Description of document:
Naval Ocean Systems Center (NOSC) Technical Report
422: PROJECT COMBO: Review and Recommendations,
1980
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06-December-2016
Posted date:
26-December-2016
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Enclosures
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N
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. DECLASSIFIED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE
· INTERAGENCY SECURITY CLASSIFICATION APPEALS PA:'\EL,
• E.O. 13526, SECTION S.3(b)(3)
ISCAP APPEAL NO. 2006-033, document no. I
DECLASSIFICATION DATE: December 02, 2016
Technical Report 422
PROJECT COMBO: REVIEW AND
RECOMMENDATIONS (U)
WC Cummings, RL Seeley,
PO Thompson, RA Johnson
July 1980
,--.:~~IOML_ ,S~CIJK~Ii. •~:::.~!::::..,
•QD99ttaor1ae4 Dl•alosurt.Subjeot to Cl'Smlanl
lulott.-•..:..-.---·
Prepared for:
Naval Sea Systems Command
and
Naval Electronic Systems Command
DTIC
ELECTE
S
AUG 28 19IK)
.'\
Copy
NAVAL OCEAN SYSTEMS CENTER
SAN DIEGO, CALIFORNIA 92152
AJ
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NAVAL OCEAN SYSTEMS CENTER.SAN DIEGO, CA 92152
AN
ACTIVITY
OF
THE
"··
NAVAL MATERIAL COMMAND
HL BLOOD
SL GUILLE. CAPT. USN
Commander
/,
Technical Oisector
r:.
iADMINISTRATIVE INFORMATION tU)
{Ul This work was p.:rformcd umkr sponsorship of Naval Sea Systems Co11111wnd
and N:ival Eledronk Systems Command.
{Ul \V\• ;u.:knowkdgc !he assistanl.'e of J. F. Fish and I~. S. Gulcs of NOSC through·
oul Proje~·1 COMBO. We arc grnt1:ful for the help of M. E. Dahlhcim. A. Dihclku. D. Ferrin.
J. D. Finch. M. D. Flaskll. S. J. J<~·nnison. LT M. Markh USN. D. E. Marsh. J. L. Sll•wart
;111d E. Wrc11d1 at NOSC. for the support of I>. Ci. lloffnrnn :md C. I>. Smilh at NAVSEA
:mu M. L. Parker. Jr. llnd I. L. Smk-1:111 :11 NAVELl.X. and for !he assistmK~' or 11. B. Stone
in OP 98 7 illlll CDR D. It Moyer USN. CDR C. B. Lowe USN and LCDR A. J. l>ietzler
USN at
...
NMATQ~.
(UJ J. F. Fish and Ci. A. Turlon were the h:chnk;il
with tcdmkal editing ;ind final n:port organization.
rcvicw~·rs.
W. ,\,Friedl ussisted
Under aulhority of
HO PORTER. Ilead
Biosdcnccs J)c1,arlmcn 1
Jfoleased hy
JM STALLARD, lknd
Hio:1~·011s1ks & !Honks Division
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4'£CUA1TY Cl.ASSIFICATIOlf OF THIS PAGE (Wit.,, Dere Enl•rN)
READ INSTRUCTIONS
BEFORE COMPLETINC FORM
REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE
12~ GOVT
AC:C:ESSIOlf lfO. J. AEC:1P1ENT"S·C:ATAL.OG lfUMBElll
'tfl:]> -c0 'l:1 3 lJ:;, -
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1.,. C:ONT!lM:l'.011 &11,jll~T lfUlllBER(•)
WC CUMMINGS, RL SEELEY. PO THOMPSON, RA JOHNSON
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PUtFOAMING OAGANIZATIOlf lfAME AND ADDREt;
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Naval Ocean Systems Center, Hawaii Laboratory
P. 0. Box 997
·
K.ailua, Hawaii 96734
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11, CO!tTROl.l.ll'iG OFFICt: 1tAME ANO ADDRESS
Naval Sea Systems Command (NSEA 63R33)
Department of the Navy
Washin1ton, D. C. 20362
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July 1980
·
II. NUN8EA OF PAGES
44
II. SECURITY Cl.ASS. (ol 1111• r•portJ
____ __,.
1la. Ol:Cl.AS$1FIC:6!.10""'00W!!ll"RAl)J.ll,R
SC:NEDULt: .1115. a••T. "1Y7
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If. CISTAIBUTION STA TENEN T (ol 1/lle RflflJotl)
17. OISTAllUTION STATEMENT (al flte ••tre1:1 •fend /rt Bloclr 20, II dlll•1•I , _ R•oHJ
II. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES
It. KEV WORDS (Contln11•
Bandwidth
Bioacoustics
Communications
Covert
IACS -,,
°",.,..,.. •Id• II neu••_,. Md ldMlll)- lit)• l)/o"lr n-Ht).
Large Whales
Low-Data Rate
Marine Mammals
Measure Format
Pilot Whale
Pinnipeds
Signal-to-noise Ratio
Signal Synthesis
Small Whales
Sonogram
Source Levels
Sutimarine
Transducers
Waterfall Display
Whistles
ZO. A8STR~T (Conrlr"a "" r•.,•••• •Ille It n•ceH_,. • d ,,,_,,,,_ "" blacll ,._._,,
j
(C) Prc,cct COMBO produced the elements of a covert communications system that conveys coded messages
using selected marine animal sounds in a natural sound environment. Project progress includes development of a coding
teer -.ique. a ~omputer program for elemental synthesis, and a recognizer/decoder instrument that is compatible witb
fleet low-data•rate communications. equipment. The report also discusses. properties of available transducers and !
characteristics of marine animal sounds as possible elements of covert communication systems.
'!\'
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FOIUI
1 JAN 7.1
1473
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HCUl'llTY Cl..ASSIF"ICATION OF" THIS '"AGll (llti.., De1a lln1ua~
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~Ql>JFIBW'flAC
-SECURITY Cl..ASSIF"IC:ATION OF THIS PAO£(Vll•n
D••• l!.nltr•d)
SEClff
FOREWORD (U)
,;er' Project COM 80* uses coded marine animal sounds for a covert underwater
communications system with ranges to SO nmi. The Project COMBO concept originated in
1959 at the Navy Electronics Laboratory. Collection and analysis of sounds suitable for ultimate use in Project COMBO began in 1965. We recorded marine animal sounds. mearntl!'d
sound source levels. observed animal behavior and initiated a.:oustic analyses. In I <no. the
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) sponsored analysis and duplkation
of sonogram patterns of marine mammal sounds we had collected and the Naval Ship
Systems Command (NA VSHIPS) sponsored the Project COMBO communications application of the sounds.
'8'f During Project COMBO. we developed a coding t'cchnique that uses temporal
and frequency patterns to convey messages. We also developed a rccogniier/decodcr instrument. the COMBO Signal Recognizer KSR). and produced the im1noved CSR-II from it.
We devt.•lopcd methods for computer sound synthesis and investigated communications ap·
plkations of entire sound sequences. Laboratory and sea tests used six demonstration messages based on coded pilot whale sounds: me,;sagcs were received correctlr underwater out
to 50 nmi.
-+€1"" The Project COMBO effort was coordinated with the Low Data Rah~. Quick
Response Pro.gram of the Integrated Acoustic Communications System plan. In this report
we review Project COMBO and relate the projed conc.ept to advan.:ed development and
fleet use. We present background information and discuss the Project COMBO plan.
A.o c eSIS 1on POT'
HTI'S
GRIA.a:I
DI>C ?Al
Unannounce I!
Justificatio:1_
~ii,
-... ~
By
Distri but i c-?1/
Availa-bilif.v Codes
Avail aud/01·
q ···r
Dist ..
*(U) COMBO is nu1 an acronym
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-SEGR!T
SUMMARY (U)
OBJECTIVE (U)
,JRr" Develop a covert communications system with a bioacoustical message fom1a1
using animal sounds as message elements that are recognizable with existing Oeet signal pro·
cessing equipment.
RESULT$ (U)
I. <J2:'f A coding technique. a computer program for elemental sound synthesis and
a recognizer/decoder instrument that is compatible with fleet low-data-rate communicatio11s
/
equipment were developed.
2. ~Pilot whale sounds were synthesized and coded to convey six demonstra·
tion messages. Messages were received correctly underwater out to SO'nmi.
RECOMMENDATIONS (U)
I. <a- Coordinate progress and resu Its from Project COM BO into the Integrated
Acoustic Communication System Plan. especially the Low Data Rate/Quick Response
Program.
2. (£'(Develop techniques and equipment to synthesize large whale soundi; and
small whale screams and to process wideband clicks and frequency-swept signals.
3. Jf.?.r Modify the COMBO signal rcce'.-1ersystem to utilize more message frequencies. Increase the CSR processing bit rate to 0.0~ bits/sec. Use automatic gain control and a
wider filter pass bnnd on the receiver syslem. Adapt parallel coding/decoding to the CSR:
update the input pattern every 50 mscc.
4. ~ Perform an error anulysis on the triplcrredundant message format.
S. j.,G1' Develop and maintain a reference collection of recorded marine animal
sounds. Collec.:t information on th.:a distribution and habits of bioac.:oustic sou re~ animals.
2
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CONTENTS (U)
INTRODUC~fl01\ ... pag.· 7
HAC:KCI ROUND ... 8
coNn:PT ... 8
AUTI ll:NTICITY ... 8
UTILITY ... X
)
/
l'ROCRl:SS ... 8
llARDWARI'. C"ONH<iURATION ... 8
SIGNALSl:C:URITY ... 9
l:NVIRONMl:NTAL FACTORS..
10
SYSTl-.M COMPONENTS ... 10
Sl<iNA LS . . .
I0
LARCl:WllALLS ... ll
SMALi. WllAU·.S ... U
f>INNll'Ll>S. . . 15
SICNAL f>l:'IHTION ... lo
01'1.RATl1'<; HAllJRLS ... 111
SI:,\ Tl-SIS. . . 19
Rl'<'OMMFNl>AlfONS FOR Dl-.Vl:LOl'MENT ... 25
s1c;J11A L SY1\ rt I f:SIS . . . 2 .~
ANALYSIS OF MARl1\E MAMMAL SOUNDS ... 25
Tl:C'llNl<JUI: OH'()~lf>UTl:R SYNTlll'SIS ... 2h
Marin.· Ma111111:1i
"Sa.·~111s"
. . . 21>
TRAl':SDU<T.RS ... 31
liACI\< ;!{()lJND ....~ 1
FLHT l'fWJl:CTORS.. . 31
OTll l'.R l'IWJ l:CJ'ORS. . . J2
LOW-FIH'OUl·:l"'C\' l'IWJffTORS . . . J7
FLHT IU:Cl-.IVIN<I
TRANSDUCU~S
... 37
3
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DEl'LOYl\ILNT SFCUR!TY ... J7
TRANSDUCERS ... 37
SOURCI'. LEVELS ... 37
Sf<;NAL SYNTllESIS ... 39
SIGNAL OC'CURRENn: ... 40
FLITI" IMPACT ... 40
Rl'.Fl'.Rl'NCTS ... 41
RELATED DOCUMENTS ... 44
ILLUSTRATIONS (Ul
I. C'OMBO syskm l'Onl'l'PI ... page 7
...
SonoJ.!T:lllls of sound with C'OM BO applkations ... 12
J. COMBO Signal Rel'OJ.!nizer. CSR-I I. dements and rnnfiguration . . . 16
4. Sonogram or 11at11r:1l pilot wh:1k• sounds usL'd in Projl"l'I COMBO... 17
S. RL'n•ivL'd IL'vl'I of COMBO signals nwasured in CSR-I tests ... :!:!
''· Tin1L'·frL'q111~11l·y w:1t1•rfall plot or a simulated killl'r whale sound ... :!7
7. Time·l·rL'qlll'llL'Y waterf:ill plot
or a n:1tur;1I killer whale sound ...
:!8
8. W;1taf:1ll display of rn111p11tl'r·synthl·sized. pilot whale sinusoidal whistles ... :!9
:.
ll.
b:pamk•d w:t1afoll dis11l:1y pf thl' middk· se.t of computl.'r-synthesizecl 1vhistlL's ... JO
I 0. Sonn1m1111s of hlul' wh;1k sounds rl'-rl'L'1>nlcd diredly from the playback
ta11e rcl·orJcr. . . J4
I I. \\'atafoll displays or kilkr whale SflL'l'lr:1 ... 35
I:!.
lfrspons.· or I IX-1 X~A Pm.k.:tnr in SL'ril-s with a I I O-to-200 I lz hand rcjel.."lion
filter ... J/1
4
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\f
TABLES CUJ
I
I
··;,
(.
,
.t
Si1m:il-10-1wisl' ri1lios <dB I from Pro.il'ct ('01\·IUO tr;insmission lcsls;
Sl'ptcmb<'r l97J ... 21
Sig.nal-10-noisl' summary. April 1<>75 ... 2.~
Rl'cl'iwd si~11:1l-10-noisc ratios/llz. in dll ... ~4
4. Fk·l't sonars conskkrci.I for COMl.30-likl' applk:it ions. . . 33
5. NorHkcl projl•ctors rnnsi1k·rl·d for COM HO-like a1'Plic:11ions . . . .n
.,
h.
LlllV·frl'<)lll'lll'Y projl•dors SUIVl'}'l'd for possihk COMl.30-lik~· :ipplkations ... 31:>
7.
