ISSN 1980-7694 ON-LINE
PHYTOSOCIOLOGY AND DIVERSITY OF ARBOREAL SPECIES ON SQUARES IN THE
CENTRAL REGION OF GURUPI, TOCANTINS STATE, BRAZIL.
André Ferreira dos Santos1; Anderson Cleiton José2; Patrícia Aparecida de Sousa3 4.
ABSTRACT
When squares show phytogeographical diversity and are well distributed within cities, they form a system of
green areas, and their attributes promote thermal comfort, acoustic buffering and visual attractiveness. In this
context, this study evaluated the floristic composition and diversity of tree species on central squares of the city
of Gurupi, Tocantins State, Brazil (11º43'45" South latitude and 49°04'07" West longitude). The study was
conducted between March and December in 2009. We identified 261 trees of 33 species and 15 families on the
three squares studied, being 12 species native to cerrado (Brazilian savannah) with 24 trees, and 12 species
exotic to the region studied, with 237 trees. We observed that species with larger numbers of individuals are
exotic to the region (Caesalpinia peltophoroides and Licania tomentosa), the predominance of few species
contributed to the reduction of diversity, and that the use of more species, preferably native the region, to replace
the exotic species is an alternative to increase species diversity.
Keywords: trees, urban forests, green areas
FITOSSOCIOLOGIA E DIVERSIDADE DE ESPÉCIES ARBÓREAS DAS PRAÇAS CENTRAIS DO
MUNICÍPIO DE GURUPI-TO.
RESUMO
As praças quando apresentam diversidade fitogeográfica e são bem distribuídas no interior das cidades formam
um sistema de áreas verdes, que pelos seus atributos tendem promover o conforto térmico, acústico e visual.
Sabendo desta necessidade o presente trabalho, teve como objetivo avaliar a composição florística e a
diversidade de espécies arbóreas presentes nas praças centrais do município de Gurupi, localizada na região sul
do estado do Tocantins, com 11º43'45ʺ latitude sul e 49º04'07ʺ longitude oeste. O estudo foi realizado durante o
ano de 2009, entre os meses de março e dezembro. Avaliaram-se as espécies arbóreas localizadas nas praças
centrais do município. Encontrou-se 261 árvores de 33 espécies e 15 famílias nas três praças estudadas, sendo 12
espécies nativas do bioma cerrado, com 24 árvores e 12 espécies exóticas à região estudada, num total de 237
árvores. Os autores observaram que as espécies com maior número de indivíduos são exóticas à região
(Caesalpinia peltophoroides e Licania tomentosa); que a dominância de poucas espécies contribuiu para redução
dos índices de diversidade; e que o uso de maior número de espécies, de preferência nativas da região em
substituição às espécies exóticas é uma alternativa para o aumento dos índices de diversidade.
Palavras-chave: Árvores; Arborização urbana; Áreas verdes.
1
Engenheiro Florestal, Professor Adjunto, Universidade Federal do Tocantins Campus Gurupi, Gurupi-TO. andrefs@uft.edu.br
Engenheiro Florestal, Professor Adjunto, Universidade Federal de Lavras, Departamento de Ciências Florestais, Lavras-MG.
acjose@dcf.ufla.br
3
Engenheira Florestal, Professora Adjunta, Universidade Federal do Tocantins, Campus Gurupi, Gurupi-TO. patrícia@uft.edu.br
4
recebido em 03.07.2012 e aceito para publicação em 15.12.2013
2
Soc. Bras. de Arborização Urbana REVSBAU, Piracicaba – SP, v.8, n.4, p 33‐43, 2013 INTRODUCTION
Rapid growth and development of cities changed
Squares are urban open spaces used as a public
completely the natural landscape. These changes,
place, which in addition to promoting socialization
mainly of anthropic nature, caused the suppression
and leisure, they provide an opportunity for
of vegetation from the urban environment, giving
population to have a direct contact with nature
place to buildings, pavements, among other
(DEMATTÊ, 1997).
equipment of the urban mesh. Today, the urban
When
forest, which is considered an element of vital
diversity and are well distributed within the cities,
importance not only to the composition of the
they form a system of green areas that promote
landscape, but also to improving environmental
thermal, acoustic and visual comfort (RESENDE et
conditions, is concentrated in the squares and
al., 2009).
distributed along the streets and avenues.
