INPE
Analysis of Amazon Deforestation Patterns and their
Relation to Social, Economical and Ecological Process
Maria Isabel Sobral Escada
isabel@dpi.inpe.br
Amazônia Probio Project (FUNCATE/INPE, 2005)
INPE
About this lecture
To explore deforestation data to identify LUCC patterns
in Amazonia.
To discuss LUCC patterns and processes in Amazonia
pointing out economic, political and social drivers.
1. Regional level
2. Local level: Sao Felix do Xingu (PA) Case study
Satellite data to detect land cover
dynamics
Monitoring Amazon Forest data - PRODES started in 1988. Using
TM/Landsat, 5, 4, 3 channels. Products:
• Annual deforestation rate estimative per Landsat scene or State;
• Digital geographic database 1997 – 2008.
Deforestation Map – 2000
(INPE/PRODES Project)
Deforestation
Forest
Non-forest
http://www.dpi.inpe.br/prodesdigital
Deforestation until 1997, 2000, 2003, 2006
RO
AM
MT
Deforestation until 2006
Forest
Non Forest
Clouds
Rivers
Cell Data Base Construction
Deforestation map with resolution 25 X 25 km.
http://www.dpi.inpe.br/terralib/
Filling Cells in TerraView
Operator
Percent of each class
Filling cells
625 km2
Aguiar, 2006;
Ribeiro, P e Ferrari G.
P. (INPE)
1. Amazonian Occupation
Frontier Expansion
INPE
From the 50’s to the 80’s: Amazonian
occupation strategy
Geopolitical strategies to occupy Amazonian territory
based on:
• Implantation of infrastructure networks to integrate the
territory: telecommunication, hydroelectric, urban and roads
network (Cuiabá-Santarém (Br-163), Transamazônica (Br 230), Belém-Brasília,
Cuiabá-Pvelho (Br-364));
• Implantation of public (INCRA) and private colonization
projects;
• Inducing migration from other regions;
• Providing fiscal incentives (BASA and SUDAM);
• Establishment of axes and poles of development.
Costa, 1998; Becker, 1997; Machado, 1998, Kitamura, 1994
Alves. D. S., 2000
Legal Amazônia 1991-1996 Deforestation
Deforestation 1997
Até 10%
10 - 20%
20 – 30%
30 – 40%
40 – 50%
50 – 60%
60 – 70%
70 – 80%
80 – 90%
90 – 100%
Deforestation 2006 - New
deforestation fronts
Até 10%
10 - 20%
20 – 30%
30 – 40%
40 – 50%
50 – 60%
60 – 70%
70 – 80%
80 – 90%
90 – 100%
Deforestation 2006 - New
deforestation fronts
Até 10%
10 - 20%
20 – 30%
30 – 40%
40 – 50%
50 – 60%
60 – 70%
70 – 80%
80 – 90%
90 – 100%
INPE
Amazonian new frontier
(Becker, 2004;2005)
“The
actual frontiers are different from the 60’s
and the 70’s”
• Today it´s induced mostly by private
economic interests and it’s
concentrated on focus areas in
different regions.
• Activated by new actors with their
own capital and land use strategies
• Different patterns of migration (intraregional and rural-urban);
• Motivation
• Agroindustry : Soybean, Logging,
Cattle Ranching;
• Land market;
• Expectation of new transportation
network establishment
Santarém, PA – Cargill grain port
2005. Foto: Carlos Stefen
2. Case study: Land use and Land Cover Dynamic in
São Félix do Xingu-Iriri (PA)
Main Goals
To produce diagnosis of land cover change and the drivers
behind changes:
Analyzing actors, socio-economics strategies, land appropriation
system and the Institutional role;
Characterizing population and human settlement patterns;
Analyzing social, transport and telecommunication network
To build and explore computational model of land use change
for São Félix/Iriri region to construct scenarios for public
policies and territorial planning.