Fll'l'I fl'l'l'iVl'rs suil:1hk fi:n possihk COMBO-likL' a1,plic:11ions. . . J<J
~
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INTRODUCTION I UI
~ l'roj1•l'I COMBO w;i" a fotff·Yl';tr rl'S1:;1rd1 :iml 11l-vdopml.'nl l.'fforl to produn• u
i:ol'l'rl-b}··di'!!ui:-l' 11mll.'rw:11n l'ommunkations S}'Sll.'m using ..:mkd umlcrw;.it.:r "°unds of
nwrilll' anirmil:-. Thi.' l'01h:d "ound" arc ti1·1wrakd lit Dill' pl:1tform and rl.'l'l'in:d and tki:udl.'d
:it ;111011!.·r cfi!,!llr•• I l. M:irinl.' .ininrnl >numls arl' l'lllllllltlll aml promincnl l'Otl!Pon.-nts of the
n;11t1ral w11krwa1n ~oni.· l'tl\'ironmcnt. Milit:iry ..:ommw1k;1tions h:isl.'d on 11:11ural :inim:il
o;ou ntl" l'Oll fuund 1.kl•'l'l ion hy l.'Vcn infonnl.'d l'lWlllY M1rvdl laJll'I.' hc.::ms•' I hi.' 1111.'Ssages arl.'
hut a 'nrnll portion of !hi.' 1ot:1I hiologkal ..:horns. As 1)art of Proje.·t COMBO we dtiJrm:ta·
itl'ii m;iri1w :mi111;1l sou ml>. dl.'vis.:iJ a tlistort ion·frcl.' 1·0Ji11i: Sl'hl.'llll.'. idl'ntilkLI >ignal pro •.•. ,,.
inJ,! 11·.·liniqu.·s. d.·\'clO!h.'d a method to 11rojl.'•'l. cktl'l'I aml dl.'1·ml1• sitmab. aml i.ynthl.'si1l·d
smmds with cnmpll!l.'r :ti!,!orithm~. Prnjl.'1'1 111.'vl.'lopml.'lll 1·an lw trn.:1•d i11 rl'f~·rl.'lll''-'S 1-4.
COMBO RECEIVER
__.............
IN THE FLEET
TO BE DEVELOPED
,,..-~~--~~-~---~--~~---.
LDR/QRP
.f'-';S;;';P;;;E~C::;T:o;,;R:;A;-L-j..._ _-lCOMBO SIGNAL _ _ _ DECllDED
PROCESSING
SHIP
SONAR
RECOGNIZER
(
MESSAGES
MESSAGE
SYNTHESIZED
FORMAT i - - - - 1 ANIMAL SOUNDS
tfmfflBUITh\ll
(U) Figur~ I.
}81'
COM 110 S:'slcm cun..:cpt.
l'rojl.'t:t COMBO n:l:1tcs to th1· lntcgrat'-'d At:ouslk ('ommunkations Syst.:111
( IA<"SI f>lan <rl·frrt•nw 51. ,•sp.:~·ially thl.' Low Dara Rah". Ouil.'k R.:sponsc J>ro1:1ra111 I I.DR/
QIU'l cn·fl·rcnn• Ci I. Tlw prnjcd provitks a sysi...m for submarines to com111unkat1.: LDlt
lll<'ssa!,!l.'S up to a SO nmi r:mJ,!c willwut fl.'\'calint! tlll.'ir location. Sud1 LDK messages may b~·
1m·ful in l<kntilkation Frkml or Foe t IFFI funl'lions. during •·s1·or1 or to t:uordinah.' \UP~
port. trail. h;irril'r or fir1· .-ontrol :it:tivitics. The systl.'111also11rovidl'S Mthmarinl.'s a i:owrt
111.:;;ni. to 1n111,.111it SWl'l'Jl finds lo "urf:u:1· unil• :md to i:ont:1l'I otlwr ~uhmarinl's prior to
•'Oll\'l'lll ion al l'lll1llllllllkation. U>t' of llitl ural lllltkrwatl.'r SOUlllls mako:s I hl'°l 'OM UO sy"ll.'111
:1 rclali\'cl~· l·owrl :-ol111im1 to I.DR l'Oll11JHmk:1tion tasks.
7
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BACKGROUND tU)
CONCEPT (Li)
Jk(' Tlw proj.:1:1\ <ihjcl'liw b w tkwlop ;1 ..;O\'l'rt com111unil':1tions systo:m with a
hioal·o11stk 1111.',,al:!l' form:1t usin!,! :mimal !>Olllldl> ii'.\ llh..'l>l\:tl:!C l'lcme11is. Ml.'s.,agl'S 1.:an lh·
rl.'<'l'i~·l.'11 with cxil>lilll:! l'lignal prnl'l.'S!>;lll:! l.'lJ11i1nnrnt in tl1c tkct. The -;ystclll will 1.:onfound
illll'rl'l.'!Hn~ by pl'l.'Sl'lllinv ;m uwrwlwlming l:t~k of :111al}1 t.illl:! :ill m;irinc mammal ~ounds
l'lll'Ollllll.'rl'd in order lo i£;l·111ify poi.~ihlc nw~s;rl:!l' .:kmcnt:..
A UTli ENTICITY cU)
Jff"' Fiddity Of lf<lll~lllilll'li !>0\111dsdc11cmb Oil ~i1:ttrnl·tn-noii.,• raliO amJ lrn11~1nh,l>ion
hand width. St•und.; rl·,·ortkd for l't•llllllllllkalilln~ ;1pplii:a1ion~ mui.l haw a hi1:th signal-11;nrnw rntio or uml'-'r1:to subS1.'<1ucnt 1wisl' rl'lll0\':11. Tr:msmilll'ri. 11111-.t m:1i111:1i11 l'>Uflkil'lll
bandwidth lo Jll'l.'!>ervc the sounds' natural qrnrlitic~.
I l.i I Im pmwd fak•lity fodo1~ rcsull from heller rl·rnrdi111:1 tl·i:hni4u•·S: i1111>rnwd ~i!,!­
n;il prm'l'!>l\illl:! am! ~ynt hl·sis :md advanccu transdul·cr development.
JR'( Tht• trnnsn1issio11~· ll'!llporal aml 11-cogrnphk l'O!lsistcrn:y 1fo1wnds on <lciaik<l ·
:md hahih of hioa1.:m:i.ti1: i.our,·c :mimals.
!.1111wlc,l~l' of d isl rihut ion
UTILITY IUJ
}Xf' Tlw COMBO
c.·01111m111ic.·;ition syslcrn u ti lit.l's rwdvini: am! prol.'cs.,ing l'qui1rnicn t.
\
..11d1 a' lhc W()C-5. :ilrc;1<ly in 111.'l.'t lli-1.'. System impll'mcnlation require!\ mci.sagc rc ..·oi;nil~nn c11uipmenl. trnnsdul·l.'r optimii.ation and signal i,tt'lll.'Talion ,·:1pahili1y. Tape reo..:ordings
01 Tl'al linw ~ig11al-synlhl.'si1.in11- ..·omputcrs 1.::1n gcno:rnh' thl' signals.
PROGRESS (U)
i"·
HARDWARE CONFIGURATION CU)
I lJ I Theo ,·onfiguratitm of lhl· Projcl'l C'OMIJ<J Clluipmcnt i' 1ksaihl.'d in this s.. ..:tion.
J8f Thi.' wavl.'form geonl·r~1101 is a 111;ignl'lk t:ipc Tl'i:ordcr that ph1}'s ,·assctk' 1.:ont;iining ..:oded analog w.:onlings of l'ilot whak pho11a1ions in nalural d10ruscs.
«
"
( U I A 'Jl\.'dally-<lcsigned 1-k W amplilicr drives sl.'lcd;ihk-im th.•tlan~c transdu1.:l•rs at
f111l pow,•r i11 !ill' frcqu~n ..·y band from ~O I lz to I 0 kl lz.
~ A•'<>ust j,· ..olm·c., i111.:ludcd a frcl'·llootk-11 ,·ylimlrkal tr;rn~t.hu.:cr lo rcprodu..:l'
pilol whak ?<.Ound,. Critkal d1;m1.·1.:ri~tii:.; of thl.' transllu.-... r wcn:hro:1dhan<l n:~po!l?<.C. hil!h
8
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SECRET
~ Tnrnsdul·~rs :111<.l ;1mplificrs used in th~ COMBO sd1cme must lie cmnp:1tibk
\\'ith fleet e,111ipm~nl. We ~urvcycd transdul·ers in fk,·~ us.: and othcr luw-fn:t1uen.·y transdul·1.•rs rh:ll could he 11s1.•J in t!ll.' COMBO ~ystl!m {rcfcrc1wc 8. 9). With minor mo<lilkations.
fleet tr:rnsJU\'crs arc marginally :n:ccpt:iblc for COMBO tr:msmission:. in \'crt:tin frl!<)LH:tll'Y
h;mds. For ex;;mplc. the UQC-~ transd111:cr is th!;' [>l;'sl lkcl lr.insdu..:er for pilot whale
sounds. The 11cl'l transtlu,·l.'rs :-.urvcyc<l haw limited low·frcquc11\'y l·:1p:1bili1y. The extc1!1kd
low-fn·qucnl'Y r:.-sponsc or the other tra11sd11cers surwyc<l woul<l o:nahh: tran~rnission of more
divcrsi: signal:; over gn::1tcr ranges.
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS (U!
IR"r Covcrtnc'.'s ol' COM UO communkal ion tk1wnds upon signal faklity and the
11:1tmalne~~
or tho: anirn:il sound:.. l'lw MH111t1s• 1>hyskal d1:1r:1ctl·ristks. sud1 as sou rel.' kvel
and tonal compm!l.'l'ts. must hl' pro1wr. Prl•l\.>rrcd sounds :irl.' from 111arinc m:umnals. sud1 as
pilot wh;ik·s or killl'r wlwl,·s. with a \'Osmopolilan <Kl'urrencl'. Tlw sounds must he used ·in
an appropriate l'Olltl'Xl. For i11i.t;111n'. matilll! sign:1ls tr:.msmitto:d in a non-nmting :.~·ason
u111ld :tl"OllS4.' the suspidon
;1 k1mwll.'JgL·ahlc monilm. Tiu: S(lllllds from a singk specil·s
may \':ll'Y rcgio11:11ly. Thus. wdl·known dialci:ts should not b,• USl'd out of l·ontcxt. Thcsl.'
s:)ec11h1t ions prl.'Sllllll' :1 knowll·d~l·:1hk inl\.'rn•plor.
or
!yt The COM HO plan rl'lJlllfl'S natuml sounds lO providl.' .i .. l·ovcr" for com1nunka·
tion signals. In some :m•:1s l'CrUlin spl•dcs oi' wlrnlcs havi: hl;'l'OlllL' sl·:m:c 1hrou1:,th ovcrharwst·
ing. but l'llllsc1vation llll':1sun·s lww allmwd othcr populations to inc:rcuS1:. For example. the
'>ot1ti11.'rn right wh;ilc is 1warly l'Xtiiwt hut the i,:rcy wlrnll' po1>11h11io11 is increasing. Population
sizl.' is 1wt lll'l'L'ssarily JirL·.:lly rl.'hlll'd to :1L·ouslk prcscnl·e. For cx:unplc. the hum1)hac:k
wlwk• pop11l:1t ion is small h11 t the SJll'l'kS is partkul:irly soniforou,,. Simil:irly. the killer whale
10rci1111.~ mm). is fn:qul.'ntly hl·ard l'VCll though its population is tkpll•tcd. Thus. the use of .
COM UO sounds in tlw oc:can ret1uirL'S relatively f1•w whall.'s. and conscrvalion nwasul'l.'s should
gu:mmll'L' populations .it least :1s largl.' as JHl'sc.'lll ones.
SYSTEM COMPONENTS
<Lii
( U I Tlw folio will,!! sl'l'tions pNSl.'ll I six aspeds oft ll~ COM HO systl'lll: Signals. Si1:111al
l>l'h!L'lion corn I. Signal Syntlwsis. Trnnsduwrs. Lll•ployllll'lll Scc:urity. and Flt'l'I lmpa..:t.
SIGNALS (Ul
~ Tlm'l' ..::itqmril'S of m:1rine mamnwls pmdUl'I.' sounds wil h potential COM 130
ilJlplic;ition: lar1:1c whales, sm:1li wlwks ('.: ...:hilling porpoiSl'S), aml pinnipcds (seals :mJ Sl'a
liorn.l. Thl' listed sounds :m· l'<>llllllllll ;ind conl;iin 1011:11 .:omponcnts. Within the whak .:all'·
gorks. animals :m• dis,·usscd in onkr of prohahk 1)olcntial applkahility lo tile COMBO
l·ommuni,·aliom sc:lwnw from most to kasl likdy. l'innipcds arc not so or<lcn•d. hccausc
most oc.:ur in non-overlapping 1:11.'0gniphirnl :trl'as. :ind lll':irly all :ire very VOl.'al.
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~ Larg.l' wlrnh:s prodlll'l' low-fr.:q,11!'111:y sounds with high suun:l' l.:vc!s. The low·
frcque1i.·y sounds rl'quirl' spci:ial tr;rnsdul·ers. The sounds l'Ollld be used in ii COM BO ,·om·
mun.io;:1f ilr.n'4·«:ik'(!l1~ widl' ;in i!H~. ,~1.....i·1·~nlg.I.• l~'!i<~ SO !W.4( c1;r· 1'.t.•"· sl..:.:·-l't<-r ll!!•·itn<:'\!'!: t~1~t'
very noisy conditions. Sounds from small wht1ks and from riinnJjleds an: higher in frequcn,·y
;md thcn!fore e:isier to reproduce with transducers. In u COM BO communic:1tions sd1cmc.
sounds frum small whak•s :md pinnipeds :ire limited to ranges hdow 50 nmi unless sourcl'
li:vcls ;ere ;it k:ist :!O dB over natural. Thi: most suit;1bli: largi: wlwk sounds for COMBO ;m~
from humpback. riglll. and finhal·k :111d from pilot. killi:r and hduga among thl' small whaks
I sec figu n.· ~ l.
LARGE WHALES (U)
IUJ ·111c humphack wlwlc. ftk.i:at>t<'l~111m·11«1111g/ia,·. Jlrodul·es a vari•·I)' of .m1kr·
wati::r i.'alh indutling lmwl..;. nu1;m~ ·gn.1111' •'r:i•'·' ydll'i, and low.. frc(t\lency ilt•l~i:t. furnl:l·
mental components cover frequcndcs l'rom ,;o to :!000 Hz. with hannonks :is high as 5000
liz: ~fo~111d dura11on varil'S fron~.0.2 sec to over 5 sec. an.d ~OllrL't' level may excel'd 180 dB
re I ;ff>:: Hlimfi·ha'. .~ 'l\·k:tk 1-W..chiil'l~ itl'e, l'lel'I l°\•etjttL'ft...-y·ttm-..'ittfat:d.