The absence of diversity of tree species in urban
Urban forests must fulfill three core functions:
areas can cause several problems, such as inability
aesthetic, ecological and leisure, which are
to attract and shelter the fauna, to maintain a
indispensable to ensure environmental quality of
biological balance and to control pest attacks
cities. Green areas play an important role in
(MILANO, 1988).
stabilizing surfaces by means of soil fixation by
Phytogeographical
plant roots, in reducing wind speed, in protecting
environment promotes greater ecological stability,
water quality as the tree roots prevent pollutants
where the new habitats encourage the emergence of
from reaching rivers through rainwater runoff, in
other species (flora and fauna) and ecological
filtering the air, in reducing dust in suspension, and
interactions,
in balancing the levels of moisture in the air
predation and symbiosis, which hinder the attack of
(NUCCI, 2001).
pests that pose a risk to the population (GUZZO,
For urban forests perform their essential services, it
1999).
is necessary that the arboreal species have adequate
A careful choice of species and their diversity are a
spaces to develop and a diversity of trees species
recent concern, since until recently, tree species
should planted.
were chosen for their beauty rather than for their
As examples of these green areas, there are the
capacity
squares, which have important function for the
(KAGEYAMA, 2009). Thus, it is also very
urban population, promoting social welfare and
common that very few species are predominant in
well-being to citizens.
urban tree planting with very low genetic
The locations of the squares are quite variable and
variability, probably with the occurrence of
should be well distributed within the city, so that
inbreeding
each district or sector has a square, that is, each area
populations.
has arboreal vegetation that will play important
The choice and use of species with greater diversity
functions to the urban environment (PIVETTA et
could be a requirement to the use of plant resource
al., 2008).
in cities, in a way to bring not only beauty and
squares
of
display
a
diversity
characterized
recovering
and
genetic
phytogeographical
in
by
aspects
problems
the
urban
competition,
of
in
nature
these
thermal comfort to the environment, but also to
André Ferreira dos Santos et al. 34 Soc. Bras. de Arborização Urbana REVSBAU, Piracicaba – SP, v.8, n.4, p 33‐43, 2013 ensure an ecological balance and increased
This
biodiversity in these harsh and inhospitable
composition and the diversity of tree species on
environments (KAGEYAMA, 2009).
central squares of the city of Gurupi, Tocantins
study
aimed
to
evaluate
the
floristic
State, Brazil.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Study site
The city of Gurupi with a population estimated of
Borges Leitão Square (Abadia Church), Igreja
74,357 inhabitants (IBGE, 2009) is located in the
Santo Antônio Square and Francisco Henrique de
southern region of the state of Tocantins, Brazil, at
Santana Square (Figure 1). All species with
approximately 287 m above sea level (11°43’45”
individuals showing more than 15 cm in diameter
South latitude and 49°04’07” West longitude). The
and 5 m in height were counted and identified
climate type Aw, tropical with an average
through consultation in the literature, at herbariums
temperature of the coldest year month higher than
and with specialists. The classification of botanical
18°C, with summer rains and winter droughts
families follows the APG Classification (APG III,
(Koppen classification). Local historical averages
2009).
show maximum average temperature of 32.6°C and
The areas of the squares were measured with the
average low of 20.7°C and average annual rainfall
SPRING program (CÂMARA et al., 1996),
of 1,735.5 mm.
removing the build-up area to calculate of the total
The region is located in the cerrado (Brazilian
area of each square.
savannah), characterized by the predominance of
The tree species were classified in terms of origin
open xeromorphic vegetation, dominated and
based on the description of the species in their
marked by an herbaceous stratum (IBGE, 1992;
natural habitat. Consultations were made in
MIRANDA and BOGNOLA, 1998). The city is a
specialized
center of agricultural crops and livestock that
LORENZI, 2002; CARVALHO, 2003; LORENZI
contributed to the suppression of much of the
et. a., 2003; CARVALHO 2006; CARVALHO
original vegetation.
