O Present Perfect é usado para expressar ações que tiveram seu início no passado, mas que ainda não se encerraram; ou quando não há necessidade de especificar o tempo, focando unicamente na ação. Por exemplo: 1) Quando falamos sobre experiências de vida: a) I HAVE TRAVELED to many different places in Brazil.. b) They HAVE NOT VISITED their grandparents in France. c) Mary HAS BEEN to Europe twice this year. d) David HAS never RIDDEN a horse. e) We HAVE already EATEN Japanese and Chinese food. 2) Quando falamos sobre mudanças que acontecem num período indeterminado de tempo: a) They HAVE MADE the tests more difficult. b) HAS it CHANGED a lot? c) HAVE you SEEN “American Sniper”? 3) Quando falamos sobre conquistas: a) Men HAS WALKED on the Moon. b) She HASN’T RECEIVED any awards. c) Michael and David HAVE WON two many congratulations. 4) Quando falamos sobre ações que perduram: a) We HAVE WON six of the seven matches. b) Where HAVE you WORKED for the last few years? c) HAS Karen still WRITTEN for that famous American Newspaper? Estrutura AUXILIAR HAVE ou HAS + PAST PARTICIPLE DO VERBO PRINCIPAL Exemplos: 1) I have worked hard. 2) Godofredo has been to Paraguay many times. 3) They have not studied hard for the tests. Exemplos: Have you seen “50 Shades of Grey”? Yes, I have. / No, I haven’t. / No, not yet. 1) 2) Has Godofredo finished his homework? Yes, he has. / No, he hasn’t. / No, not yet. EVER YET ALREADY NEVER ALWAYS RECENTLY LATELY FOR SINCE Have you EVER seen the rain? Has Susan EVER ridden a horse? They haven’t gotten home YET. Lupita has ALREADY bought her dress for the prom in the end of the semester. My parents have worked hard LATELY. Cornelius has read many books RECENTLY. I’ve ALWAYS enjoyed wearing fine new clothes. My cousin Cleo has NEVER been abroad. We have JUST met the principal. We’ve been to the zoo MANY TIMES. Sylvette has studied at that school SINCE 1st grade. Corine has painted her house SINCE last week. Michael and his friends have lived here FOR six years. FOR = quantidade de tempo SINCE = período de tempo Os advérbios associados ao PRESENT PERFECT não definem um período de tempo. Como o SIMPLE PAST é usado para expressar uma ação passada finalizada e ocorrida num momento específico, usamos outros tipos de advérbio ou de expressão temporal: I graduated in 2012; We had some ice cream yesterday. Have you ALREADY done your homework? Yes, I have ALREADY done it. Yes, I’ve JUST finished it. No, I haven’t done it YET. Have they washed their car YET? Yes, they’ve JUST washed it. Yes, they have ALREADY washed it. No, not YET. Os verbos HAVE, KNOW e BE, no sentido de tempo ou período de tempo, são sempre usados com o PRESENT PERFECT. Veja: 1) My parents HAVE BEEN married for 40 years. 2) Kelly HAS BEEN here since 7 o’clock. 3) We HAVE KNOWN each other for more than six years. 4) Mary HAS KNOWN her boyfriend for a couple of months. 5) I HAVE HAD my car for three years. 6) Daniel HAS HAD his new laptop since last year. Estrutura: Auxiliar HAVE ou HAS + BEEN + gerúndio do verbo principal Exemplos: They’ve been learning English for 15 years. Godofredo has been cleaning his room since 10 a.m. I have been reading the book “50 Shades of Grey” since last weekend. HOW LONG have you been living in your present house, Shaniqua? Well, I’ve been living there for many years. HOW LONG has Brian been painting his house? He has been painting it since yesterday. What have you been doing since you moved?