The role of the Extractive and
Sustainable Development Reserves
in the reduction of deforestation and
forest conservation in the Amazon
Ane Alencar
Spatial Distribution of RESEXs and RDSs
•89 reserves
•70 RESEXs e 19 RDSs
•~ 24 millions of hectares
•Represent 19% of the area
covered by reserves in the
Brazilian Amazônia
• Hold 8% of the regional
forests.
Evolution of RESEX and RDS
13.637.932 ha
11.017.837 ha
RESEXs e RDSs
(Extractive Reserves and Sustainable
Development Reserves)
Have an important role in avoiding
emissions from deforestation
They have a historical contribution acting as deforestation barriers
For their important contribution on the conservation of forest stocks,
they should be compensated and could be receive the benefits from
the REDD mechanism
The conservation of such stocks is totally dependent on the social
and economic sustainability of these reserves and their population
REDD can represent an opportunity to
support the promotion of an forest
based economy more adapted to the
Amazon, consequently, helping to
improve quality of life to forest peoples.
Role of RESEX and RDS on the reduction
emissions from deforestation
• The efective contribution to the forest peoples to
CO2 emissions reduction is:
– The protection of forest carbon stocks
– The contribution they have to the reducing
deforestation in the agriculture
frontier
Data needed to support the discussion of
a REDD project
• Calculation of the carbon stocks
– Deforestation
– Resulting biomass stocks
– Biomass and carbon density
• Calculation of the actual and future pressure
• Indication of the areas under higher risk of
deforestation
• Calculation of the potential emissions related to the
risks
RESEXs, RDSs and deforestation
•RESEXs and RDSs together had only 1.8% of their forests lost by
deforestation
•From their 23,100,369 ha of original forest covering these reserves only
416,023 ha were deforested.
Individually:
RESEXs lost 2,8% of the total forest area (12.422.970 ha),
RDSs lost 0,6% of forest to deforestation (10,677,399 ha).
Main reasons behind this difference:
(1) Geographic location in relation to the proximity of agricultural frontiers and
land use consolidated frontiers,
(2) Distance and quality of infrastructure and access to the market and
population centers
(3) Age of these reserves.
Recent deforestation dynamic
Percentage of the forest lost
The lack of investment
by the government in
promoting sustainable
production practices
has given incentives
to the stabelishment of
non forest land uses
such as cattle ranching
Biomass and Carbon Stocks
•~ 6 billions of tones of aerial biomass
•Representing a stock of ~ 3 billions of tones of Carbon
•Representing 6% of the total Amazon carbon stocks (47 PgC), and the
same stocks of entire Brazilian states such as AC, RR e AP
•The carbon density on these reserves varied from 97 a 112 tones of C/ha
RDS
Total Stock
(ton C)
1,473millions
RESEX
Carbon
density
(ton C/ha)
112
Total Stock
(ton C)
1,500 millions
TOTAL
Carbon
Density
(ton C/ha)
97
Total Stock
(ton C)
2,973 millions
Carbon
Density
(ton C/ha)
100
Carbon stocks by RESEX and RDS
3 billions of tons C
Source: Alencar et al. 2009 (Adapted from Saatchi et al. 2007)
Vulnerability to future deforestation
Scenarios of future deforestation
• If the business as usual scenario became true, 38% of
the forest area in these reserves will be deforested by
2050.
• Comparing these two types of reserves, the RESEXs will
continue to be the most vulnerable type of reserve losing
50% of their forests (6.164.412 ha), while for the RDS
this proportion would be (2.500.099 ha).
• This reduction of the forest cover would represent 21
times the actual deforestation inside these reserves.
Potential emissions of CO2
Potential emissions 2050:
3,4 billions of ton CO2
Avoided emissions 2050:
(Diference between GOV and BAU)
2,7 billions of ton CO2
RESEXs = 2 Pg CO2
RDSs = 0,7 Pg CO2
The role of REDD in the future of
RESEX and RDS
1. Increase value of products and forest economies
2. Support infrastructure to market integration and
structure of low carbon productive chains
3. Support infrastructure and human resources to resource
management
4. Build internal capacity to co-management and social
organization
Conclusions
•The conservation of carbon stocks depends on the social and economic
sustainability of the forest based economies and their population.
•Government investments to promote a strong and long lasting forest
based economy, based on forest products represent an important step to
implement such reserves
•It is fundamental to any discussion related to benefits and compensation
of REDD to recognize the role that traditional people living in these
reserves have to forest conservation
Conclusions
•Thus REDD projects can help to provide means to improve the
quality of life and maintenance of land tenure security of these
populations.
Such benefits can be promoted by direct payments, subsidies to
sustainable forest production as well as the provision of basic rights to
these peoples.
Main points about REDD and forest peoples
•Resources from REDD can be done through direct payments for
environmental services
•However, direct payments alone will not provide the establishment and
consolidation of a sustainable forest based economy
•Because of that, besides payment for environmental services, REDD
projects have to contemplate investments for economic alternatives.
•It is fundamental that REDD projects that benefit the extractivists won’t be
fragmented, so the proposal can be consistent and strong, benefiting not
only the ones living in reserves under higher deforestation pressure, but
also the ones living in remote reserves with low pressure.
Thanks
Ane Alencar
[email protected]
WWW.CLIMAEFLORESTA.ORG.BR
Support:
Secretaria de Assuntos Estratégicos –SAE
Fundação Packard
Acknowledgements:
Mary Allegretti
Vivian Zeideman
Leonardo Pacheco
Source: Alencar, A. and P. Moutinho. 2009. Aspectos Ambientais das Reservas Extrativistas e de Desenvolvimento
Sustentável na Amazônia. Nota Técnica, Centro de Gestão e Estudos Estratégicos – CGEE. Brasilia.
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