52a Reunião Anual da Sociedade Brasileira de
Zootecnia
Zootecnia: Otimizando Recursos e Potencialidades
Belo Horizonte – MG, 19 a 23 de Julho de 2015
Perfil de pecuaristas com a aplicação de Boas Práticas Agropecuárias no Bioma Amazônico
Juliana Moreira Andrade1, Fabiano Alvim Barbosa2, Vando Telles de Oliveira3, Filipe Lage Bicalho4, Luciano
Bastos Lopes5, Juliana Mergh Leão6, Lucas Luz Emerick7
1
Mestranda em Produção Animal - Escola de Veterinária - UFMG, Belo Horizonte - MG. Bolsista FAPEMIG.
e-mail: [email protected]
Professor Adjunto III da Escola de Veterinária - UFMG
3
Instituto Centro de Vida (ICV) – MT
4
Zootecnista, M.Sc. – SIGA - Consultor técnico– MT
5
Pesquisador – Embrapa Agrossilvipastoril – Sinop – MT
6
Aluno de Pós Graduação em Zootecnia - Escola de Veterinária - UFMG
7
Médico Veterinário, Pós Doutor – MG – Bolsista Fapemig
2
Resumo: Para evitar o desmatamento da floresta Amazônica é necessário aprimorar a gestão técnica, administrativa
e ambiental em fazendas. Doze fazendeiros responderam um questionário para avaliar a relação entre os produtores
de bovinos de corte e as Boas Práticas Agropecuárias (BPA). As fazendas receberam assistência técnica para
implantação da BPA durante 2013 e 2014. O questionário foi dividido em tópicos: Planejamento técnico, controle
zootécnico, planejamento financeiro, controle financeiro, gestão de recursos humanos, gestão ambiental e gestão de
mercado. Em Dezembro de 2014 os fazendeiros responderam o questionário novamente. As respostas em relação à
implantação de atividades foram classificadas em 1- ruim, 2-regular , 3-bom, 4-muito bom, e foram analisadas pelo
teste de Wilcoxon, com nível de significância de P<0,05. Houve diferença estatística (P<0,05) para todos os tópicos
comparados antes e após a assistência técnica (AT) para implantação da BPA. A média antes da AT para
planejamento técnico, controle zootécnico, planejamento financeiro, controle financeiro, gestão de recursos
humanos, gestão ambiental e gestão de mercado foi de 1,1,1,1,2,2 e 2, respectivamente (P<0,05). A média após a
AT para os mesmos tópicos foi de 4,4,4,4,3,3 e 3, respectivamente (P<0,05). A maior parte dos pecuaristas não sabe
aplicar as Boas Práticas Agropecuárias, mas ao receberem assistência técnica para implantação da BPA podem
melhorar os índices produtivos e econômicos do sistema de produção.
Palavras–chave: bovinos de corte, gestão, meio ambiente, sustentabilidade
Profile of farmers as the application of good agricultural practices in Amazon biome
Abstract: To prevent the deforestation of the Amazon Forest, the technical, administrative, and environmental
management on farms must be improved. Twelve farmers answered a questionnaire to evaluate the relationship
between beef cattle farmers and the Good Agricultural Practices (GAP). Farms received technical assistance for the
implementation of GAP during 2013 and 2014. The questionnaire was divided into the following topics: Technical
planning, livestock control, financial planning, financial control, management of human resources, environmental
management, and market management. In December 2014, the farmers answered the questionnaire again. The
answers regarding the implementation of activities were classified as: 1- poor; 2-regular; 3-good; and 4-very good,
and were analyzed by the Wilcoxon test at a significance level of P<0.05. There was statistical significance
(P<0.05) for all topics compared before and after technical assistance (TA) for the implementation of GAP. The
average, livestock control, financial planning, financial control, management of human resources, environmental
management, and market management before TA for technical planning was 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, and 2, respectively
(P<0.05), and after TA the average for these same topics was 4, 4, 4, 4, 3, 3, and 3, respectively (P<0.05). Most part
of farmers does not know how to apply the Good Agricultural Practices, but when they receive technical assistance
to implement GAP, they can improve the productive and economic rates of the production system.
Keywords: beef cattle, environmental, management, sustainability
Introduction
The animal husbandry activity around the world has been going through adjustments caused by changes in
the demand of the productive scenario, seeking more efficiency in production and to meet the demand of
sustainable models for production (Barbosa et al, 2014). This new farming model is aimed at achieving a system
that is economically feasible, ecologically balanced, and socially fairer.
Despite these transformations, a large part of producers still maintain an activity characterized by a low
technological and managerial level, based on extractivist and unsustainable models. This type of livestock
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52a Reunião Anual da Sociedade Brasileira de
Zootecnia
Zootecnia: Otimizando Recursos e Potencialidades
Belo Horizonte – MG, 19 a 23 de Julho de 2015
exploitation may lead to several problems, in which the deforestation of the Amazon Forest is one of the main
negative consequences (Lopes & Pedreira, 2014).
