viracopos
- airport located in Campinas, SP
Vivo
- Brazilian cell phone operator, jointly owned by Portugal Telecom and
the Spanish Telefónica
Vox Populi
- survey research firm in Belo Horizonte
76
VS
- Vertente Socialista, 1945-1950
(Socialist Vertent, merged with ED to form PSB in 1950)
WCY
- World Competitiveness Yearbook
(published by IMD)
WIPO
-- World Intellectual Property Organization – HQ in Geneva
WHINSEC
- Western Hemisphere Inst. for Security Cooperation – Ft. Benning, GA
- formerly the SOA located in the Panama Canal Zone
WSJ
- Wall Street Journal
WTC
- World Trade Center in New York
(destroyed by terrorist attack on 9/11 2001)
WTI
- World Trade Indicators – published by the World Bank annually
www.worldbank.org/wti2008
WTO
- World Trade Organization  OMC
WWF
- World Wildlife Fund
(Fundo Mundial para a Natureza)
Xstrata
- Anglo-Swiss mining firm
YPFB
- Yancimientos Petrolíferos Fiscales Bolivianos
(Bolivian State Petroleum Enterprise)
YoY
- Year on Year
Zeca do PT
- José Orcírio Miranda dos Santos elected PT governor of Mato Grosso do Sul
in 1998 and 2002
Zogby
- US polling firm
Zumbi
- leader of escaped slave community in Palmares, AL, killed by Portuguese
slave owners on 20th November 1695  20th November became the
Day of Afro-Brazilian Consciousness
Brasília, 20 October 2009
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AMERICAN WORLD UNIVERSITY - Conference of American Armies