2008) and at herbariums. Species that did not have
The study was conducted during the year of 2009,
individuals collected or described in the literature
between March and December. We studied the tree
for the cerrado were regarded as exotic to the
species on the central squares of the city: João
ecosystem studied.
bibliographies
(CORREIA,
1984;
PHYTOSOCIOLOGY AND DIVERSITY OS ARBOREAL SPECIES ON…
Soc. Bras. de Arborização Urbana REVSBAU, Piracicaba – SP, v.8, n.4, p 33‐43, 2013 35 Figure 1. Location of the central squares of Gurupi, Tocantins State, Brazil (1 - João Leitão Borges Square, 2 Igreja Santo Antônio Square, and 3 - Francisco Henrique de Santana Square
1
2
3
Source: Google Earth.
For each species, we calculated the absolute density (AD), relative density (RD), absolute frequency (AF) and
relative frequency (RF), where:
AD= n: number of sampled individuals of each species;
André Ferreira dos Santos et al. 36 Soc. Bras. de Arborização Urbana REVSBAU, Piracicaba – SP, v.8, n.4, p 33‐43, 2013 ha: hectare.
RD= /
/
x 100
n: number of sampled individuals of each species;
N: total number of individuals sampled in all species surveyed;
ha: hectare.
AF =
RF = ∑
x 100
AFi: Absolute frequency of the i-th species;
: Sum of the absolute frequency of all species.
∑
The global diversity of species was measured through the index of diversity Shannon-Weaver (H’) and Simpson
dominance index (C), using the program PAST (HAMMER et. al., 2001), where:
H’=
.
∑
.
H’: Index of diversity Shannon-Weaver;
i: 1 ... N
S: Number of species sampled;
ni: Number of individuals sampled in the i-th species;
N: Total number of individuals sampled;
ln: Neperian logarithm.
C=
∑
C = Simpson dominance index;
ni = Number of individuals sampled in the i-th species;
N = Total number of individuals sampled;
S = Total number of species sampled.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Quantity of species on the squares
PHYTOSOCIOLOGY AND DIVERSITY OS ARBOREAL SPECIES ON…
Soc. Bras. de Arborização Urbana REVSBAU, Piracicaba – SP, v.8, n.4, p 33‐43, 2013 37 We identified 261 trees of 33 species and 15
and 12 exotic species to the region studied
families on the three squares studied, being 12
amounting 237 exotic trees (Table 1).
species native to the cerrado biome with 24 trees,
Table 1. Families, species, total number of individuals (TNI), absolute density (AD), relative density (RD),
absolute frequency (AF), relative frequency (RF) and origin of the tree species identified on three central squares
of the city of Gurupi, Tocantins State, Brazil. Origin: E = exotic, N =native.
Popular
Family/Species
TNI
AD
Cajueiro
3
1.36
Mangueira
6
RD
Origin
AF
RF (%)
1.15
0.67
4.17
N
2.73
2.30
0.67
4.17
E
1
0.45
0.38
0.33
2.08
2
0.91
0.77
0.33
2.08
2
0.91
0.77
0.33
2.08
4
1.82
1.53
0.33
2.08
16
7.28
6.13
0.67
4.17
Gueroba
6
2.73
2.30
0.67
4.17
N
Ipê-roxo
2
0.91
0.77
0.67
4.17
N
Tabebuia roseo-alba
Ipê-branco
1
0.45
0.38
0.33
2.08
N
Tabebuia serratifolia
Ipê-amarelo
3
1.36
1.15
0.33
2.08
N
Ipê-mirim
6
2.73
2.30
0.67
4.17
E
Mamoeiro
1
0.45
0.38
0.33
2.08
E
Casuarina
2
0.91
0.77
0.33
2.08
Oiti
50
22.74
19.16
1.00
6.25
name
(%)
Anacardiaceae
Anacardium occidentale L.