I
!Ul When not migr:llinl!. humpback whales occur l'mtstally and :ire dislrihutctl in all
m.:cans. The wlrnlcs t>c.·ur in lower latilmh.•s durin,l! winti:r and spring :inti in highl·r l:11ituJcs.
including polar seas. durinl! sunmwr. In thl• hrl'L'ding an·as around Bcn11l1da. the Wl·st lndii:s.
Iluwaii. and New Ze:1l:111d. hu111pha1:k whale sounds arc grouped into "songs" that last up 10
JO min. l'Ollt:1in.sl'l'lions of rcpl'litiw. slcn·otype!.I phrase~. and 111:1y he n:pt·:ill'd for hours
(r.:fi:1~111:c 101.
( Ul The right wllillc. 1:'11hcilat'11t1 g/adiili.1'. pro!.lucl'S sounds similar to humpback
whale sounds: 1.110;111s. i:nuit_s. mul hc!.lt>ws i.nt.!,'rmin11l~·tl with 11uls"·s :md n1~rin1r sounds
<rcrc~ni.:c 111. Uni: com110111.·111s v:1ry bi:tw~1.·n 50 ani.i 1500 llz. with durnlions from O.~ to
at least 4 sci.'. Mosl of the l'lll'~Y in lh•' phon:1tions 01.·curs below 500 1lz. S<.lund sourci: lcwl
is over 180 dB re I µPa. Righi whales arc widely distributed in srnall 1111111hcrs. in coast:1l
waters. in lalilmks pokw;ml of 25 dcl!rccs. Righi whali:s migratl' to lower liitiludcs !.luring
1Jw win tcr.
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1U1 The l'inh:ick whale. Bllluc•m>/lfC!ru 11!1.rsulus. produws pulses :ind moans in th.·
lu , UV a .... with ks!« llli.!il ' SCl •.h11 .n iuu: 'Su1ii( fi1ill.1l \ w11ak SI.lull th ill«: rr,.
qucncy fllOllulalt•d (rl·!i.-rc111:es 12. IJ). Finback wlrnles prodUL'c pulse trains ccntcr.·tl :11 20
H1,·withr~·gular i11rcr-1udw·in1~·rvul' of a frwwrnnJs lr,~•i.·n·nn' ld·i l'h1: ~O-lh,p11l>11.·~
Ocl·ur in tlouhlcls with intra- :111d intcr-<louhh:t intervals of I 0 to 25 Sl'I.'. The pulse tr.1i11~
conlin1.1c for 11ours. aml constilutc wdl·knowi) inkrl~.rcncc:> at SOS US st.<1tinns..An11thcr ;
~ifthttd: Wlt:t!e ,;~~tttRH'S It J'st<~'!'tl°'~fl '.:~lhifl! f<l<-H1.: LK-sc1.· ;;em1~n\ ft~W-.:\~ ~·;:;
34-lb: 1:om1io11cnl v.irying i11 li:nglh up lo 1.8 sci.'. Sourcl' li:vcls of finha.:k whall' sounds
rnngi: up to 180 tlB re I µPa Hcfcrcncl' 13 ). Th\.' finhal·k wlwk occurs in :ill oi:cans. csped;illy in pol:tr sc:is tlurinl!- s11mmi:r months.
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Off Chili:. lhc hlue whalc, /lll/C1~IW/Ht'r,111wsculus. produces 37-scc si:qucnci:s ol
rhrec moans. The intcrv;1l between the lirst lwo moans varh:s 1111 to .:? sc-c. :rn<l hl•twel'll thi: I
second an<l third frc•n 1.5 to J .S sec A 390-11.t tonal pul~· Ol'rnrs just b1:lhrc d1c last mo:.111.
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YHf!,urc: ::. Sooogi:um ,,f i.nunJ wilh COl\IHO :11•1>lk:1liuns. A. hclui;a. II. killer whale.('. pilot whale.
D. dkks of cad1. rcspct:livcly Hii:-i:1h1l' muilydn~ illtcr handwidih. W 117 (1\.11.r .) ~00 117. j D t.
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SECRET
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SEGRErThe blue wh.ill' moans :IVl•r:.igl' lll.S-dll sollrl'<' level. anJ arc amp!illHk·11t0dtdatcu al 3. 1J :ind
7.8/Sl'..:. The slrong.:sl l'omponcnts Ol'l'Ur at ~b Hl. and others ~Xll'IH.I to ahout ~00 llL
Sequt.:nl't'S typkal!y repe:.it ..:v..:ry ! .7 min. hut tlte ,jknt interv:.il m:.i~· hl' ;1s long ;1s J ..i mi11
(rd°erenl'c ISL In the e:1sll'rll North P<!l'i!k. hllll' whale' prodUl'l' simifar mo:.111' of l \I'll l ~I''''
with the most energy near 20 1-l:L. Blue wh:.iks Ul'l'llf in :.ill owans. Th,•y ninl'cntr:11l· al l11i:h
latitudes during summer months :111d off Califomi:.i in :1ut11m11. Thl' 1,111g. ~0-111 phun;il io11' ;11,·
well-known al SOS US sta•ions from soulhern C;1lifornia to till' lkring Sl·;i ( rl·f°l'rl·n·:e I~ l
~The sp.:rm wh;1ll'. l'li_r."''"'" n11tidt111. prnJ11c'l'' Irain' of short l·lid,,. /\t ,1,1,, 1\··
pdition rates. Ille S!ll'rm wlwll' l'lkk trains arc ••11!eJ '\"ll"Pl'llt.:r fish" sound' hy Nav~ ,011:1r·
llll'll. The dil·ks h:ivl' ;1 sourn· h:,·d ;1s hil!h as 175 dB ;111d lllll'I c11l.'rg~· h.:tw,·en 200 ;111.!
I 0.000 llz. Thl· did: repel i lion rail' rnnl!l'' from I to I00 pl'I' ,el'llllll. Shun did• t i.1i1i- m.1)
h;1\'e dislinl'l rhylhmk p:llll'l'llS. and 111;1y l'l' rl'Pl':tll'<I (l'<'fcr,·nl'l'S lei. 171. Sperm wltak, .•n·
usu;1lly found in groups lhat proJUl'l' dkks in d1orus.
,p,·1:m whall.' is di,1rihu1,·d in ;tll
'.>l°eans. eSJll'l'i:.illy in tropil'al :mil s11IHropk-;1I wall'r' 111.·ar lhe A1.or,·s. l'l·ru. th,· C::.ilap;igo'.
:111J olTCentr;il Calil'orni;1. lkl·:1usl' ol' 111.:ir 11biquily. high s111m·,· k•vel and \'011111111n lll',tll
renl'e. sp,•rm wh:ik· so111ub :.tl'l' fomili;ir lo so11:11'11ll'll ofall nationalit'ies and ;Jrl' exl·elklll
sounds for COMBO applkatil>ll .
nw
f
..+-Sf Th,• l'lkk sll"lll'llll\' l>f ,1wr111 whak si1rn:tls is i11n1111patihk witli pr,·"·111 <·< l\l ll< l
n11:thutls of n:mow frl'Qllelll'Y h:.ind 1Htll°essinl! :111d ,·otlinl! a11d R'quir''' ill,tl';ttl. wideli:ind
lhrl·shold tk•kdion :uul simple t,•mporal l'Odini; p:1tlem,. Nl'l'ertlll'k's'. '"''I'll• whall· "11111.i,
arl' itk•;il for hiolo!,!kS l'Ollllllllllk';llion :1pplil·:1tio1K
.;.·
SMALL WHALES tU)
..JK'( Th,• pilot whak·. c:/n/iin•ph11/11111c'luc•11a. Ii. Jt'llllWtnui, and c:. 111,11.,-11rl11·11ck1
produws ;1 variety of sounds. inl'luding dkks. whist ks. Mltleal,, ,~·arhk,, ;rnd gn1111' <1<'k1
l'lll'es 18. l!J and ~Ol. Soml' pilot wlrnil' whislks ;11v p11n•-lo11l'. and otli,•r, .trl' ridr in 11:11·
monks./\ whistk• nwy rl'main al a singk• l'rcqlll'lll'Y for 11p to :r S<'l'Olhl. or 'IYl'l'I' 1J\l'I '"'' 1.:I
kl lz in lhl' s:1m,· lillll'. Whislil' and sqlll':1l ,·nl·rgy is distrihuh'd from 500 111 to I~ ~ 111 11 .•
Sllllrl'l;° ll•wl of al il•:1st 175 lll~. A lar~l' proptlrtion
whis11,., :1ml ,q11ea1, ;ll'l' hl·lo\\ ~kl;,
EXl'l'Pl for polar s.::is. pilot wh:!ll's lll'l'llr in l.'1•,•ry larg,• ht>tly of 111:.irilll' w;11,·r. l'ilot '' hak
sm:nds :m• suilahk for COM HO lrnns111issi1111s of 25 lo 50 n111i.
or
'°'''"'
(lJ) ln the,•ast,·rn North l'adl'il'.kilkr whaks.Orl'i1111.,11rn1.<'lllit 11;1nnwh;111d
of I 0 lo 25 ms,•,· dur;ition ( rl'fl'rl'lll°l' 21 J. Thl· fundanll'llt:ll 1'l'stlll:tnt dil'k frl'q11,·nl~ ;, 111
!Ill' ~SO- to 500-111. ranJ!e. Till' l'lkks Ol'llll" in short hmsls of 10 111 15. or in 11111l·h lu11)!,·1.
hij!h-rl'pclitinn-rnk. rnu.:ous Sl'r,·ams. Sl·r.:;1111:-. tl~lllr in two part-. <llil' at ;i 1,·p,·111i1rn r.1h·
about 0.5 kll1.. :111tl lhl· 01h,·r;1l ahout 2 kll1. l1t>lh 'l'l'l';1111 parts l1'1Vl' 1t1a11y l1an110111,,. l11
Antarl'lil' \Vall' rs. kill,•r whak•, l'lllil dkk Irains 'imil;ir to lhth<' of nnrth..rn :111i11i;iJ, 111"1°1·1
l'lll'l' .'!.'!l. /\ntarl'lk kilk·r whak•s do not pmtllll'l' thl· sll'rl'ot~ pell 'l'rl'am' d1aradl ri,t1< ";
llwir north.:rn l'l>llllll'l'!larts. Kilk·r wltak·, c>l'l'ltr worldwi1k. espl·l'iaJI~· 1ll':1r l'l•,t't' .1t 1:1;.•!1.-1
l<1tilm!l's ;111d in pokir rl'gions.
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'J1~-~~""'\i.;~;c.::=~~~~:i-l•1~•~~~.:.~1i.i~~~-:;~.i!_;z~~~:~:.~i..:;~.:.. ·~·-~lf.\lt;•-..1·"-.:.·~.... -'.~t~·~·;,iJ..\."\'.'-"'"1••'""'~~·.:.o1..· ...,;.: .... ....................
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( U I l:kl11g:1s. /Jdphi11up1eru.'i fc•uca.\, m:w hl' lhl' most sonifomus sea mammals trcl''rl'r..:c
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I. lklug;1s, l'lllit ii'Iv;tril>'ty
of sounds.
indutlitli,t
whistll•s. .warhks.
d1irp:..
dkks.
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~•t•~_,\~ \'l'~l.... :in\l fl.1011-1~ :it 1:r-....::.~·1+di.•!! ~i""~ ·!.(}(! Hl-1.. ·Jk"-'l:a !i11{114:I-. 1~·tl-it'aU~· -.:erwafu
l'1wrgy in n;1rrow frl'1Jlll'lll'}' b:mds. lklug;1s Ol'l'llr mainly in th,· Aro:tk (kl'an. Thi.' whall.'s
o ...·1:ur Sl.'a~rnrnlly as for south ;i,. 50"N. anti ;m• abundant iu llw Davis Strnits. lluJson Bay.
<;uir llf S1. Liwr...·11..:l'. and along the .:oasis of Al:1ska. Norway. ;imJ !lw Sovil'I Union.
lkl11g:1s do not o,· ...·ur in llw smllhl·rn lwmisph ...·r...-.
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( U) FalSl' kilkr wlwk~. P.mulnrm c·mssicfrw-. proc.luw whislk•s in tltl' 2.5- to 5-kl l~
rrl'l)lll'lll'Y h;111d. with Sllllll' l'ltcrgy llJl lo H kl 11.. F.ilsl' kilil·r wlrnks ;ilso l'lllil di . .·k:. and
b111.1....·s< n•fl'rl'lll'l' 20l. l:x,·. .·pt in poh1r rl'gions. folsl' kilkr wh:d . .·s oi:cur in 01wn Sl';1s throughout th1.• world.
I U I Thl' hottll'nosl' porpoiSI.'. T11rsiups tnll/t'fl//IX. dil'ks al fr1.·quc11o:i1.•s up 10 :::?00
k 111. anll wh isll\'S in n:11Tow h:imls hl'IWl."l'll .i a11<l 15 kJ!z t rcfor1.•n1.'I.' :!.i ). IJoul,·nosl.' porpoise
did: &rain~ ,:;m sound lik1.• harh. yl'lps. sc.1u1.•aks. sc.1Liawks. or rust~' gates. The hollknosl'
purpois...• lll·,·urs widdr in lhc Atl:rntk :md lndi:m Ol·,•ans and is ronmmn :1long till' ..:oas.ls or
thl' Aml·rkm. and Europ...•. Related spl."l'il's t 7: ;:il/i and T. 111111111m I 01x11r in wanner part:- of
th ...• Padlk. p:irtkularly in lhl' China Sea aud in l'Oast:1I Amcrk:111 wull'rs.
