Table S1. List of plant species in which the spectral reflection of the flowers was measured, and references
about pollination
Genus
Species
Family
Justicia
Justicia
Sanchezia
Baccharis
Emilia
Mutisia
Begonia
Begonia
Bilbergia
Canistropsis
Nidularium
Vriesia
Vriesia
Centropogon
Lobelia
Lobelia
Dichorisandra
Ipomoea syn. Quamoclit
Ipomoea syn. Quamoclit
Costus
Gaultheria
Macleania
Escallonia
Erythrina
Swartzia
Fouquieria
Columnea
Columnea
Mimulus
Nematanthus
Nematanthus
Nematanthus
Sinningia
Sinningia
Sinningia
Sinningia
Heliconia
Heliconia
Heliconia
Salvia
Salvia
Salvia
Erythronium
Desfontainia
Hibiscus
Malvaviscus
Napaea
Clidemia
Fuchsia
Maxillaria
Passiflora
Passiflora
Chelone
Penstemon
Geum
Bouvardia
Ixora
Manettia
Psychotria
Digitalis
Acnistus
Cestrum
Schizanthus
brandegeana
lutea
nobilis
trimera
fosbergii
coccinea
coccinea
cucullata alba
amoena
seidelii
innicentii
rodigasiana
carinata
spec.
cardinalis
siphilitica
thyrsiflora
purpurea
quamoclit
pulverulentus
procumbens
insiginis syn. ovata
macrantha syn. rubra
speciosa
oblata
macdougalli
gloriosa
magnifica
cardinalis
crassifolius
fritschii
strigillosus
canescens
cardinalis alba
eumorpha
macropoda
angusta
latispatha
velloziana
coccinea
leucantha
microphylla
oregonum
spinosa
rosa- sinensis
arboreus
dioica
hirta
magellanica alba
spec.
caerulea
edulis
obliqua alba
digitalis
rivale
ternifolia
coccinea
luteo-rubra
nuda
alba
arborescens
purpureum
pinnatus
Acanthaceae
Acanthaceae
Acanthaceae
Asteraceae
Asteraceae
Asteraceae
Begoniaceae
Begoniaceae
Bromeliaceae
Bromeliaceae
Bromeliaceae
Bromeliaceae
Bromeliaceae
Campanulaceae
Campanulaceae
Campanulaceae
Commelinaceae
Convolvulaceae
Convolvulaceae
Costaceae
Ericaceae
Ericaceae
Escalloniaceae
Fabaceae
Fabaceae
Fouquieriaceae
Gesneriaceae
Gesneriaceae
Gesneriaceae
Gesneriaceae
Gesneriaceae
Gesneriaceae
Gesneriaceae
Gesneriaceae
Gesneriaceae
Gesneriaceae
Heliconiaceae
Heliconiaceae
Heliconiaceae
Lamiaceae
Lamiaceae
Lamiaceae
Liliaceae
Loganiaceae
Malvaceae
Malvaceae
Malvaceae
Melastomataceae
Onagraceae
Orchidaceae
Passifloraceae
Passifloraceae
Plantaginaceae
Plantaginaceae
Rosaceae
Rubiaceae
Rubiaceae
Rubiaceae
Rubiaceae
Scrophulariaceae
Solanaceae
Solanaceae
Solanaceae
Flower
colour
w
w
r(b)
w
r
r
r
w
r, w(b,s)
w
r, w(b)
r(b)
r
r
r(s)
w
w
w
r, w
r
w
r, w
w
r
w
r
r
r
r
r
w
r(s)
r
w
w
r
r, w(b)
r(b)
r(b)
r, w
w
r
w
r
r
r
w
w
w(p,s,st)
r, w
w
w(s)
w
w
r
r, w
r
r
r(s)
w
w
r
w
Pollination
syndrome
Tro
Tro
Tro
Mel
Mel
Tro
Mel
Mel
Tro
Tro
Tro
Tro
Tro
Tro
Tro
Mel
Mel
Mel
Tro
Tro
Mel
Tro
Tro
Tro
Mel
Tro
Tro
Tro
Tro
Tro
Tro
Tro
Tro
Tro
Mel
Tro
Tro
Tro
Tro
Tro
Tro
Tro
Mel
Tro
Tro
Tro
Mel
Mel
Tro
Mel
Mel
Mel
Mel
Mel
Mel
Tro
Mel
Tro
Tro
Mel
Mel
Tro
Mel
Literature
1
1
2,3
4
4,5
6,7
8
9
10
6
4,10,11
6,12,13
14
15
2,16
17
4,8,18
4,19,20
21,22,23
24
25
15
26
3,6,11,13
27
28
29
30,31
32,33,34,35
36
6
36,37
38
38
38,39
38,39
11
40
11,13,36
41
42
42
43
26,44
3, 45
15,46
47
48
26,44,49
50
51
4,5,52
53
54,55
56
57
8
58
11,13,59
53
60
61
62
r,red; w, white; tro, trochilophilous; mel, melittophilous. Unless otherwise stated, flower petals were measured
(b, bract; p, petal; s, sepal; st, stamina).