“Terra do Meio” - Connectivity
RESEX
Riozinho do
Anfrísio
Flona de
Altamira
ESEC
Terra do Meio
Parque Nacional
da Serra do
Pardo - 5% df
Can
opu
s
Fa
ze
n
de
ir
os
0
Escada et al, 2005
50 km
Prodes 2004 (INPE, 2005)
Cattle ranching and deforestation
Source: DePará, 2005
Amount of cattle head
Accumulated Deforestation
Desmatamento Acumulado - km
2
14000
12000
10000
Água Azul do Norte
Marabá
8000
Ourilândia do Norte
Redenção
6000
São Félix do Xingu
Tucumã
Xinguara
4000
2000
0
Museu Paraense Emílio
Goeldi e Embrapa Oriental
1997
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
Escada et al, 2005 – Estudos Avançados , Nº 54
Deforestation 1997
Taboca
Canopus
Central
Até 10%
10 - 20%
SFX
20 – 30%
30 – 40%
40 – 50%
50 – 60%
60 – 70%
70 – 80%
80 – 90%
90 – 100%
Novo
Horizonte
Xadá
Deforestation 2000
Taboca
Canopus
Central
Até 10%
10 - 20%
20 – 30%
30 – 40%
40 – 50%
50 – 60%
60 – 70%
70 – 80%
80 – 90%
90 – 100%
SFX
Novo
Horizonte
Xadá
Deforestation 2003
Taboca
Canopus
Central
Até 10%
10 - 20%
20 – 30%
30 – 40%
40 – 50%
50 – 60%
60 – 70%
70 – 80%
80 – 90%
90 – 100%
SFX
Novo
Horizonte
Xadá
Deforestation 2006
Taboca
Canopus
Central
Até 10%
10 - 20%
20 – 30%
30 – 40%
40 – 50%
50 – 60%
60 – 70%
70 – 80%
80 – 90%
90 – 100%
SFX
Novo
Horizonte
Xadá
The results show:
•Different spatial and temporal patterns
• Different occupation evolving stages
•Initial
•Expansion
•Consolidation
Mining Deforestation Patterns in Remote
Sensing Image Databases
What are the different land use patterns
present in the database?
When did a certain land use pattern emerge?
What are the dominant land use patterns for
each region?
How do patterns emerge and change over time?
Image Data Mining
Using data mining concepts, digital image
processing and landscape ecology theory, it’s
possible to develop a methodology for LUCC
semantic information recognition from remote
sensing image databases
Silva et al, 2005; 2008
Two approaches
Landscape objects (Silva et al, 2008).
• A landscape object is a structure detected in a
remote sensing image by an image segmentation
algorithm or visual interpretation.
Cells (Azeredo et al. , in press)
• Cells aggregate a set of landscape objects
representing a distinct occupation pattern.
INPE
Spatial Pattern Typology
Tropical Deforestation Spatial Patterns: Corridor,
Diffuse, Fishbone, Geometric (Lambin, 1997)
Extraction of Attributes
1.
Establishment of land cover typology
2.
Classification - Geographic Data Mining
Analyst (GeoDMA)
3.
Extraction of the attributes
Training
Classification
Validation/Evaluation
Silva, F.P, Korting et al, 2007.
The actors (rural pruducers) spatial distribution based on fieldwork – 2004 and 2007
T
P
- Small
Pequenos
e Médios
G, M - Large, Medium
Grandes
T
G
G
Toca do
Sapo
R
- Riverside
Ribeirinhos
G
L. Jaba
Área em disputa
(CPT, 2004)
G
G
P
P
Cutia
G
Branquinho
L. Caraíba
s
Canopu
Estrada
. F. Cheiro
P
P
T
Primavera
10 km
Tibornea
G
E st
ra d
ad
G
T
G
P
os
faz
end
eiro
s
P, M
G
TM Landsat7, 543 (2003)
Source: CPT(2004) , Taravello, R. (2004), Isa (2001) , Geoma(2004), Escada et al (2005)
Image Data Mining – Patterns and Typology
Cle aring Patte rns
1. Linear
S patial Dis tributio n
Roadside
2.Small Irregular
Near main roads and
populational nucleous
3.Irregular
Near roads and
populational nucleous
4. Medium Geometric Isolated or near
secondary roads
5.Large Geometric
Isolated or the end of
secondary roads
Cle aring s ize
Variable
Ac to rs
Main land us e
Small
household
Family labor,
subsistence crop
and/or cattle
ranching
Small
Small ( < 35 ha farmers
Family labor,
)
and/or family subsistence crops
household
and/or cattle
ranching
Small (35-190
ha)
Small
farmers
Cattle ranching
mainly
190 - 900 ha
Medium
farmers
Cattle ranching
Large
large (> 900 ha) farmers
Cattle ranching
De s c riptio n
Roadsided clearings,
with liear pattern
following main roads
corresponding to the
earlier stages of
colonization.
Located near main
roads (Canopus and
Fazendeiros Road), up
to the distance of 10
km
Located near roads,
associated to small
family household.
These actores often
have another incoming
source from salary,
comercial activities,
etc. They use family
and external labor
Located near
secondary roads,
associated to large
farms.
Located in isolated
region, sometimes near
rivers. Almost of them
have airstrip.
Silva et al, 2008
Model – 94% - cross validation
(GYRATE, AREA, SHAPE, PARA)
Decision Tree (J48)
Silva, M.P. S. S.et al, in press. International Journal of Remote Sensing
Terra do Meio - até 1997
Padrões Terra do Meio - 1997
Silva, M.P. S. S.et al, 2008. International Journal of Remote Sensing
Terra do Meio 1997 - 2000
Padrões Terra do Meio - 2000
Terra do Meio 2000 - 2001
Padrões Terra do Meio - 2001
Terra do Meio 2001 - 2002
Padrões Terra do Meio - 2002
Silva, M.P. S. S.et al, in press. International Journal of Remote Sensing
Terra do Meio 2002 - 2003
Padrões Terra do Meio - 2003
Terra do Meio 2003 - 2004
Padrões Terra do Meio - 2004
Terra do Meio 1997 - 2004
How the farms are spatially organized in the region?