( U I A1l:1111k SllOlll'd porpoi~s. Stc•11c•llt111/agim/1111. prndlll'l' hniadh:ind dkks and
whist fl'~ in till' 5- lo. l 5-kllz frl'llt1~·111:y r:mgl' I rL·frrl.'tll'l' :::?01. Till' spolll.'d porpoisl' m·...-ur.s
~1lonJ:! the /\tlantk l'o;1sts of l:ump~· ;1111.! t\ml.'ric:1. :11nl in 1l1e lndi:111 (k,·:m. A rdall·d ~J'l'•'il.'s.
S1c11cllt1 !fl'll}]i11c111i . .also ralll.'d "spulll."d dolphin". o,·n1r~ in till' cash:rn lmpkal Padlic.
I U l !>adlk whill'-~idc<.I purpois...•s. l.cigt'lllll'h.rnd1m 11h/iq11iclt•11.~. nrnr 01.·o:ur in hl'n.ls
of u11 10 :::?000 :minrnls. Padlk whill.'·si\ll'd porp\iisl.'s prmhtl''-' hrn:idhand dkki. and whistll's.
Th,· whi.>tl~ m;1y u.. .:ur in 1ml:;;: tr .. in;; or ;1:.- ;1 r;mdlUS til.:at with imfi.'J~i!'mli.>nt •lu.ll dllt'i'"·
lll'llls t rl'rcn:1w1.· 2S I. l>isti1w1li1w1.·umponl'nts 1.'Xll.'ml as low as 15 kl II in l'al'ilk whitl'·sh.11:11
. -!'littf\1.1N.• ·~lil!!ih i>;"-:ffit.''Wbill~·'lilh~I r·t.ill'lfri.• 1'11..'!.'IU' Jn:un lin)<l·f'::Jlillb.tni..1 Hi Ut1• t.\h•ul.i.:IU
lsl:1mls ;1ml in J:ip~llll':\C wi1tcrs. 1\ Tl.'lall'c.l :-;p ...•...·k~. l.e1;:<'i11Jr/1y11c·hm C1cut/ls, Ol'1.·urs in coldl•r
wall.'rs of 1lw North l\tl:mtk. and /.e1gt•1wr/Jy11d111s ob.~cums. •>l'l'llTS in the South Padfi ...· and
Soulh Ali:inlic Ol'l'il!IS. Till' difli:rl.'nt spe ...·ics proh:1bly produ ,. dislilh'I sounds .
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( U I T!w s:idc.lkh:1d: porpoisl'. /)c/phiuus dc•lp/1i.1·. prodllrl'S hroadhanll dil·ks and
narrowband wl1istll'~ tllal have hl'l'll l'l'l'Onf,•d in the 10· 10 :!O-klll hand aml as low as 5 kllz
(rl'fl'Tl."lll.l' !XI. Tlll' sa1ldll.'h:ii:k ilOrpois. .• o...-curs in largl' groups in w:irnll'r wall'TS or till'
Atl:mlil'. Indian. ;mil Padfk lll."l'ans.
% :,if small whales prmlu..:e st1nw sust:1inl.'u m1rrnwhaml sig11:1h that ..:ould hi." use~!
i1: a ( 0~.1 Hd ..:omnHm:, ·1tion sdwml.' fnr r:mg...•s k·ss than I 0 nmi. The sounds' high fr...·qul.'n·
;i ...·s •m~ ~·.1hjt•i.:1 to high am·nuation. S11rnll whall' sounds might h:1w utility for short-r:1ngc
t.:\llllllll:lli1.·:itio11 at low kn-ls to limit lhl• d1:111l·l."s of lfistanl illtl.'1'1."Cjltion.
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PINNIPEDS (U)
( U) Tile Welldell se;1l. Lepr1J11ydwreJ wc•dddli. emits narrowhand pulsl.'s at re1wtition
ratl.'s from above: 140 sec.: to one in several se•onds I refl•ren•e 26 J. The soumJs' freqUL•nq•
range is rrom 50 to 10.000 llz. Thi.' pulse trains typically ~t;irt at I to 2 kllz with a ra~t
repetition ratl' and end al :ihout 0. I kHz with slow repel it ion. Individual pulse~ in a train Ml"
rrequc:nl"Y modulatc:d from 2 kllz at 10 kH.t to 50 M.t at 100 llz. Weddell Sl'als also 1irud11c.:e
howls. with fundamc:ntals rnnging from 50 to 4000 Hz and with strong l1:1m10nk slntl°tUrl'.
and ringing sounds in the: I- to J-kHz range that last up to 10 st'l'. Weddell sc;ils on·lir in thl•
southc:rn hemisph.-re around !he Antarl·til' l"Ontinent and its adjac.:ent pal"k il·e. \h·ddell seal~
migrate: as far as JO~S to South Amerk;1. to Australia. and to Nl.'w Zl•al;ind.
·;:
!Ul The beanled seal. l:"rig11arlws b11rht1llfs. emirs a whistle with a tremolo dtar:il··
teristk c.:auSl.'J by fast frequency llllldulation of a few hertz. l'hl.' whistk is modulated rurthcr
OVI.' r Sl'Vt'ral hundred lie rt z at mies or ahou I I/Sl.'l' I 0 one in Sl'\'eral sec.:unds as I he whist k
drops 3 to 4 kllz to 0.2 k llz owr :1 period of :1 111 inu te ( reforcnc.:c ~ 7 ). The !warded sl.'al is
l.'in:umpolar in·W;iters or thl.' An:lil'.0l'l'an and till' auj;ic.:ent Atlanlic ;111d l'ac.:ifi.- n:gions.
( Ul The rinJ:!cd sc.:al.1'11s11 J1i.1l1ida. pruduc.:l.'s a numher or sounds. induding a ~lcady
disc.:rcte-c.:omponcnt. downward frcquc.:1ll'Y sWl'cp imhued with harmonks (rl·fl.'rcnl·c ~Xl.
The sounlls las! from aboul 1 lo 4 sec.:, rnngl' from 5 kllz lo 0.2 kllz and have at k•asl four
sl rong harn1011ks whkh 111ay ex tend above I 0 kHz. This seal also makl'~ a broad hand ringing
sounll in the frequc.:n•y rangl' fro111 hdow ~ kllz to ahout 6 kllz. with lluratinns up to 15
sec.: .. Tl1c ringed seal ocrnrs widely in the.: Arl'lk Oc..·ean and on till' norl.h l'0:1sts of Europe.
Greenland. North Americ.:;i :md the Soviet Unimi.
I U) The ribbon Sl.'al. l'/wrn (l/istrioplwca) fasC'iata. produces two prinl·ipal t11Hk·r·
water sollnlis coinc.:ident with spring rcproduL·tivc al·tivities: an intense I- to 5-scl' downw;irc.I
frequcnc.:y sweep in the 7- to 0.1-kl lz rl.'gion and a 0- lo 5-kl iz hre:1thi11g-typc M111111I or almosl I sec dur:ition hut at :!Oto :!5 dB lower in pressure level ( rl.'frrenl'C 2c.; ). This seal 1,
distributed from the northeasl Berin!( Sea to the Sea of Okhotsk and inl<l the nortlll·rn Sl·:1
of Japan. Ribhon seals also oc..·c.:ur on the.: co;ists of Korea and northcrr Japan.
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'lll Thi- c..ufornia !\!'"lion· 7n/1.111J1m c·"u/fjiin/.Jal1ui ~·mit'O ll lloUkly of l.llll.l.4;rwah'J
sounds induding barks. grn:ins. growls. and bleats ( rcfrrcnl·es 28 and JO>. The hark~· 111ai11
c..:omponcnts !->~'.~ur.betwcl.'n 0.5 and I kl.lz. l1:1r111011ics ~xlend up. to aho_ut 5 k.1.!z. Most_or.
1•ln:-at-ttt:r'{'11ill~1-tt'~;1t~ttitt ~mh~'l.·ttt· ffi•tlk H\~in:~-~ ~·t1:1 ta"\'
.1.;n.,. :ntc·t'~··
fornia sea lion oc.:c.:urs along the C:11ifornia co:1st. Baja California, the c;alapagos Island!> and i
the.: c.:oast of Japan. Bulls m·c..·ur as for north :ts Washington in the wi111crti111c.
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I U) Pinnipc..·d sounds usually oc.:c.:ur within I 0 nmi of coasts. ice packs or llriftini: i'~·-
,.
·.t
;I..
l
r
I
f.
;;.
!:
~-
~i·'
ti.fit;:: ... ,,.,.. ~:; ._-.-..1-..-..,-,.-,-.-·.-. :-rl.r--·-1.~-.-
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SIGNAL DETECTION !U)
~ Tht' COMBO Signal R.:l·ogni.ti:r. S1:rnnd Generation. CSR-II !figun: 3 ). w:.i~
dl•sigrwd and :isst!mhlt'd. and tlwn 11.'stl.'d both in lht' lahoratorr :ind at sea. Thi.' signal rerng·
nit ion devil.'1.• i:an 1.krndc propi:rly 1.'Vl.'11 if seven or the 11i1w signals ilfl' Jost. Information
1.'Xlr<Klion lo~k usl.'s r1.·ad-iJ11lr 1111.·mory unils ( R(.'Msl. Tlw CSR-II 1.·;111 fill in mi,,~ini; infor111a1io11 l·kmcnls. awragl' and Wl'igh rl•sults. and display th~ hcsl pos!>ihk 0L11irnt. Tlw word
"BAD" app1.•:irs in light"l'lllilling i.lioJ1.• ( Lt:Dl Jispl:iys whcn data arl' insuffki1.·nt or do 1101
1.·onfonn to um..• of six 1111.·ss:1g1.• formats. Tlw CSl{-11 :ll·1.·ommo<la!l•s hro:1dha11d-pro.:csM.·d
hio<1l'Ollsli1.· sign:ils. Th:11 is. giwn ;i l1.·d111i<llll' to pro1.·1.·ss SWl'l'ping sign:tl,,, thl.' CSl~-11 IYJl1.·
1.ki:odi1111- would ;1lso sufl'kc for hroadhaml dat:.i.
TEST
DATA
TEST
.STORE
INPUTS
OUTPUT
DISPLAY'
MAS TEA
Gt.IN
·ouTPUT DISPLAY FORMAT
..,'
TIME FRAMES
'~
GROUP
.
1
2
3
II
4
5(
6
Ill
7
8
9
:··
.
:,
!:
tUNrLASSIFll:J))
(U) Figure 3. C'OMllO Signal Rccl1gnizcr, C'Slt·ll. clements and cunliguratiun.
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OPERATING FEATURES IUI
J.R1
Th1.• CSR-II siim:il rornwt is lllfl'l'llH1tu:dl;· l·x..:lusivel'il'nw111s.1.·ad1 tr;msmit11.·tl
t hrl.'l' tim1.•, at diffl•r,•nt frl'ljUl'IH:i.:s. Tlw CS l<-11 prmluw' si.'< po,sihk lllt'ss:1gl.'s. usi1111- nin.:
lfiff1.·rl·nt lransmilll'd frl'qlll'lll'il•s. To 1.·0111pt•nsall' for frl'<JUt'lh'}' shifts during llll'Ssa)!.1.' lram..
mhsion. tlw Tl.'l'l°iVl.'r ;11:1.'l'Jlls frl·<1u1.·ni:y "h:rnds" 1.·1.•ntl.'rl.'1.I on thl' possihk tran:.mission fr1.··
ljUl.'111:ic-.. Thl· ni1w fr1.•q1wm·y h;11llh:ir1.· :1djustcd 10 111a1d1 n:llur:il i:umpun.:nh in nirll' dif·
fl•r1.·nt 11ilot wh:ik :munds.1lr1.•s1.•k•1'll•d <iWmding Ill lhl· l'mk or thl.' d:.iy. Thi• rrc1flll.'ll1.'Y hands
;111.• randomly arrall)!.1.'tl hl·l\wcn .:!.5 :.111d J.5 kl lz and llw CSR-I I rl.'1.·ognill'' 11i11.: animal
sm111d1. 1.p;1l'l.'d 1hm11~hm11 :1 ··natur:tl" diorns of phona!io11:. I figun· 41.
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•',.,.
~ t
:
U')
·-· ....
... '
··•·
I
. "tr J ,1,
-,,,
u
41
,\
......
•·
1.•
.1.
,, • • • •
-o
1
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co
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(ZH>t) A:'.>N3003li:t
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1'r.'-rc.·l1g11i1io11 pro····ssing in the CSR-II is 1or1:il a11:1lysis wilh a r•·al·tinw
'\ll'•"lntm analyr.,·r lhal j, '"'•"•'P·limill'LI at ~.4:' lo 4 5 li.llz ;1ml with an rns1:111hk a\····agcr
th;1t llS•'S••ighl awrag.·s. Till' ;1n:1lyZl'r is a Sp•·•·tral Dy11;1mk' SD 30 I ;1ml is the sam.: anaty1..-r
ux·d i11 lhc WQC"-5 I LDR/()Rl'l n.·.·1 ··n11111rn11i.·a1ion sy,l•"lll. Th.· avcr:1gcr is a Sp•·•·tral
J)y11:1111i.·, .~(}l).
J)i1' The c11tir•· SJ'l'•"lrlllll in :1 sckctcd form<il 11f animal sounds is l'rojccl•·J inlo till'
1\·:11.-r. R1·c1·iwd data :ir•· firs I h:1mlp;1sS1.·d h1•tw1·cn 1.25 and 5Id11. w•. ;ilsu use a thr1'L'·
di1111·nsional w:ill•rfoll displ;1y In d1ara1·kriz1· th,· r1·n·iwd signals :1:id :.unbi.·nt nois·~ and to
,·nmpar1• sign:1ls lo 11atur:1l soi11Hb as Ihey wo11l1l app•·:1r to sonarmcn 011 th1· B()R-20 ur 2~.
