Introdução à Gestão das
Organizações: utilidade e
funções da gestão
Helena Martins
Porque é que a gestão importa?
 Simples: os recursos são limitados.
 Não estou a perceber, mas o que é que isso importa?
O Que é que gerimos?
 Tempo
 Dinheiro
 Atenção
 Relações
 Esforço
 …
 Aliás, o que é que não gerimos?
No contexto organizacional,
Os processos de gestão inluem a planificação,
organização, direção e controlo.
Um aspeto importante da função de gestão é a
alocação de recursos finitos.
 Os recursos podem ser humanos, financeiros,
tecnológicos e naturais.
A gestão em todas as atividades de negócio e
organizacionais é o ato de conseguir fazer com que as
pessoas se juntem para atingir objetivos desejados e
objetivos através do uso de recursos disponíveis de forma
eficaz e eficiente.
Bons gestores não necessários para manter as suas
organizações no bom caminho assegurando que tudo o
que está a ser feito é orientado de forma ética para ir de
encontro às necessidades dos clientes.
 Uma boa gestão é necessária para fomenter a
motivaçção, criatividadem disciplina, entusiasmo em
áreas em que estes ou não existem ou não são
necessariamente desejados.
Funções da gestão
1. Planning & Decisions
2. Organizing Tasks
3. Staffing Roles
4. Leading Teams
5. Knowledge Management
6. Controlling Activities
7. Customer Experience Management
1. Planning & Decisions
Planning is a way to project expectations,
anticipate problems, and guide decision making.
The planning process includes the selection of
objectives, programs, or projects, and the policies
and procedures needed to accomplish them.
Plans exist at the strategic level, the program level,
and the project level.
It is important to review plans as conditions and
circumstances change over time.
2. Organizing Tasks
Organization deals with issues like human resources,
finance, and the establishment of priorities.
Some of the characteristics associated with organization
include: specialization and division of work; goal
achievement; the grouping of individuals into
departments; differentiated functions; and continuity.
Organization helps companies achieve goals, make the
best use of resources; grow; and focus on the betterment
of their employees.
Organizational design is a process that helps managers
organize and align the structure, process, rewards,
metrics, and talent with the business' strategy.
3. Staffing Roles
Staffing is a continuous activity that is carried out by all managers
and in all types of companies.
It is through staffing that the right people are found for the right
The selection process begins with analyzing the need for the job
and ends with interviewing the candidates.
A job description is important even after and individual is hired as
it is also used to assess performance.
Induction is an aspect of staffing that should not be ignored as it
will help the new staff member settle in quickly.
Training and development programs exist for both new hires and
seasoned employees.
4. Leading Teams
Team leaders provide guidance, instruction, direction,
and leadership to their respective teams.They must build
teams and ensure that they work well together.
A team leader reports to a project manager who oversees
several teams.
Effective team leaders possess six leadership
competencies that translate to the success of their
Team leaders must be able to balance being a member of
the team and a leader who manages the progress of the
5. Knowledge Management
Knowledge management typically focuses on
specific organizational objectives.
Criteria have been developed that help
organizations measure the benefits they receive
from knowledge management.
Technology plays a large role in the development of
knowledge management tools.
Knowledge management efforts tend to overlap
those of organizational learning and are, in fact,
seen as an enabler of organizational learning.
6. Controlling Activities
The three steps of the control process are needed in
order for the action of control to take place.
Measurements are also used to evaluate a company's
Managers need to control the environment in which
they function by updating plans or else they risk
facing some of the drawbacks of control.
7. Customer Experience
The goal of customer experience management
(CEM) is to move customers from satisfied to loyal
and then from loyal to advocates.
Customer experience solutions optimize the end-toend customer experience.
Customer experience management differs from
customer relationship management is that the
former focuses on customer need and desire.
Management Levels: A
Hierarchical View
The three levels of management typically found in an
organization are low-level management, middle-level
management, and top-level management.
Top-level managers are responsible for controlling and
overseeing the entire organization.
Middle-level managers are responsible for executing
organizational plans which comply with the company's
policies.These managers act at an intermediary between
top-level management and low-level management.
Low-level managers focus on controlling and
directing.They serve as role models for the employees
they supervise.
Management Areas: A
Functional View
Functional management is the most common
organizational design structure.
Communication in functional organizations generally
takes place within a single department.
In functional organizations, each employee has only
one manager.
Characteristics of Good
Styles of Leadership
Technical Skills
Conceptual Thought
Analytical Mindset
Sensitivity to Human Relations
While people can manage many things, including their
time, money, fuel consumption, and people, one can only
lead people.
Even though leadership is a subset of management, the
term "leader" seems to have a halo attached to it, while
the term "manager" comes with a bit of a stigma.
The search for the qualities that make a good leader has
been going on for centuries and continues today.
The search for the qualities that make a good leader has
been going on for centuries and continues today.
Technical Skills
The three managerial skills Robert Katz identified as
being necessary to be a successful manager are
technical, human, and conceptual.
Technical skills are easier to learn than human and
conceptual skills.
Technical skills become less important at the top
management levels of large firms as chief executives
can use the technical abilities of their employees;
however, high-level managers may still need these
skills in smaller firms.
Conceptual Thought
People who are able to see the key elements in any
situation can see the enterprise as a whole, see the
relationship between the various parts, understand their
dependence on each other, and recognize that changes in
one part will influence the others.
Conceptual skills are likened to a "helicopter mind,"
meaning that one is able to rise above a problem and see
it in context.
These skills are not critical for lower-level mangers, gain
importance for middle-management and are essential for
the success of higher-level managers.
Analytical Mindset
Analytical skills involves managing organization and
Standardized tests and interviews often try to
identify whether or not candidates have analytical
Having an analytical mindset does have it's
setbacks; People may place too much trust in data
or may not trust the data unless they have had
direct experience to support it.
Sensitivity to Human Relations
Mary Parker Follett emphasized the importance of the
existence of a relationship between the manager and the
worker and the requirement to view both management
and leadership more holistically than had been done in
the past.
Social psychologist Rensis Likert echoed Follett's human
relations approach and identified four systems of
management: the explorative- authoritative type; the
benevolent-authoritative type; the consultive type; and
the participative group management type.
According to Rensis Likert, leaders need to be able to
adapt their behavior to fit the people they lead.
 Jonathan T. Scott. "The Purpose of Management |
Jonathan T. Scott." CC BY
 The Open University. "Managing and managing people OpenLearn - Open University." CC BY-SA 2.0
 United Nations. License: Other

Introdução à Gestão das Organizações: utilidade e