Mangifera indica L
Apocynaceae
Jasmim-
Plumeria rubra
manga
E
Arecaceae
Rabo-de-
Caryota urens
peixe
Palmeira-de-
Livistona chinensis
leque
Fênix
Phoenix roebelenii
Palmeira-
Roystonea oleracea
real
Syagrus oleracea
E
E
E
E
Bignoniaceae
Tabebuia impetiginosa
Tecoma stans
Caricaceae
Carica papaya
Casuarinaceae
Casuarina equisetifolia J, R, &
Forst
E
Chrysobalanaceae
Licania tomentosa
E
André Ferreira dos Santos et al. 38 Soc. Bras. de Arborização Urbana REVSBAU, Piracicaba – SP, v.8, n.4, p 33‐43, 2013 Combretaceae
Sete-copas
Terminalia catappa L,
13
5.91
4.98
0.67
4.17
1
0.45
0.38
0.33
2.08
Pata-de-vaca
9
4.09
3.45
0.67
4.17
Sibipiruna
98
44.57
37.55
1.00
6.25
E
Fabaceae
Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.)
Angico-
Brenan
vermelho
Bauhinia forficata Link
Caesalpinia peltophoroides
Benth.
E
E
E
Cássiachuva-de-
Cassia fistula L.
N
1
0.45
0.38
0.33
2.08
Pau-d’óleo
1
0.45
0.38
0.33
2.08
N
Tamboril
1
0.45
0.38
0.33
2.08
N
2
0.91
0.77
0.33
2.08
1
0.45
0.38
0.33
2.08
5
2.27
1.92
0.33
2.08
ouro
Copaifera langsdorfii
Enterolobium contortisiliquum
Sucupira-
Pterodon polygaeflorus
branca
N
Malvaceae
Chorisia speciosa A. St.-Hil.
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L,
Paineira
Graxa-deestudante
E
E
Pachira aquatica
Munguba
1
0.45
0.38
0.33
2.08
N
Sterculia striata
Chicá
1
0.45
0.38
0.33
2.08
N
Nim-indiano
7
3.18
2.68
0.33
2.08
E
Meliaceae
Azadirachta indica
.
Moraceae
Ficus benjamina
Figueira
3
1.36
1.15
0.33
2.08
E
Goiabeira
3
1.36
1.15
0.67
4.17
E
1
0.45
0.38
0.33
2.08
Três-marias
6
2.73
2.30
0.67
4.17
E
Genipapo
2
0.91
0.77
0.67
4.17
N
261
118.69
100
16
100
Myrtaceae
Psidium guajava L,
Jambo-
Syzygium malaccense
vermelho
E
Nyctaginaceae
Bougainvillea glabra
Rubiaceae
Genipa Americana
TOTAL
The species with greater representativeness in the
56.71% of all individuals found. These species
area,
were found in all studied squares (AF = 1).
expressed
by
relative
density,
were
Caesalpinia peltophoroides (37.55%) and Licania
A fact that deserves highlight in this study is the
tomentosa (19.16%), which together represent
high rate of exotic species, 90.8% of the
PHYTOSOCIOLOGY AND DIVERSITY OS ARBOREAL SPECIES ON…
Soc. Bras. de Arborização Urbana REVSBAU, Piracicaba – SP, v.8, n.4, p 33‐43, 2013 39 individuals, which evidences a choice for species to
et al. (2007) in an inventory of afforestation of the
suit a particular purpose, in the case of Gurupi, the
neighborhoods Bancários, Pinheiros and Brasília in
choice was for the sibipiruna and oiti.
the city of Pato Branco, Paraná State, Brazil, where
The sibipiruna (Caesalpinia peltophoroides) is
the authors identified 81.3% of exotic arboreal
native to the Atlantic forest, semideciduous forest,
individuals as exotic. In the same study, the authors
fast growing with ornamental flowering. Of great
found 62.4% of exotic species in the downtown
landscape effect, sibipiruna provides cool shading
area
and exuberant flowering. Despite the large and
LINDERNMAIER & SANTOS (2008) found 58%
rapid growth, it does not have aggressive roots and,
of exotic species, in the city of Cachoeira do Sul,
therefore, a good choice for urban afforestation,
Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, in a study on the
ornamentation of public roads, squares and even
tree species on squares of the city.