L. Caraíba
T
G
G
T
Silva et al, 2008
Small lots – ITERPA rural settlement – Lots
in a distance of 10 km from Canopus Road
Source: CPT(2004) , Taravello, R. (2004), Geoma(2004), Escada et al (2005)`, Amaral et al (2007)
Land Cover Patterns: 1997 - 2004
Terra do Meio - Deforestation Cases
400
Occurrences
350
300
PPF
250
PPC
200
MED
150
FAZ
100
LIN
50
0
1997
2000
2001
2002
2003
Year
• What are the dominant patterns?
2004
Land Cover Patterns: 1997 - 2004
Terra do Meio - Deforested Clearing Area
16000
Area (h a)
14000
12000
PPF
SMA
10000
PPC
IRR
8000
MED
MED
FAZ
LAR
6000
LIN
LIN
4000
2000
0
1997
1997-2000 2000-2001 2001-2002 2002-2003 2003-2004
Ye ar
• What are the dominant patterns in terms of area?
Different histories and occupation process and stages
Rio Xingu
Rio Iriri
São Félix do
Xingu\Tucumá
0
100 km
1)
Tucumã (1984/85) – Mining, Private Colonization, small to medium farms; Consolidated
occupation.
2)
São Félix (beginning of XX century– The 80) Extractives, mining, cattle ranching, large and
snall farms, spontaneus occupation. North of Tucumã and São Félix ( 90) – logging, cattle
ranching, large farms – planned rural settlement (INCRA 95) , Indian Land invasion
3)
Terra do Meio (1998/2000) – Mining, logging, illegal land market, catle ranching small and
large farms.
Human Occupation Patterns Typology
Analysis Elements: Deforestation Patches
Pattern
Patern Description (1:100.000)
Small and isolated patches
Low to medium density
Uniform distribution
Diffuse
Linear
Large
Geometric
Multidirectional
Large and medium isolated patches
Geometric patches
Low to medium density
Beginning or non intensive occupation
process
Non planned occupation
Small farms or household family
Occupations along rivers
Beginning of the occupation process
Non planned occupation
Occupation along roads
Small farmers
Beginning or intermediary stage of the
occupation process
Medium and large farms
Medium and Small patches
Several shapes (irregular, geometric
and linear)
Medium to high density patches
Multidirectional
Large compact and continuous
deforestation patches.
Small Forest remanments
Low density of forest pacthes
Consolidated
Linear patches like corridors
Low density
Unidirectional
Semantic
Occupation expansion.
Non planned occupation
Land concentration
Medium and small farms
Advanced occupation stage
Land Concentration
Small, Medium and Large farms
Fragmentation
Consolidated Occupation
Defining Cell resolution
20 km
50 km
Information
Loss
(Shape and
context)
10 km
5 km
Landscape Metrics
Landscape Metrics
Data Mining Technique
Decision Tree (J48)
In construction: Escada, Azeredo, Korting, Fonseca, Monteiro
Human Ocuppation Patterns
Land Cover
Forest
Deforestation
Patterns
Diffuse
Linear
Geometric
Multidirectional
Consolidated
1997
Human Ocuppation Patterns
Land Cover
Forest
Deforestation
Patterns
Diffuse
Linear
Geometric
Multidirectional
Consolidated
2000
Human Ocuppation Patterns
Land Cover
Forest
Deforestation
Patterns
Diffuse
Linear
Geometric
Multidirectional
Consolidated
2003
Human Ocuppation Patterns
Land Cover
Forest
Deforestation
Patterns
Diffuse
Linear
Geometric
Multidirectional
Consolidated
2006
Occupation Pattern Evolution
1200
1000
800
1997
2000
600
2003
2006
400
200
0
Floresta
Difuso
Geometrico
Linear
Multidirecional
Consolidado
Paper in construction: Azeredo et al
Trajectories
• 54% Expansion
Forest > Diffuse
Forest > Geometric
Forest > Linear
• 27% No change
• 19% Consolidation
Next steps
Validation of the results of cell classification.
Description of the patterns in terms of forest
conservation, land use and forest fragmentation
and degradetation.
We are enlarging the area to analyze the whole
Amazonia region using cell approach with Prodes
data.
Thanks.
Scientific Papers
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Aguiar, A.P.D., Câmara, G., Monteiro, A.M.V., Cartaxo, R. Modelling Spatial Relations by
Generalized Proximity Matrices. V Simpósio Brasileiro de GeoInformática, Campos do
Jordão, Novembro 2004.
Alves, D. S.; An analysis of the geographical patterns of deforestation in Brazilian Amazon
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Indicador: Parcelas de
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abertas no período de 2002-2003.
SFXingu
PA S. Sebastião
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MARIA ISABEL ESCADA_Analysis of Amazon Deforestation Patterns