To prevent deforestation, it is necessary to improve the technical, administrative, and environmental
management of farms. In this regard, the Good Agricultural Practices - Beef Cattle (GAP) is a tool that makes it
possible to reach these goals, making systems more profitable and competitive, considering also the animal welfare
and social and environmental policies.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the application of the Good Agricultural Practices on
the profile of farmers in the Amazon Biome.
Material e Methods
Twelve beef cattle farmers in Alta Floresta-MT, Brazil, answered the questionnaire to evaluate the
relationship between beef cattle farmers and the application of the Good Agricultural Practices.
The farmers participate in the Low-Carbon Integrated Livestock Project, developed by Instituto Centro de
Vida, in which the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG) is one of the strategic partners. The project began
in August 2012, and its objective is to reduce deforestation and improve the sustainability of livestock in terms of
productivity, profitability, production quality, and environmental management. The technical approach of the
project is based on the Guide for Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) - Beef Cattle, developed by Embrapa, and it
comprises the implementation of administrative (technical/economic) management, implantation of an intensified
pasture area with adequate management; supplementary feeding; isolation and preservation of permanent
preservation of areas; implantation of a forest component; among others.
The questionnaire applied to the farmers was divided into the following topics: technical planning, livestock
control, financial planning, financial control, management of human resources, environmental management, and
market management. It was answered in 2012, before the application of the Good Agricultural Practices at the
farms, which received technical assistance for the implementation during 2013 and 2014. The questionnaire was
answered again in December 2014. The answers regarding the implementation of activities were classified as: 1poor, 2-regular, 3-good, 4-very good. The questionnaire data were analyzed by the Wilcoxon test, adopting a
significance level of P<0.05.
Results and Discussion
There were statistical differences (P<0.05) for all topics compared before and after the technical assistance
(TA) for the implementation of the Good Agricultural Practices. The average for the topics technical planning,
livestock control, financial planning, financial control, management of human resources, environmental
management, and market management before TA was 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, and 2, respectively (P<0.05). The average for
technical planning, livestock control, financial planning, financial control, management of human resources,
environmental management, and market management after TA was 4, 4, 4, 4, 3, 3, and 3, respectively (P<0.05).
These results demonstrate that the implementation of GAP increased the managerial ability of the business and
enabled the allocation of the productive resources more rationally, which may lead to increased productivity and
profitability to farms, in addition to benefits involving the environmental and social issues. Barbosa et al. (2014)
compared livestock and economic rates on farms that applied GAP with those of low-technology farms of the same
region that did not apply GAP. The number of arrobas (@) produced per hectare and the gross margin per hectare
were [email protected] and [email protected], and R$602.27 and –R$147.12 for the farm that applied GAP and the low-technology
farm, respectively. The negative gross margin of the low-technology farm shows that animal husbandry was not
profitable under these conditions.
According to Gonzaga et al. (2010), after applying the Good Agricultural Practices, the farmer will be able
to enjoy several benefits, starting by the identification and correction of critical points existing in their production
system and reduction of losses and poor use of products. They will also be able to minimize the risks of labor and
environmental claims and improve the product’s quality, adding value and increasing competitiveness.
Table 1. Average values attributed by farmers to the topics technical planning, livestock control,
financial planning, financial control, management of human resources, environmental
management and market management classified into 1- bad, 2-regular, 3-good, 4-very good
before and after the technical assistance (TA).
Topics
Before TA
After TA
Technical planning
1
4
Livestock control
1
4
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52a Reunião Anual da Sociedade Brasileira de
Zootecnia
Zootecnia: Otimizando Recursos e Potencialidades
Belo Horizonte – MG, 19 a 23 de Julho de 2015
Financial planning
Financial control
Management of human resources
Environmental management
Market management
1
1
2
2
2
4
4
3
3
3
Conclusions
The majority of farmers do not know how to apply the Good Agricultural Practices, but when they receive
technical assistance to implement the GAP, they can improve the productive, social, environmental, and economical
rates of the production system.
Acknowledgements
We thank Instituto Centro de Vida, REDD+USAID, Fundo Vale, Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation,
FAPEMIG.
References
Barbosa, F. A.; Oliveira, V. T.; Bicalho, F. L.; Lopes, L. B.; Florence, E. A. S.; Mandarino, R. A.; Azevedo, H. O.
2014. Indicadores de sustentabilidade na pecuária bovina de corte – Projeto Pecuária Integrada de Baixo Carbono.
p.67-84. In: Anais do VI Simpósio Nacional sobre Produção e Gerenciamento da Pecuária de Corte. Belo Horizonte
- MG.
Gonzaga, S. S.; Santos, J. L. S’A. Boas práticas agropecuárias: um novo olhar sobre a competitividade da pecuária
gaúcha. Bagé: Embrapa Pecuária Sul, 2010.
Lopes, L. B.; Pedreira, B. C. Consolidação do programa de “Boas Práticas Agropecuárias – Bovinos de Corte” no
estado de Mato Grosso. p.49-65. In: Anais do VI Simpósio Nacional sobre Produção e Gerenciamento da Pecuária
de Corte. Belo Horizonte - MG.
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