~ L1d1 of lhc ni1ll' t'rcqll•'lll"}' hands is r.·pr.·s•·11tcd hy :111 :malo!,! vult;1g•• from
Spcl"lral lly11ami•·, l.i•n· Onkr Tr:1d.:••1-s 1h:11 11u111ilor llw power spcdra wilhin a 311-llz h:111d
:1hmll the l"l'lll•'r fr•'fjlll'lll"}'. An:1log l"ultag.·s an· .·omp:ir••d to pr.·s•'t vallll'S and st•par:rt•·d
into a S•'llll•'ll•"•' of 11i11c tim•· franll's di1·iLkd i1110 thr···· tim•· groups. 111.·uming d:rta :ir•· dj,.
pl:r~···d in 1.1· ll displ:1ys ··nrr.•sponding to •·ad1 lilll•' fr:rm•· if th•· data .·oinddc witl1 till'
prop.-r linw group. For •·xampll'. data shown hr 1.1 . 1rs I.~- Jar.· ohtai1i.·d during time
c;roup I. LED's 4. 5. h during c;roup II. :md 1.1·.D\ 7. 8. 9 durini: <;roup Ill <figure .h
)Yr' Time fram•· !!•'n•·r:1tion lwgins whcn lJu:ilifyini: d:it:a in c;rnup I arc: acquir.·d.
:\lhlitionallJU;ilifying inputs :in•scq111:nli:illy stmh.d into till' proper LED dis1,lay and stor.·d
i11111.·n10ry for suhs•'l)lll'll1 m:ijmily/.·0111pk•111cntary loi;i.· analysis. A c;roup 11 dat:r acquisition during tinll' c;rnup I indkal•'s th:11 sonll' pr.·vious d:1ta wer.· miss.·d and an autonw1k
shift Ol"l"llTS to n'illl'l' thl• displ:1y to till' JlfllPl'r franll'.
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~Timing franll's for which no dal:r :·ire: an111ircd display :Ill "I'." for L'lllpl}'. Mui·
tiplc al'lJllisitil111s during a tim•• fr;un.· arc i:alkat.·d with ;1 poinl to th•· krt of th~· numhc:r
display••d in I h•· fr;111w. Till' J"irst numlh·r r•·wivl·d is displ:1yl·d and the multipk J~"lJUisition
j, also sllm•d in memory fur l:il••r mcssag.· cxtra.·tion. Afkr time fralll•' 11. ((OM pussl'S hori11•ntal. ··omplcnll'ntary hlgk in S•'llll•'n•·c on the rows ofstor.·d data :111d alt•'lll(lls 10 1111 singk• rnids al·.·ompankd hy two hon:r tilk inputs. For •·xampll•. if till' d:1t;i for<;roup I were
JI· I in 1im•· franws I.~ and.~. rl'Sp•···tiwl}·. ;1 2 will r••pla.·c tlw 1. a.luring the inili:il l"t>mpk·
llll'ntary logk p:hs to prolluc•' mutuall~· cxdusi\'c: llll'S,a)!l' ··kmc:nts. liy similar procc:ssin!,!.
othcl' single void' lh· rnultiplc: acquisitions wiil he: d1:111g.·d. •'.J:! .. J2E to J~I or .221 to J~I.
Multiple: voids rl'lllain 1111dian)!cd and Sl'ri:1l nmllipk ill'lJllisitions lli~pl:1y c;nply. l'.)! .. J.1.3
hcrnmcs JEI'.. Ma.iorit~· logk Sl':lllS cad! l'Olumn
prnn•ss.·d dat:1 Sl'l1Ul'nli:1lly and pli!l"l's
till' majority d1:1r:rl'l•·r for ••:id1 .·olumn in a linal lwst-nll'ssag•· matrix. Fol' cx:unpk. if tli.·
firsl ··olumn .·ontains 31'..l in franll'S I. 4. and 7. rl'SJll"l"til'l'ly. :r J will lll"L'llr in lhl' rirst
l""ilion or llw.1 ·:s1-11i.·ssaf:!l' m:rtrix. Similarly. 2.32 in th•· Sl'•"llJHI n1lu111n produ.·n a 2 in
thl' Sl·~·ona.J position of lhl· hl'Sl·llll."SS:lgl' matrix. and l'.LJ-. in lhl• lhird •"Oilllllll prodUl'l'S an I·
in till' third position. A s•·cond rompk•mcnlary logk pass 011 llll' hl·st nwss;rgc matrix at1.·n1pls to fill voids hdf.ir.· results :m· ·displ;1y.•d in Ll'.l>s. If tlw final 111~·ss;1gl· i' u1w.·rtain h•··
.·a11s1: of insuflil'i••n1 m conlliding a.lal:i. 1h.· lc:ttas "'l3AD" ar~· di,pl:1ycd in lhc LED i11'tc;1d
or;\ final lllL'Ssage. Singk-hit. ewn parily is mainl~1i1ll'd lhro11gho11t the logil' p:rssc,, A poinl
display.·d in a J"inal mcssagL' fralllL' indkall·s an inop•·r:11ivL' ROii.i. 1\rt.·r final111.·,s:1gc assc111·
hly. a d····mlcr n.·twork al"li~·atL'S sok·noids or lap•· r.·.·onkr' to <llllllllllll'l' nll'ssag.·s.
or
18
$EGRET
SECRET
·'
~ ·• \H'nly huur~ ui'hinal·11L1~1k rl'l'ording~ with high !\ignal·lo-noisl' ratios Wl'rl·
p\;1ynl 11110 thl· CSR-II without fob,· :1l:m11. Thl' l"l'l'llrding, ind111kd 111:111y pilol wh:ik
so11nds bl'(;!llSl' pilul whak· SOllllll, l'lln~I i Ill l l'd ( hl' l'll1k·d l':lll'gor~' or ~ound,. A ( I illll'S during
!ill' ll'~I. a -..ini,:il• 1i111,· window would qualify. h111 1 hl' llll'";1)!l' 11i,pl:1y w;1, ;1\way, "HAI>''.
l n\\'l'I' 'ignaf l"l'l. 1>gnitio11or1rigi;l-ri11g lhrl·shold, will i1Kl'l''1'l' i11l·orl"l·,·1 111<•,s:1gl' an·l·p1a11n·
or ··B,\I>'' d1,pl:1y. !i111 a ~low allal·k and !\low l"l'k:t~l· a111oma1ic gain l·onlrol prl'\'l'llh !hi~
prol1k111. Thl· ll'~h indk:tll' Iha! !Ill' d1:11ll'l'!\ of l'l'l'l'i\·ing !\plll'ilill~ 'ignab of lhl' rl•quirl·d
frl'lllll'lll'il'' in 1i1l' ri!!hl onkr :111d :11 lhl' righl lil11l'S :1rl' i111i11i1l·~i111:1l. 'I Ill' liml' l·o11di1io11al
l·od in)! o I' 1lw CO\I BO ,dll'llll' 'll\l\ll'l'"l'S fal,l' :1l:1r111,. r\l·t u:d fal-..l' al:1n11 r:1\l.'s <FAR l llt:\ll:nd
upnt1 l'q11ip11w111 l·o11fig11r:11io11~ for 'l''''·ific application, :111d n>nditiun!\.
SEA TESTS CU I
~-
.>-H'f Thl' C'0~11l0 l'lllll'''I''-· 'Ph'lll' and J'l'lll'•'s'ill)! ,,·hl'llll'' \\'l'fl' ll'.,kJ in lhl• lahor<1t11ry and :11 ~l·:1 to i111pron- 1ra11~111b ... ion fiddity :111d llll':twn: 1wrfon11at1l'l'. l11it ial ll''" u ... _..r
lhl· CSR-I. I\ lllt:tl or 711 l'Oll"'l'lllin· l'l'Jll'litiun, of lhrl'l' dill1·rl'lll COl\180 llh'S,;ign. \Vl'l'l'
r,•,·o)!llitl'd and dl'l'111kd by !Ill' 5-windowl·il CSR-I in :1 ll''I al llll•lr:tnMlun.•r
h·alllalion (\·111n Oil l'oinl l.rnn:1. Sounds Wl.'l'l' playl·il rrnm a rrl•,•.Jlomkd l'}'limkr Ill ;J!l
011111idirl·di1111al hydrnphonl' :md a 1:11>1• rl'l'tmll•r al "lllrl'l' k\'l'b up lo 200 dB rl' I µl'a. Si)!·
nal~ \Wl'l' synthl·~iti:d pil11l wh:1ll' sm1111b 'upi:rin1po~d 1111 a d1orus rl'l'Onlcd ;11 Sl':t. Till'
C"Sl{-1 j, dl'SlTilwd :11111 di,cusSl·d in rl'fl'rl'lll'l'' 31 :11111 .~:.
l'OITl'•'ll~
~ In July l 1J7.l. prl'li111in:1ry ~l':t ll''ls lh'l'llHl'd offC:11alin:1 Island. Tia: sounds.
pro.il'l'lor. rl'l'l'iVl'r, prol·l·~~in)! ll'l'l111iq11l' and dl·l·odin)! llll'lhod Wl'l'l.'Jhl· sa1111· as W\l'd in thi:
Tl~A NSl>U · ll·st~. Thi: pro,kdor and rl'l'l'iwr Wl'rl' :11 :1 1k·p1 h of I50 ft and at r:ingc~ of
0.01. 0.1.l. 0.2S. 0.5. I :11111 ~ nmi. Thi· wall'!' l'lllumn w:" wl'll·mixcd. Sourl'I.' h:vcl' wi:rl'
approxinrntcly 175 dU ri: I µPa. All rl'l'ordl•d trnnsmiss1ons \Vl'rl' dcco1.kd in lhl' l:1hor:1tor~
without l'rror.
"81' In Sl'Jlll'ml·.l·r 197.l. thl' s:tllll' COMBO llll'Ssag.: form:11 was proji•l'lcd al li:vl'ls
10 200 dB r.: I µPa :11 sl.'a lo r:lllgl·~ or 5. I 0. and 20 nmi. ln~ll'\lllll'llls wcri: till' s:1mc :1s for
!Hl'\·iou' ll'st,. Till' rl·n·iwr wa, a Wikoxon hydropholll'. M ll90A am! I h.: projl'l' tor was a
rrl'l'·llomkd l·ylindcr. ITC 2014. Bolh ins1rn111i:nls WCfl' :II 250 n. A spcl'ially dcsignl'd 1-k\\'
:1111plilil·r pro,il.'l'll'd ,yntlll'sitl·d pilot wh:>k srn1111ls at sourl'l' kwls 25 dB ahO\'l' natural
kwb. l'rq>rol'l'~~inf,! :111d dl'l'Odii11! \\'1'rl' till' s:lllll' :1~ in !Ill' p1'l·vious l'il'ld ti:sts. Till' fiw
si)!na\, \\'l'rl.' di,trihull'd throti)!h lhl' frl'lJlll'lll'Y h:1nd i'rom 4.4 to h kllz.
~Till' CSR-I l·om•l·tly d1'll'C:ll'd :tll rl'l·onkd llll'Ssagl·~ (l·o1k•d ani111:1I sounds) at
thl' 5· aml I 0-11111i rall)!l'' :ind <l() \>l'rl'l'lll oJ' till· llll'S':t!!l'S :11 20 nmi. Amhil'nt nobc .:onditions wcrc lll':ll' 1m1ximum Wen.: shipping noise kvl•ls. Signal Joss m·•urrl•d at two of thi: liVl'
ffl'lJlll'lll'ics tr:111~111ittl·d at 20 nmi.
19
SECRET
.•
'
SECRET
~ Sii;u:il·lo-noiw ra1ios 1wrl' dl'tl•nnilll·d on lhl' rl':1l-1inw s;i1.•,·1ru111 :inaly1;."r
11.1hk- l 1 :\I'. and 10 11111i. 111,· 11ob1.• w:" ll<';1rly all l'huru' '1nmd' proj<'t'll•d h}· thi,,:>skm.
~-
Al ~o
;
nl
".
11111i. ;1111bil'lll '<'a noisl· ;1hon· I klb mask<·d llw sii;nals. lh·n·iwd k1·1.•l a' ;1 fun1.·tio11
1h•q111.·11q· i< shown in l'i!!llrt' 5. For r1.·frn•n<1.'. lhl' ,ourn· kwl of lhl· 4.4-ldl1~ignal11a,
~no dB 11• I µ!';1. llm llll':1,ur1.·ml'11t' rit Urkk\ ath•mr:.nion lo'' tllodd lrl'frr1.'lll'1.' 3Jt.
k!i"( In 1\pril I 1l75. a llO.s1.•1.· 1ap<'·r~·:ord1.·d s1.•1.1u1.•11w of ni1w «Oii.i HO pilu1 whail· 'ill·
n.if, wa' pro_kL'l1.•d al rani;1.•s or~. 9 anJ I l1 nmi. Th1.• n:11l!ral lonab on·urr.•d in ;1 fn:qm:nl·y
l'.t11d fni111 ~-~lo 3.:; kll1. "'par! ol a rl·alislh" Jwrn'. Jn,lrunwnlalion w:1' 1111: ~a1111.· a' for
l'':l'1·i1.111' ll''"· Sour1.'l' l1.•v1.•ls and 1r:111sdu1.'l'I' 1kpli1.; :m• i;iwn in t:tl'I•· ~-
¢ lfrn111kd '''t1111:m·1.•, 1wr1.· pby1.·t! inlu llw CSl{-11 sy,l<:m ;1f11.•r prorl',~ing 11·i1h
a rc·al·ti111-: 'P""'rnm a11al~·11.•r and lrn1.·-onkr lr:r<k"r'. f\frs.;a!!"' Wl'r1.• n:1.·oi;11i11.•d l'l'rrl·<tly al
;r!I r:lil)h'' :111d '11rnal·l<H10is1.· ml ios 11;1l>k ~I. llw n:\'1'il'l'ii 'i1rn;ll·hH1oi,1.• ratui- a1:rl·1.·
lk p1,·d11 rinn fllr .l kllz Hahl.· 3>.