roads (PATRO, 2012). The city of Maringá, Paraná
For LINDERNMAIER & SANTOS (2008) the
State, Brazil, has 80% of its urban afforestation
overuse of exotic species in afforestation of urban
with sibipiruna (WIKIPEDIA, 2012).
green areas can be attributed in part to a reflex of
The oiti (Licania tomentosa) is originally from the
earlier landscape trends because, from the aesthetic
northeastern region of Brazil. It is widely used in
point of view, it is simply easier to find beautiful
tree planting program of several Brazilian cities,
species distributed throughout the world than just in
such as Rio de Janeiro (WIKIPEDIA, 2012). The
a geographical space or restricted plant formation.
species forms a beautiful leafy crown and its roots
There is also an evident unfamiliarity on the part of
are not aggressive, the reason for its planting in
the population and governmental bodies about the
gardens, squares, avenues, and streets. Oiti is very
wealth and use of species from our fauna.
rustic and resists well to pollution and, therefore,
The botanical families with richness of species
stands out among the species largely used in urban
were Fabaceae and Arecaceae, with seven and five
afforestation, mainly in cities in northern Brazil and
species, respectively (Table 1). The Fabaceae
coastal regions (BRAGA, 2010). Gurupi is a city of
family showed the highest species richness in the
tropical climate and oiti is believed to have been
city of Cachoeira do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul State,
chosen for urban afforestation to provide shading,
Brazil (LINDERNMAIER & SANTOS, 2008). The
as this species holds the leaves throughout the year,
families Apocynaceae, Caricaceae, Casuarinaceae,
including in the dry period.
Chrysobalanaceae,
The use of exotic species in afforestation of
Moraceae, Nyctaginaceae and Rubiaceae had only
squares, avenues, and neighborhoods is common in
one species, although the family Chrysobalanaceae
Brazilian cities. This fact was confirmed by SILVA
contributed with 50 individuals.
of
Pato
Branco
City,
Paraná
Combretaceae,
State.
Meliaceae,
Species distribution on the square and species diversity
The Feira da Amizade Square showed the most
In all the squares, the predominant species were C.
species (113 individuals), followed by Santo
peltophoroides and L. tomentosa, except on Abadia
Antônio Square (85 individuals) and the Abadia
Square where C. peltophoroides (25 individuals)
Square (63 individuals).
André Ferreira dos Santos et al. 40 Soc. Bras. de Arborização Urbana REVSBAU, Piracicaba – SP, v.8, n.4, p 33‐43, 2013 and Roystonea oleracea (14 individuals) were the
measured by Simpson index (C) was 0.81. Despite
species with the most individuals.
the difficulty of making comparisons for these
Most studies conducted in urban areas only cover
values, we observe the importance of replacing
the floristic feature and in some cases, the
dominant species in all the squares by native
phytosociology.
species as a way to increase local diversity and
Based
on
phytosociological
studies, some authors recommend a maximum
reduce the dominance of species.
value of 10 to 15% of individuals of the same
In a similar work to evaluate the diversity of
species, mainly for sanitary issues (GREY &
species on squares of the city of Cachoeira do Sul,
DENEKE, 1978). Studies on species diversity in
Rio Grande do Sul State, LINDENMAIER &
urban areas are still scarce, which makes it difficult
SANTOS (2008) found the value of 3.86 for
to make comparisons.
species diversity (H’) and suggested the use of this
The diversity of species measured by the Shannon-
diversity index for future evaluations of study sites.
Wiener index (H’) was 2.37 and dominance
CONCLUSIONS
The species with the highest number of individuals
squares studied. The use of a greater number of
in the study area are exotic to the region
species, preferably native to the region, to replace
(Caesalpinia
the exotic species is an alternative to increase
peltophoroides
and
Licania
tomentosa). The predominance of a few species
species diversity.
contributed to reduction of diversity indices on the
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PHYTOSOCIOLOGY AND DIVERSITY OS ARBOREAL SPECIES ON…
Soc. Bras. de Arborização Urbana REVSBAU, Piracicaba – SP, v.8, n.4, p 33‐43, 2013 43 
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Phytosociology and diversity of Arboreal species on squares in the