1. Schmidt-Lebuhn, A. N., Schwerdtfegera, M., Kesslera, M. and Lohaus, G. (2007). Phylogenetic
constraints vs. ecology in the nectar composition of Acanthaceae. Flora 202, 62-69.
2. Burr, B., Rosen, D. and Barthlott, W. (1995). Untersuchungen zur Ultraviolettreflexion von Angiospermen
blüten III. Dilleniidae und Asteridae. Trop. Subtrop. Pflanzenwelt 93, 1-185.
3. Mendonça, L. B. and dos Anjos, L. (2005). Beija-flores (Aves, Trochilidae) e seus recursos florais em uma
área urbana do sul do Brasil. Rev. Bras. Zool. 22, 51-59.
4. Steiner, J., Zillikens, A., Kamke, R., Pickbrenner Feja, B. and de Barcellos Falkenberg, D. (2010) Bees
and melittophilous plants of secondary Atlantic forest habitats at Santa Catarina Island, Southern Brasil. Oecol.
Aus. 14, 16-39.
5. Locatelli, E., Machado, I. C. and Medeiros, P. (2004). Riqueza de abelhas e a flora apícola em um
fragmento da Mata Serrana (brejo de altitude) em Pernambuco, Nordeste do Brasil. In Brejos de altitude em
Pernambuco e Paraíba - História Natural, Ecologia e Conservação (ed. K. C. Pôrto, J. J. P. Cabral and M.
Tabarelli), pp. 153-177. Brazil: Ministério do Meio Ambiente.
6. Buzato, S., Sazima, M. and Sazima, I. (2000). Hummingbird-pollinated floras at three Atlantic forest sites.
Biotropica 32, 824-841.
7. Sazima, M. and Machado, I. (1983). Biologia floral de Mutisia coccinia St. Hil. (Asteraceae). Rev. Bras.
Bot. 6, 103-108.
8. Pemberton, R. W. and Wheeler, G. S. (2006). Orchid bees don’t need orchids: Evidence from the
naturalization of an orchid bee in Florida. Ecology 87, 1995-2001.
9. Pinheiro, M., Espindola de Abrao, B., Harter-Marques, B. and Miotto, S. T. S. (2008). Floral resources
used by insects in a grassland community in Southern Brazil. Rev. Bras. Bot. 31, 469-489.
10. Wendt, T., Coser, T. S., Matallana, G. and Guilherme, F. A. G. (2008). An apparent lack of prezygotic
reproductive isolation among 42 sympatric species of Bromeliaceae in Southeastern Brazil. Plant Syst. Evol.
275, 31-41.
11 Sazima, I., Buzato, S. and Sazima, M. (1995) The saw-billed hermit Ramphodon naevius and its flowers in
Southeastern Brazil. J. Ornithol. 136, 195-206.
12 Siqueira Filho, J. A. and Tabarelli, M. (2006). Bromeliad species of the Atlantic forest of North-East
Brazil: losses of critical populations of endemic species. Oryx 40, 218-224.
13 de Queiroz Piacentini, V. and Galarda Varassin, I. (2007). Interaction network and the relationship
between bromeliads and hummingbirds in an area of secondary Atlantic rain forest in Southern Brazil. J. Trop.
Ecol. 23, 663-671.
14 Araujo, A.C., Fischer, E.A. and Sazima, M. (1994). Floração sequencial e polinização de três espécies de
Vriesea (Bromeliaceae) na região da Juréia, Sudeste do Brasil. Rev. Bras. Bot. 17, 113-118.
15 Borgella Jr., R., Snow, A. A. and Gavin, T. A. (2001). Species richness and pollen loads of hummingbirds
using forest fragments in Southern Costa Rica. Biotropica 33, 90-109.
16 Grant, V. (1994). Modes and origins of mechanical and ethological isolation in angiosperms. Proc. Natl.
Acad. Sci. USA 91, 3-10.
17 Johnston, M. O. (1991). Pollen limitation of female reproduction in Lobelia cardinalis and L. siphilitica.
Ecology 72, 1500-1503.
18 Biedinger, N. and Barthlott, W. (1993). Untersuchungen zur Ultraviolettreflexion von Angiospermenblüten I. Monocotyledonae. Trop. subtrop. Pflanzenwelt 86, 1-122.
19 Sargent, R. D. and Otto, S. P. (2004). A phylogenetic analysis of pollination mode and the evolution of
dichogamy in angiosperms. Evol. Ecol. Res. 6, 1183-1199.