\I
it h
~In th1• <'SR-11 'rsfl'lll. hoth lh1.· hi1 mi.· and lh1.· 'ig11al-10-noi.;l' ra1io rl.'1.tuin·d
for nw,-.1).!1' d1.•l1.•r1ion arl· fr1'(fll1.'l1Q' d1·1wnt!l.'nl. For l'X:unpk. a"uming. prol·"~'ing i,win l'1.111i·
1ak111 lo 111;1! of lhl' CSH.-11 S~''k'!ll and a llO-p1.•r.:1.·nt proh:ihility
d1.•[l.'1.'lion. a lh·dB
'l!!IHll·10-noh.- ratio for llw sp1.•1.·1ru111 lt•wl j, r1.'t!llin:d for :1 pilot whak whi,lk al J klll. th;11
1:1'" 0. 7 w1.·. hir a ~00-d B soun·1.• kvl•I. lh1.· 'i).m;1l is I h1.•or1·1 il·ally <kh:ct al>k by {'SH-II nul
I" ICIO nmi 11mkr ;111.•ra)!1.' am hk·111 noi'l' :11111 prop;rj!ation l·ond it ion' I l;1hll.!' .~I. With llw
';11111· f'llll'l'''ini: h'drnitJll1.''· lhl' 'i!,!1wl-1o·noi~.1.· r;1lio tkl·r1.·;r,..,·~ with fr1•t1m·1Ky. hut th1.· Jala
uh· h. r«1h1c,·d 111.·1.·au~i: 111111\• Iinw is r1."<.J uir1.•d for r1.'l'Oj!ll ii ion a I low1.·r lh·q 11l'n1.·i1.''· I:or cx:u11·
pk'. 1\h;1le '11111111, l>dow 100 1!1 n•q11ir1.• a si1m:1i·lo-noi'I.' r;11io of -4 dB. hUI 1akl' 100 limlt,
f1111i:1.·r It• hl· d1·11.·c11.·d than tlt1.• 3-klli pilol wh;rk 'il!nal. Thu,. 1h1.· hil r;Hl' is r1.·lh1..:1.•d hy a
1.1«1nr 11! IOll.
or
~ T,.,,, ;1bo Wl't"l' 1."<l!ldurll•d l<l d!.'ll'rmi1w till' utili1y or "lllllhuoys. l"•P!.'dillly th!.'
SSC)-·1.11\, as rl·n~in•r.;. Tlw onlr limi1ing fol·tor was radio ran1:1.·. whidl.is 1i111.• ofs!l!hL COMBO.
'i1rn;i·1, rl·n·in·d aml r-:l;iyl•d lir o;onolmoy W1.'t'l' pron·~sr:d. rl'l'Oj!lli7l·d and d.:1.·od<d 11on11:1lly.
"iu,·,·l•,,ful ll'\h of('SH-11 w1.•r1.· m;ufr in the lahoni1ory 1i..in!! da1;1 prok'l·tl'd up 10 .~ nmi 10
'''ll"hru1y' '\lo 7 11111i off,l10rl'.
-t+-+-T1·,i- with paranwtrk '"m,·1.·, Wt'r< m:id1.· in ,·oopl'rntion with p...r,011111:1 uf th~·
':iv:i! IJml,·rwatn Sy,11.·ni- <'<nll'r I NUS<· 1. A pri11wrr f1\'lflll'lll'Y ol' llti k 111 w:i, mixl•li wilh
r <>\I IH) 'rn111d' and pro.i1.'l"ll'd in 1!11.• NtlSI · 1.1u:my al :r ~mm·l· ll'vd of J 7 3 d 13. \\'1.· dl'l"Otk·d
11J" rl'nmll·ll 'ij.!11:11, with llw CSH-1wilh 111>1wrn·111 pmh:illili1~· of ,·orr1.·,·1 dl'l1.'l"li<1n. Sound~
.1h11u• I kl 111wrl' r1.'l'<'iv1.•d with hiJ!h fidl"lily. hut 20-11;1 10 I·kll1 ~mmd-. lal·k,·d fiddil>'· In
p;1rtilul:rr. killl'r whale :rnd pilnl whak ,ound' tra11-.111ilkd wdl. w1ll'r1.•as hhll' whak and
\\\·ddl ,l';1I ")1111tf, w1.·n· µarhkd ;ind <lcµr:tdl'li hy noist•.
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FREQUENCY (kHz)
1CO>J1'1Ul:NT1t\l. I
( lll
Received level or C"OMHO si~m1ls mcasur~d in CSR·l 1ests anti pre<lk1~d levels from
Urick (reference 33 J. l·.ad1 ploW.'<l me;miremcnt is an average from (l COMBO signal transmissions.
Figure~.
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SECRET
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!UI Table .3. Recei\·ed signal-to-noise ratios/Hi. in dB. predic1ed for a .:::oo dB 1o<111rcc at different r3ngcs
under high {H) and average {Al ambient noise conditions. Based on Wcn7 ambient noise levels and
reference 33.
~
~
·~7·
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SECRET
>R'f In June .1974. COMBO smmJs were lr:111s111ith·d hetw,•,·n d11.• suhmarini:
/Jolpltin an<l a re.:eivinJ:! shi11 0.5 10 4.S nmi aw;1y. All COMBO sign:il~. were r1.·1.·ognileu h~·
the CSR-II. In a lonJ:!·rani1.· test. the signals were tuo wi::ik w he autom:1t kally detl.'l'ted at
50 nmi.
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR UEVELOPl\IENT lUI
~ CSR-II is :1 lest system to 1:valuak m1:ss:1gl· Tail's. fr1.·11m•1wy l'Ollslraints. ranges.
anti rnvcrtness :1vailahl1: tllwugh lhl' COMBO .:on.:L·pt. Thi.' CSR-II rc1.1uir1.'' modificalion to
i111:rc;1sl· messagl' l'Olltent. pro1.·essi11J:! spel·d and roding variability 10 he .:om11at1hlc with !led
sy~tem~.
~ Th,•
numh,·r of !ll•:ss:rgcs 1.·:111 h<' in..:rcas1.·d hy using morl' ~ii::nal fn.'lJUe111.:i1.•s. h>r
i1wri::isi11g tlw numhl:'r of sign:il fr1.•q111..•nd1.•s in a tr:m~mis,ion from 9 to ~I woultl
i!l1.'fl.'<1Se thl.' lllllllher of tripk·rl.'d1111d:ml ~iJ:!n:1b from 3 Ill 7 :Jlld lh1.• lllllllher of possil'l1.• 1111.'S~<IJ:!CS from h to 50-'0.
l:'~amph.'.
J.8f l>npplN h>laa111.·1.· 1.·:in lw impron·d by using witkr i'iltl·r p;i,~ h:1n.J,. A~~umini::
diff1.·rl'lltial SJWt'd' l>J r10 knots :rnd pilot wh:ik- ~ignah. lllot"l' than.:! I :1djal.'l'l1I filt...r' of in·
1.:re:1.,ing h:rndwidl h «:111 he u~·d. I111.-reasin.!! h:1nd width i, iwedl·d 1o a1.·l·o111moliull' 11n::1h'r
Joppk·r sl1if'ts at higlwr frcqlll.'111.:il''· fk,lul.'ed amhii:nt noi~· 11.•\·d~ ;it th1.· highl·r ffl.'l!Ul.'111:i1:'
nl'arly compensate for thl' inacasetl noisl' p:issl'd hy wi<lcr filkrs.
J>ri'
A11to1m1til: (;ain Cont ml I A{;CI would eliminate thl' nwmtally :id.iu,t;ihk )!:Jill.
!\ob:.• v.tril'' with lh·qlll'lll'Y: lllll\" M..'j>tlratc A(;(' \hould h1.· u,nl for 1.•;11:h rrcqllelll'Y h:Jnd.
';
~ Tr:rnsmi,sion time can bl· r1.•dul'l'li hy using par:illd ..:liding anti 111.!.:mling. l'hl'
( 'SR-11 system t ranslllits Sl'ri;illy Olll' I o~l'l' window :it a tillll' and n•quirl'S at 11.•asl l)() ..c..: or
•H:tws!it: J:da for i.1111· m·~·l'a!~·· Par.illd 1·111H11u would uptl:1t1.• an in11u• p;.ill1m11.'Vlo!I'~' 50 iii~•:..:
:111d require :1ho11t .:!O Sl'l' 11.1 tr:msmil ~I siµn:tls. oro1k' of SO.+O po,sihk llh!SS.tg1.•, with tri11k
r1.•du11da1i.:y. i\l.'lual trn11smissio11s will h1.• l<11lj!Cr 111:111 ~0-.1.•..: lo add the fl':11i'111 prnvidl•d h}
raH\l·iJ.m.!.,..:'41 :m.,.p!flmk "<1ri:.Ht1J.t~ o.f.n:~!~i.r:ll' "·!l(•.rtr"'-'•
SIGNAL SY.NTHESIS (Li)
ANALYSIS OF MARINE MAMMAL SOUNDS
<UJ
or
~ Syntlwsis 11:1! ur:tll~1 -(ll"l'llrrinµ 'OUIHIS lkp..·nds upon the an:1ly'1' or r..•..·ord ill);\
from 1h1.· Sl':I. !'roper analy~is indmk.' re:tl-time ~11c1.·1r:1l c,1inwtio11. digital aml am1loi; w:t1·1.•for111 ~tudil.-s. lli!(ital filtcrin!(. mlll i11st:111t:Ull'ot1s :111111li1L1dc and 1ero·crmsin1,? C\timalion. The ·
soumh· sp1.•1.·trum ront:.iins in fornmt ion about till' sounds· lh:q m•n1.·y range and lrnrmonk
1.·onh:nl. The w:1wfonn sug!(l.'Sts soun·e 1:t1.•ncration llll'1.·h:111i•m1s ;ind. lw11.-c. pu-.sihk synthesis proel·durcs. Opera!Or-intnal·tiw di)!il;il lillcrinj! isol:1ll'' imlividu:il -.ou11d' and cnh:111l·c~
'\ignal-to-noiM' ratios.
15
SECRET
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SECRET
FREQUENCY (kHzJ
ll':\CL,\SSIFll ll1
ll 'l Fi1rnrc 11. Timc-frC<jllC!l~y watcrfoll ph>t of :i simula1<.'d killc1 whale
sound. Time ha1 t'qual~ I 00 ms.•,-.
SECRET
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;81 111e synthesis of pilot whale sounds requires an ability 10 desaibe the sounds·
microstructure and to choose the generated frequencies. For applications not requiring rl."altirne generation, sounds can be tape recorded. Recorded sounds would haw an upper frequency limit about 7 kHz. Methods of sound synthesis involve signal generation tedmiqLll'S
and computer software but the upper frequem·y of synthcs.ized sounds is limited lly hardw;.in:.
TRANSDUCERS (U)
BACKGROUND (U)
.J.Br Transducers for transmir.ting antl receiving COMBO low-data-rate mcssagcs
should have the following characteristics:
o A fre<1uency range of 20 Hz to I 0 kHz.
o A source level of 160 to 200 dB re I µPa at I m. and
o A projector signa1·to-noisc ratio of at least 5 5 dB.
Different transducers may be required to transmit different types of sounds.
CU> We surveyed ":.7 transmitting and 9 receiving systems to identify 1ran:-.duccrs
a..:ccptable for COMBO use.
-tSr Sound projectors transmit most cfli!ctiwly in a rdativcly narrow frl'quc111.:y
band. For some projectors. the effective band is wide enough for COMBO applkation with
certain sounds. but no proje..:tor is suitable for all COMBO sounds. Fvr example. COMBO
codes 1onals in pilot whale phonalions from I to 3 kHz. but the animal's sonic repertoirl· ..-xtends from 300 Hz to 15 kHz. The COMBO schem~ is directl!'d toward use of lkcl sonar
l!quipmc-nt. but olher transducers wcrc surveyed because fleet equipment dol!s not fulfill all
COM BO requirements.
1-e-T No fleet sonar system proje1.·t_s i:-ffoclively over thc fr.:qucn1.:y hand rt•quir.:d for
all low data rate transmisi;ions in the COMBO s.:heme. so WI! consi<lcr'-'ll projcl'tors with re·
gard to the kind of sounds that could be projected. The sounds' animal sources were dassiticd by frequency limits. High·frcqucncy animal sourcl!sproJucc sount.ls in th.:: 500- to 8000·
Hz range. Small whales and porpoises. spcc.:ifically, belui.:a. killer and pilot whab. un: high·
frcquc111.;y sources of COMBO sounds. C'om11onents of small whales· signals may cxct'cd X
kHz. but attl!llUation limils COl\111\llllicalion u1ilily or tht> signals' higher frcqul'm:ics. Mid·
frl'qm;:ncy animal soun:es produce sounJs in the 70- tq 3000-Hz rang.:. Some: large whak~.
such as humpbacks. :mt! most pinnipcds arc mid-frl'qucncy COM 80 sotm:cs. Low·frl·quc11'.. ~,.
animal sources prodm:c soum.ls in the ~0- to ~00-Hz range. Largl.' whales. suc.:h as h Im:. linh;id;
and gray whales. are low-frequency COMBO sources. Because the frequency limits ovt:rl:ip.
:-:.omc animals arc sources in two categories.
FLEET PROJECTORS CU)
J.&r Fleet sonarsappli1.·abk 10COMBO applkationsar1.· listl·d in tahk 4. h1a1.kqLL1L·
low frl•queon1.·y response limits most or !hi." units. Only GNATS satisfks ;i complck sub1:i ... k
1.·atcgory. namely the miu-freqUl'lh:y scgm l.'11 ts. Thl' GNATS S}'Sll.'111 usl.':<- 1hrl'l' 1 r:rnsdlh.:•'I">
:111J each trunsducl.'r operntcs in a J is1i11ct frcqtKtKY range I rcforcnl·,· .~51.
31
SECR!T
SECRET
;81' The WQC -2 low-band project111g transducer system l'Ould be equalized to provide adequate n:sponse from I. I to al least 5 kHz. at a source: lewl of approximately 190 dB
rl' I µP:1 al I Ill. Allernativdy. sounds could be preequalized for use with the: system. Use of
till' WQC-2 driving amplilia in a COM BO sd1cme would require auxiliary input from a tlat
rcspollSl' l'irl'Uit. The WQC -2 is installrd on submarines and surfacl.' vessds for con1111unil·a·
tions.
J,.&1' The frcque;:ncy response of thl' WQC-2 is too nar1ow for the en Iin: range of the
high-frcqul'lll'Y l'ategory or sounds. but is adcquale for COMBO transmissions of killer
whale. fal~e killer whak·. beluga. and holllenose porpoise sounds.
.,
i
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-t-Bf Thl' frequi:nry ri:sponse of the SQQ-23 with :111 auxiliary amplil'ier and of the
B<)S-1 J in a rn111111unicalions moue ne:1rly equals the response of tile WQC-2. The BQS-1 J
b limitl·d IK·Jow ~.5 kl lz anu is thus limill'd lo transmit I ing porpoise-like sounds in a COM BO
rnmmu;1ica1ions applkalion .
.k&r The c;NATS sysh:m frequenl'Y range is suitable for 1r:ms111ilting high- and 111idfrl·11ul'nl·r ratcgory animal sounds. hut the system has a maximum 1110-<lB ~ource level l'a·
p:ihilily. COMliO sound~ rl·quire 180- to IQO-dl! sourl·e le\'cls to achieve ad"'quate co111muni1.·a1ions r:111gl'. Arw:hcr pmsiblc disadvantage to COMBO applkation of the l;NATS ~)·~l•'lll
is lhat only 10 c;NATS Sl'ts were built. and till' avail:1hility of 1:11its is questionable.
CO~I
;k1 Our sun•ey irn.lil:ates th:1\ tlcet so11:1r projl'l'tors :m· most suiwhl.· fur projecting
BO :mim:rl signals in the high·frequenl'Y l';ltegory.
OTHER PROJECTORS (U)
_..£8( Other prnjel.'.tors surveyed mel'l wrt:1in C'OMBU criteria. Se\'eral pmkrlors
h:.rvc potential llSl' for al'Cl'ptahle COMBO lrnnsmissions I tabl"' 5 l. l·:xc"'pt for the lloneywdl
I IX I K2-A. thl· listeu pmjl·ctors :m· snrnll and lightweight. The NOSC Pl! DIV i~ 1he only
tra1i:;;.l11•~r ·,ur.·e~·~d that ••Ill l'flljo:.:t hru;11.lh;i11J suuml ;1t frcqu;:nl'il~ :1~. luw J:; .:'.O H'1 with
no ~ignifil·ant distortion I l'igure )01. Uisadvantagl'.s of till' NOSC' PllD IV for nnrno
,,·01111lmrii1·atiitl1•; 11flflli.:1Ui1.in.;; i.rL1:liA•I·· .:i1hql9~1·t .;1.111r1-.•',l1•1td 4i1ni'i.ofd 'it• ·itlf 1·1J, .. ;11l.. :111·1· of
al·tiw depth co111pem:1tio11. ;1111.I a rninimum frc4uenl'Y lirnit that increase~ with deplh.
)Rf' Thl· IT<· 20 I0 and 20 I I projcelors \.'.(>ver a hrnad frl·quency hund uml oper:l!l'
:11 :111 a(kquate sourl·e kvel. The ITC units an: small :111d omnidirl·etion:ll in the plane nonn;il
to 1hl.'ir aXl'S. Together. till' ITC' projertor~ have hl•en Slll'Cl'ssl'ully used in ('{)l\I BO sea tl'Sls.
~ Thl· paramet ril· sy~ll·111 from the N;1val Underwater Systcms Cent,•r ! !'\USC' I is
hrnadhaml ahovl' I kl lz and is suitable for projcl.'.ling C'O~l BO soumls of porpoises and small
wlwlcs 1figun: I 11. The p;ll'amclri.' system i~ v"'ry dirl'l'I ional and 111:1y projl'l't unwant.·d
lllllplll al pri111:1ry frl'l)lll.'llo..'il'S that will foll Within the dl'tl'l'lilln r:lllgl' Of ('()~1130 signal
ren11milion i11,tn111wnts.
~ Thl· 11011.·ywdl llX 18~-A projl·o:tor opL·ratl·d satisfactorily at fr.·<1ue11.il'' from
110 10I!Oil111tfigun·I21. Tlw projeo.:lor i~ inadl·quate for COMBO sig11:1b in the low-or
I
SECRET
I
Maximum Undislorh·d
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..
SQQ-~J
'Low lkllllh
· 3. BQS-13 1Comm Modl')
4. GNATS
f2~t1~·~~'L·-~.l~l~
Sourl·c Level.
dB r~ !~~~a! _!_!~1
Surfo~c/Suhmarin.:
1.5-5
190
Sur!'m:c
lf~l
:!00+
Sub111ari111.·
:!.5. 8
:!00+
Suhnmrint.>
O.Oh - ''
lf\O+
-8
(CO~ILIDENTIAL)
(ll) Table 4. Fleet sonars considered for COMBO-like applkatioi1s.
w
w
Tr:mS<.hll'.l'T
!
Frcl1ucncy
Response
kl-b.
-~-·
01ler:1ling
SoUTl'I.' Ll·vcl
~-B r~~-'!_I~.:.. l_m
Depth
Limit. m
~ '?~ 1°!¥~r.:1 I iO}l
Approximatl.'
Size. m
·---·-·
NUC J>MD IV
0.01 -0.I
15(1
No data
Cylind,·r
0.4 Di:i x 0.5
llX 18:!-A
0.0h • I.I
190
:!.rn
Cylinder
0.<1 Dia x 1.8
ITC ~010
I·4
18o+
Unlimited
. Ring
0.5 Dia x 0.3
ITC ~011
4 - l)
Jl)O+
Unlim itl'd
Ring
0.:! Dia x 0.1
NUS<· Pm:mwtril·
1 . 10
195+
l)J
DiSl'
0. •J Dia x 0. I
!j.,
I
[
( UNC'LASSIFIEO)
( lJ) Tahle 5. No11-nee1 1'roje..:1t•rs •nnsiJcreJ for COMBO-like a1111lkati1111s.
\
:.
llli~,;
~
200INPUT
~~
........
N
J:
·~
>
(.)
z
w
::::>
:a"
;,
-~ ~.
;!
_f;
Ji
iw
lt f:;
t~
c:-=-
=---
re:
~=··-
------~-
o-r-~~-r~~~,--~~.-~~--,,-~~-.--------=--4
200;:-
.
OUTPUT
0
w
a:
u..
'
~~:.
~.A
:.~.;:
--
o-.:~~~~~~~~~~~~~:::-::-,~~'."':::~:::=~-,-~r-~~~-;60
::Z'~ ""'.":~ ~. ~ ~
0
,....,
E
20
TIME (sec}
..._
t:-~
40
!,USC'tASSIFltDI
I Fl Figure 10. Sonugrams of blue whale sounds re·recorded directly from the playback tape rl"cmder
("input". abm-el anJ after pr.ljection h}· the PliD IV transducer at Q 111 Jepth f ..ou1p111". helow1.
ll1e effective anal~·sis filter band\\idth i: I.I Hz.
~-~-····· ·~ ,,.-._.-.:.:y.,·,.,.-;,,..... ,""°:tdh""""''·~-~41..,!".':',,:.c{,<J"~~::~~~~~"'~i!-~~~l1-~~
SECRET
·O
0al
'!
-
r-..
.o·
N
</')
..
0
J:
~
......
=
u
...
>
.....
lU
°'
.,
7
:;:;
......
z
0
L
';!
··,
~
::i
~
•,
°'
u
::
fo-
:,c
LU
a..
V'I
/
";::
"'
"
0
iO
UJ
.....
~
~
:f;
.,
_,
!;:::
i.!
~
i.or
......
..:ic·
N
!:
z
~
I-
-
;
=
..,,
,,
.,
-.,
:f;
~·
-
:::: ,
...:
-
>-
~
3Wll
u..J
::i
0LU
""'
L1-
35
SECRET
I
SECRET
180
,..
170
@>
160
,I
:!
~
./\/
ca
a.
:l.
,..
...
C»
150
,,,
a:J
-
. .J
UJ
>
w
140
..J
L&J
()
a:
.:;)
130
0
1l
en
120
HX-182A
110<--~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~--~~~~~~
10
, 1000
100
FREQUENCY (Hz)
{UNCtASSIFIEl>l
{U) Figure 12. Respon$C ofllX I 82·A projector in series with a 110-to-WCi Ilz band
rejection filter. TI1e input sign:il was 100 V rms at 400 Hz. TI1e source dcp1b wa~
62m.
36
•,
:;,
<:
''
SECRET
10000
SECRET
,·alq!111i,·,. :\ lk,·f,1111;11 lN'.i in 1<tllllllh ti.111 ''itlt :111 ll\ I!>..'·:\ .111<1 a l'llll-f\'
b,·.-;ipahJ,· ,1ft'1l:-.llHJ 11a11,1111"1"11,,11t1'<'<lll<'ll\'1'''110111 _'ll t11 111.rn111 ll1
1nid·ft\·11u<'ll•\
w1>11!d
l.OW-Fl~LOlJl .. NCY 1•1wnno1~ S !UJ
1
1
Si'.1. h•\l·fr,·q11<'lll'~ pn1j,·.-inr' \lll'l•'Y•'d aH' dn,·1rh,·.I 1111:1hk11 I lrl' h~d1a111i,
lll<'<'h:1111'11" uf 1h<· h~ di 0;1,·.,1i-1 i<' ill'\ kl'' Ji,ll'd prnd 11,·,· 1111.1, ,·q•t ahk li.1r:ll'11u, d1,lo1I11111
.1ml <':;:lran,'1•11' ,·0111pt111,·11h. I lw II\ ~~-1-B 11'<'';' d1!k1,·11t p1l',,llh' .-u11111,•11,:1ti11:1 '''1'°•ll
th;111 lh« II.\ 1>'2·:\. ,.\If pm_k•'h•1·, [j,h•d in lahf,· I• h:1\\' ;'ll':1k1 '"111,·1· kh·I, :111d Jn, •kpth
v:11,il1qt~ lhan !he l'llll I\'.
1l 1
I.
FLEET RECEIVING TRANSDUCERS Ill!
~ fltll' 'llf\l'~ md1,;1l<'' 1k111,•,\0 i\'1•r, 11:1·1·1111µ
,.
'
l'O\lllO 1·1111:lla ;11,· ;11;n/.1Jlk m th,·
lk\'I lt;1hk -, I It,· l'l'<'<'llill)! l<''l'"ll": ol lli1' \\'t)I ·-~ j, 11;11ruv• .:,l 11I Iii« ,Ul'l«~,·,l 1imh h1r
•'\1'111l,!! lla11\dll<'1'1'. 1h" \()1)-.;.: j, 111''1 lor ( O\ll!(J ;1ppli .. 1IH!fl 101 '111la«' 'hil" a111i 1fi,·
llOR- 7 '' 11pl 1111;d lor ,11hm;1111w,, t 11>v,·,I an.1~, )!I\\' ..: \ h·n.!, ,\ hnv·l h'•I 11\'1i.·~ ,.,.,., ,,~,-. h111
111.·11· ll\1.' I' l'l'"n1·1h,.. ,\ hr11adh:111d l1ydrnph11111· will b,· •l•'l'l',,;1ry ro1 ,mf.i.-.· ,hjp, '"
n·1·l'iw CCJ:-.IHO 'IHllH/... I Ji,· B<Jl{-7 l'11:1bk' 'ul111wn111•, lo 1-.·.-c1w COMBO ,01111if, al
fr1·t111,•11,·i,·, ;1, lnw a'
~o
111
-t!Tt- Su 1f;,,·,· ,111p' ,·an ;ii" 1 " " ' "rnohuo~' 1-< 1 ''"'" 1"" <·c IM BO ''!!11:11, i 11 111,· ,•111 ir"
10.0lltH 11 i'J"<·q11,•n\\ r;lll)!t' ,\ 'on11h11;1~ d,·ploy1•d awa~ Irum .1 ,nrl·al'•' ,hq> \\ <'1111 I
likl'I~ r1·,·dn• k" •>Wlhhip noi-.· than h11ll-111ou111\•d i.·,·,·i\<'I'... 1\11l\'1lll;1 h<'lf!hl lm:ih '"ll•>h111•y rmlio l':lll!!l". I kjll'llllin)! • •ll ,,.a ''""'·a 'Ill r.11'l' ,Jijp 1110\ 111)! ;1: ~(J l..1 ,1im.ltl ,,...,.j,.,.
('(IMHO ,iµnal' from ;1 "'m1h11<» i't•r I~ 10 30 111in.
20-
111
DEPLOYMENT Sl:.('UJUTY 1U1
p.
.)o..!t1 ('{"·,·rt :111d ,,.,·llrt' ;ippli1·;1tio11 of lh1· ( {ll\1 IH l <'Ollllllllllk;1t1011'
"'''"''"'
n·q111"''
lhal Ill·: hio;1,·,111~1k 'i1m:1h hav,· :ul,·quall' 11.1lur;il qm1hll•''· 1\c1111,lil' ,·nll'ria 1'01 '1g11:1l 11al·
11r;1lll1''" ind111k fitklil~. '1111r1·1· l••\·d. fr1·111tL'lll'~ ,·on1t·n1. w;1wfo1m. arnphlmk and 1/11rn11011.