20 Stucky, J. M. (1984). Forager attraction by sympatric Ipomoea hederacea and I. purpurea
(Convolvulaceae) and corresponding forager behavior and energetics. Am. J. Bot. 71, 1237-1244.
21 des Marais, D. L. and Rausher, M. D. (2010). Parallel evolution at multiple levels in the origin of
hummingbird pollinated flowers in Ipomoea. Evolution 64, 2044-2054.
22 Machado, I.C.S. and Sazima, M. (1987). Estudo comparativo da biologia floral em duas espécies
invasoras: Ipomoea hederifolia e I. quamoclit (Convolvulaceae). Rev. Bras. Biol. 47, 425-436.
23 Wolfe, L. M. and Sowell, D. R. (2006). Do pollination syndromes partition the pollinator community? A
test using four sympatric Morning Glory species. Int. J. Plant Sci. 167, 1169-1175.
24 Kay, K. M. and Schemske, D. W. (2008). Natural selection reinforces speciation in a radiation of
Neotropical rainforest plants. Evolution 62, 2628–2642.
25 Mirick, S. and Quinn, J. A. (1981). Some observations on the reproductive biology of Gaultheria
procumbens (Ericaceae). Am. J. Bot. 68, 1298-1305.
26 Huapi, N. and Fraga, A. R. M. (1997). Interacciones entre el picaflor rubi Shephanoides sephaniodes y
plantas del bosque subantártico en el Parque Nacional. Hornero 14, 224-234.
27 Pinheiro, M. & Sazima, M. (2007). Visitantes florais e polinizadores de seis espécies arbóreas de
Leguminosae melitófilas na Mata Atlântica no Sudeste do Brasil. Rev. Bras. Biociências 5, 447-499.
28 Schultheis, L. M. and Baldwin, B. G. (1999). Molecular phylogenetics of Fouquieriaceae: evidence from
nuclear rDNA ITS studies. Am. J. Bot. 86, 578-589.
29 Morley, B. D. (1971). A hybrid swarm between two hummingbird-pollinated species of Columnea
(Gesneriaceae) in Jamaica. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 64, 81-96.
30 Murray, K. G., Feinsinger, P., Busby, W. H., Linhart, Y. B., Beach, J. H., Kinsman, S. (1987).
Evaluation of character displacement among plants in two Tropical pollination guilds. Ecology 68, 1283-1296.
31 Temeles, E. J., Linhart, Y. B., Masonjones, M. and Masonjones, H. D. (2002). The role of flower width
in hummingbird bill length–flower length relationship. Biotropica 34, 68-80.
32 Schemske, D. W. and Bradshaw Jr., H. D. (1999). Pollinator preference and the evolution of floral traits in
monkeyflowers (Mimulus). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 1910-1915.
33 Ramsey, J., Bradshaw Jr., H. D. and Schemske, D. W. (2003). Components of reproductive isolation
between the Monkey flowers Mimulus lewisii and M. cardinalis (Phrymaceae). Evolution 57, 1520-1534.
34 Bradshaw, H. D., Wilbert, S. M., Otto, K. G. and Schemske, D. W. (1995). Genetic mapping of floral
traits associated with reproductive isolation in monkeyflowers (Mimulus). Nature 376, 762-765.
35 Beardsley, P. M., Yen, A. and Olmstead, R. G. (2003). AFLP Phylogeny of Mimulus section Erythranthe
and the evolution of hummingbird. Evolution 57, 1397-1410.
36 Snow, D. W. and Teixeira, D. L. (1982). Hummingbirds and their flowers in the coastal mountains of
Southeastern Brazil. J. Ornithol. 123, 446-450.
37 Ferreira de Vasconcelos, M., Lombardi, J. A. (1999). Padrão sazonal na ocorrencia de seis espécies de
beija-flores (Apodiformes: Trochilidae) em uma localidade de campo rupestre na Serra do Curral, Minas
Gerais. Ararajuba 7, 71-79.
38 Perret, M., Chautems, A., Spichiger, R., Peixoto, M. and Savolainen, V. (2001). Nectar sugar
composition in relation to pollination syndromes in Sinningiae (Gesneriaceae). Ann. Bot. 87, 267-273.
39 Perret, M., Chautems, A., Spichiger, R., Kite, G. and Savolainen, V. (2003). Systematics and evolution
of tribe Sinningiae (Gesneriaceae): Evidence from phylogenetic analyses of six plastid DNA regions and
nuclear ncpGS1. Am. J. Bot. 90, 445-460.
40 Stiles, F. G. (1975). Ecology, flowering phenology and hummingbird pollination of some Costa Rican
Heliconia species. Ecology 56, 285-301.
41 Grases, C. and Ramírez, N. (1998). Biología reproductiva de cinco especies ornitófilas en un fragmento de
bosque caducifolio secundario en Venezuela. Rev. Biol. Trop. 46, 1095-1108.
42 Wester, P. and Claßen-Bockhoff, R. (2007). Floral diversity and pollen transfer mechanisms in birdpollinated Salvia species. Ann. Bot. 100, 401-421.
43 Parachnowitsch, A. L. and Elle, E. (2005). Insect visitation to wildflowers in the endangered Garry oak,
Quercus garryana, ecosystem of British Columbia. Can. Field Nat. 119, 245-253.
44 Aizen, M. A. and Vázquez, D. P. (2006). Flowering phenologies of hummingbird plants from the temperate
forest of Southern South America: is there evidence of competitive displacement? Ecography 29, 357-366.
45 Gill, F. B., Stokes, F. J. and Stokes, C. (1973). Contact zones and hybridization in the Jamaican
hummingbird, Trochilus polytmus (L.). Condor 75, 170-178.
46 George, M. W. (1980). Hummingbird foraging behavior at Malvaviscus arboreus var. drummondii. Auk 97,
790-794.
47 Iltis, H. H. (1963). Napaea dioica (Malvaceae): Whence came the type? Am. Midl. Nat. 70, 90-109.
48 Ferreira, S. A. N., Cohen, I. A. and Jansen, M. R. A. (1994). Reproductive biology of Clidemia hirta (L.)
D. Don (Melastomataceae). Acta Amazonica 24, 183-188.
49 Traveset, A., Willson, M. F. and Sabag, C. (1998). Effect of nectar-robbing birds on fruit set of Fuchsia
magellanica in Tierra Del Fuego. A disrupted mutualism. Funct. Ecol. 12, 459-464.
50 Roubik, D. W. (1999). Deceptive orchids with Meliponini as pollinators. Plant Syst. Evol. 222, 271-279.
51 Galetto, L. and Bernardello, G. (2003). Nectar sugar compositions in angiosperms from Chaco and
Patagonia (Argentina): an animal visitor’s matter? Plant Syst. Evol. 238, 69–86.
52 Yamamoto, M., Barbosa, A. A. A.,and de Oliveira, P. E. A. M. (2010). A polinização em cultivos
agrícolas e a conservação das áreas naturais: o caso do Maracuja-amarelo (Passiflora edulis). Oecologia Aus.
14, 174-192.
53 Ghebrehiwet, M., Bremer, B. and Thulin, M. (2000). Phylogeny of the tribe Antirrhineae
(Scrophulariaceae) based on morphological and ndhF sequence data. Plant Syst. Evol. 220, 223-242.
54 Wilson, P., Castellanos, M. C., Hogue, J. N., Thomson, J. D. and Armbruster, W. S. (2004). A
multivariate search for pollination syndromes among penstemons. Oikos 104, 345-361.
55 Dieringer, G. and Cabrera, L. R. (2002). The interaction between pollinator size and the bristle staminode
of Penstemon digitalis (Scrophulariaceae). Am. J. Bot. 89, 991-997.
56 Jennersten, O., Berg, L. and Lehman, C. (1988). Pollen deposition and seed set in the sticky catchfly,
Viscaria vulgaris. J. Ecol. 76, 1111-1132.
57 Faivre, A. E. and McDade, L. A. (2001). Population-level variation in the expression of heterostyly in
three species of Rubiaceae: does reciprocal placement of anthers and stigmas characterize heterostyly? Am. J.
Bot. 88, 841-853.
58 Passos, L. and Sazima, M. (1995). Reproductive biology of the distylous Manettia luteo-rubra
(Rubiaceae). Bot. Acta 108, 309-313.
59 Cardoso de Castro, C. and Cardoso Araujo, C. (2004). Distyly and sequential pollinators of Psychotria
nuda (Rubiaceae) in the Atlantic Rain Forest, Brazil. Plant Syst. Evol. 244, 131-139.
60 DeWitt Smith, S., Hall, S. J., Izquierdo, P. R. and Baum, D. A. (2008). Comparative pollination biology
of sympatric and allopatric Andean Iochroma (Solanaceae). Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. 95, 600-617.
61 D’Arcy, W. G. (1999). Red-flowered Cestrum and red-loving hummingbirds. In Solanaceae IV: advances
in biology and utilization (eds. M. Nee, D. E. Symon, R. N. Lester and J. P. Jessop), pp. 33-43. Kew, UK:
Royal Botanic Gardens.
62 Pérez, F., Arroyo, M. T. K., Medel, R. and Hershkovitz, M. A. (2006). Ancestral reconstruction of
flower morphology and pollination systems in Schizanthus (Solanaceae). Am. J. Bot. 93, 1029-1038.
Download

Supplemental Table S1