S1wdl'k 'l)!tWI' al'o mu'! o,·.-m· :•I linlL'' ;111!1 lo1·;11i1111' propn fnr "111r,·L· ;111imak
TRANSl>llCEl~S I UJ
JXr ~" 11mkrwal1': ,rnrnd l'Tok,·tin)! 1·qt1il'lll"111 ,·;111 1r:111,11111 h1oa.-011,t1< '11rnal'
'wilh ;1h,ohi1<' fitll'lil~. Siµnal ;malrh <"an l'l'\'.:;d th<' p,·i·111rha1ion' tlwr 1r;111,t111.-..r '~'ll'111'
imp11s1· u111r:11b11li~'i•Hl' :rmf ,·;in jlf,·ntif~· u1111:1t•ir.1l bioaco11,tk ,jg11ah. I r;11Nh11·1.•r, !hal
projL·,·1 hioacou,lk 'i)!11;1J, for ,·om1111111k·a1i1111' n:11,1limi11/1t• 1r;111,mit1<·d p1.•rturh:1lin1h 'o
!ht• ,i)!nal v;1rh1hility llL'<'Urs within n11r111al limit' for :1 k11owktlg1•:ihk Ji,k1ll'r
SOUIKI: LFVJ::LS IUI
~ C'n11111l1:ni1·;1tinn applk,1li1•n,.111 hioa1·1111,1i,· ,:;.maf, may r•·•11111•· !1ii;h1·HliaJ111:1111ral "1111,·" k\•''- lo m1·r1·11rn1· propaµa11011 lo" !;1,·1"r' and II' .1dll«I ,. 'ul hl'iL'lll •u11111111·
11kal1rn" 1;111µ.-,. I lh· "llih'•' l•:l'vl' ol ;>ho11.1liPll" h~ br)!• .... hak' a1-.· :11kquah' for 11111,1
.n
SECRET
i ;,.,;.
r.~!f.:~~~r:_-~:;~~~'::'8J~*"l'.lffi!~:~t.t-;~~~~rfh"7~:0r:;;;:;.;'!;;l!i:;.:.,,.....
~~
.• ~""1'~
····.. ,.,......,~~"'"'' "'·'"' ..,.. --,,
!
Fre•1ucncy
Response.
Hz
Trnnsllu,·er
Op•:rational
Depth
Limit. 111
Sottri:c: Lc\·d.
LIBn.· I µPa.at Im
Hon.:ywdl
HX 254-8
B.:ndcr Bar
Ma~navox
Bcn1kr
Bar
w
00
Configuration
25-1(\0
180
450
91 un Dia x I 20 cm plu~
depth .:ompen!>ator. Ql)O kg. to\Vctl
Resonant at
50 Hz
180
450
43 ,·m Dia x XI .:m. 135 kg
hO·· 105
180
4(10
53
Genera\ Dyna111i,·s
Hydro;u:oustks
.:111
Dia x 2-15 .:m. 730 kg.
Moc.g Hydroacoustk
40 - 400
180 at 55 Hz
155
455 kg
Westinghouse
Flexural Dis,·
190 < Broallh;;nd I
10- 100
200 ( Dis.:rt•tc Freq I
No data
1800 kg
No data
0.24m 3 • 455 kg
tO\\'CU
Acrojet Electrosystem!> rh:surnl
Dis~·
25 - 95
1C)C)
IC0PfflBUfflALI .
JtJ Tal>le 6. Low·frequency projectors surveyed for possible COMBO-like applications.
...
··.·~--,,-.-.;;i. :llwl~
··.:n"'-'
~~
JI,.
SECRET
System
Depluym.:nt
Fr.:qu.:n ..·y. kllz
SQ0-23
Surr:i ..·..•
o..'i. ,,
B()R-7
Suh111a ri1ll'
0. I · 7
Suh111ari1h'
U. .'i · S
S(.>R-17 lTASSl
Suhrn;1ri1ll'
U.O I • J. I
B()R-1.'i <ST,\SS I
S11hmari1ll'
O.ll:\ - ~ . .'i
1305·<1.
I.~
!Sl:fl~l:'fl
I U) Tallie 7. 1-lt> :I rccci\'el"S s11i1anlc for possible
C'O~IBO-like
applkaliuns.
CO!\IBO :1ppli ..·atiuns. C'o111111u11kation signals th:1t us ..• phonation' of 011! ..·r mann'-' 111a111111ab
111:1y hare 10 ..·x..:e ..·d 11:1tural sour..·e k•vcls by up to .~O dB. Sour ..·e kvcl b :i flm ..·11011 or th,•
trnnsqtission\ ..·oded l'r..·qu ..·11 ..·y :md intended rang•'. Use of unnatur;dly high ,mir..-..· 1..-v ..·ls
~hould he limill'd to shurt-dur:11ion t ransmis~ions :md low fre,111en ..·y sounds.
SIGNAL SYNTHESIS (lJ)
~
. '
i·
•..'
Signal sy1111l..·s1s has rqirodue ..·d port ions or pilot whale sinusoi,Jal wavci"orm
whistl~·s. The sournb of lat"µ•' wh;ik•s have not h..•..·n synth••.;i1.cd. Adcquat•• .;ynthesi~ of hioa ..·oustk sign:lls for l"<>Vl'rt ..·m1111111nk:.1tions rl·quir..·s quality ·rl· ..·ordings of natural sound~ .
Synthe~ized sign:ils arl' ..:onstru ..·t ..·d frnm and ..:om pared with the naturnl te111pl:1tes. Synthe-"
siz..·d sig11:1ls must :1ppear n:itural on snn;irdispl:iys and 111us1 sound natural to k'nmvlcdgeahlc
list ..·n ..•rs.
..t!tft The for111:1ts pr..·s..·nting hio:1..:011stk ..·01111111111i..::1tio11s sigu:lls must also he natural.
The in ..·rc:isl' in eriti..::11 hamlwidt!1 with frcqucn..:y in animab' auditory function implies that
h:111dwi<lth of:111ii11al sounds :llso in ..Te:1scs with t"rl•q11c11 ..·)'. Thus. syntlll'sized :ini111:1I signals
that SWl'ep ;1..:ross freqlll'nl·y should have llllll"I.' frl'ljllelll")' v:1ri;111 ..·e ill thl' hi1!11-fn.:qucn ..·y por·
tion. Some fomwts. ~Udl as the :1111plitud ..· rise :ind de ..·ay or ..:horu~cs . ..:hanj!.e gr:idually :md
vary ran<J0111ly. Clihl•r form:1ts. SU..:11 as hlllllph:Jl"k wh:1J..- ~ong~. Ol"l"LIJ" in distin..:t rl1ytl1llli..:
sequ ..·;1 ..·cs that ar•· rcp ..·;ikd as st;inza~.
Y.() Lnsl'lllhks upon whid1 n1ded sii:1rnl'i ar•· supC'rimpos•·d 11111,t h•· randomly ..:onstru..:tcd. The lihr:iry of ..:omprn:e11t synthcsiZl·d '\Olllltls mu~I h•· l:1rge cno1q;h t lwl long-1..-rm
analog .r..·..·ord in gs :ire 11on rcp ..·:1 ting.
;.Rf During sc;i tri:ils ol"COi\11~0 l'q1lipmcnt. tr:1nsmi,~ion of syntlwsiz ..·d pilo1 wh:ile ·
sounds :ittradcd pilot whales to thC' tr:m~mitt ..·r. The whaks" pho11;11io11s adlil'\I to th..: soni..:
l'llVironmen I wi thou I tk!lrad ing th ..· .-1 1 n11m1ni ..·at ions l'llorl.
39
SECRET
..
~:..:;..:.:·-·-
:i
'~
I
SECRET
SIGNAL OCCURRENCE (U)
)8'5 Bioacoustic communication signals must occur at the proper time and place.
No marine mammal is pan-oceanic and many Jisrinct phonations occur only at certain times
or places. The frequency with which a bioacoustic communication will be used depends upon
the communicators' a1:tivitics. More common signals should be used for more frequent 1:ommunications.
.4Bf A guide to biologics has been produced to familiarize sonam1en with bioacoustic
signals. bioacoustic sources, and marine mammal distribution t reference 12>.
FLEET IMPACT (U)
.f.5'r A six-week study of Project COMBO and of the effects of bioacoustics on fleet
oper.itions condudcd that both the U.S. and the Soviet Union would have the capahility to
apply bioacoustics to communications rasks after 1975 (reference 36 ). Covert active sonar
using marine animal sounds requires changes in fleet sonar hardware and operating doctrine.
Reliable. relatively covert communications possible through Project COMBO also will affect
submarine ta(.·tical deployment.
~ Poor communications disrupt coordination in submarine escort or ASW opera·
tions. Even a limited covert co111munication ability will enhance coordination between surface ships and submarines. Project COMBO provides covertness unavailable with prcscntlyd1:ployed two-way communication systems and thus enhances ~oordination in critical
scenarios.
-+st- LJ_S. Sonarmcn typically tune out biologics as interference. but Soviet use of
bioaeoustics for communications is likely. so fleet sonannen must become more familiar
with bioacoustic signals. Past biologics dassifkation wus base~ on NAST AD training tapes.
aural memory and the som1m1e11's ex1,criencc. Annotated BQR-20/2'.! displays and hio-.
·acoustic indices I rclcren·-·e 12) now augment the classification effort.
~ Marine animal sounds arc ubiquitous I reference 37) and likely well-known to
Soviet sonarmi;-11. Signal processing techniques will aid anu advance underwater military
1:om111unit.:ations. hut U.S. for1:cs may face <1n increasingly costly race 10 stay below 1m.·sumcd dl.'tection thresholds. Covert communication by natural disguise is ;i psyd1ologically
confounding allcrnativc approach that can convey consider.able advantagl' to the adversary
first employing the technique.
40
SECRET
.. - - - .
..........
-~·
_·.
SECRET
REFERENCES !U)
I. Cunm1ings. W. C.R. l. S.:1.'ky. P. 0. Thompson. S. J. Kennison. Uni11L10: (\>mmuni,·a·
lions System (UL Patent Disdosurc r\o. 59. 1l78. !1>75, tSl.CltLTl
Scl..'ley. R. L. W. C C\1mn1111gi.. S. J. Kcnni"°n. Cl:.inmm11i.:a1ion {'hannd Fa.ding
Co111pe11s:.ttor I UI. Pall'nt Disdosun: No. 58. 1179. I 975.-1 SITllLTJ
J: Johnson. R.A .. R. L. S.·.-k)'. W. C. c·ummilll:fS, S. J. Ko:1rni~m1. Co1111irnnkatio11~ hror
C'om.•.:tion Dev kl.' 1 U). Patent Di~dosurc No. 58.980. 11i75. 1~ilTIU.T >
4. S.·l'lcy. It L. \\'. C.
Cu111111ing~.
lniliali1.atio111U1. Pa'l.'111
5.
S. J. Kennison. Srndm111i1.cr for C'onununi.·iltion
l"\o. 5'l.5-l~. 11175. tSU'lll.ll
Di~dosur.·
Ad llo.· Stlldy (irnup. NSIA Ad 11111.: S1>1Jr A.·m1~ti•· Conmumkation Hnal R.·port i l L
N:itional Sl.'•'Urity lndus1ri;il A~~od;1tio11. J<J7~. t('Ol'il'lllU\'l IALl
'" l hiw:irJ. I:. F. IAC'SiORP Op.-r;itio11:1I F.::1~ihility anti Eff,·•livcnl.'~~ Study: Opcr:ator
fmh.•d ~11.'ssagc lnpuls tlll. t\USC' TM t\o. EAIX-n 5-74. 197-l. t('Oi>'Fll>l·.r:.:·1 L\l.1
7.
Wr,•nd1. E.11. Jr. l11.-n:;1~·d Sipn;1l l>ro,·cs.. ingSpccd
Unpuhli~hell NUC Report. I UNCLASSIFll~DI
U~ingSw.·cp
X.
Tlrnmpso11. P. 0. :md W. C. Cu111111ini~. Critkal Survey ofCcnai11 Umkrwulcr Sound
Tr:tll'.\(htl.'.:r~ I UI. Unpuhlishl.'d l\'U<. Rl.'1iort. I UNC'Ll\SS[Fll·.O 1
Limit Cuntrol•t'I.
11. Ch risl ian. J. Opl.'nt1in11 C'hantl.'ll.'l"isl k:-. 1>1' J I 5·3. llX-1 H~. and 1IX·18 2 111 llX· 1X~ I lull
l.nw·Frcquc1wy Transi.lu,·,·r~ ( U 1. Unpuhlbhcd NUC Report. I1>75. <LJ,'I;( "LASSI Fl I I> I
R. S. and S. ~!.:Vay. So11ps of l lumpha,·k Whaki.. Sdcn.:c. 17 J: 585-5'17. l 'J7 l.
I 0.
P:iy11I.'.
l I.
Cummin!;!s. \V. C'.. J. F. Fj,h :uul P. 0. Thompson. Sound (>rodul.'tion aml Oth,·r
B!!l1:1vior of Southern Righi Whah:s. J:'uhalamu ~ladali.t CUI. Tr;111,;1;.:1in11-. uf Iii.• San
l>il;'J!O So,·idy of N:iturni I li,tmy 17! 11: 13 pp, 1117 2.
12. <"u111111i111:,--s. W. C. ;uHl P. 0. ·1 homp,011. Son:ll'man· .. Ciui1k lo Bioloi::i•·" 4l:1. l\OSC
TD !Kl. 77 pp. July 1 1 17H.1('0Nl'IUl.~TIALI
1.l. <'t11nmings. W. C. and I'. 0. Thompson. Soumb !'mm Brpl'"" :1ml Finhad> \\'lwl•'" in
1111.' (;ulf lll' C1liforni:1 I UI. NOS(' u11p11hlbh~d Tl'Jl<lfl. :;i. pp. 1l.IN('LASSIFIH>i
1-l. Sdwvill. W. I: .. W. i\. \\'at kin~. ;and R. 11. Ua•ku~. Thi.' 20·«r«k' Signab and 1Ju/a,·11n1•11·n1
I Fin Whalc~l I lll. Marin•· 13io-A..-ou,tk~: Prn•·•·l.'llini::~ of a ~ympo,ium llcl.t ;it 1lw Ll'fll••r !
~larin0 L1hor;1tory. IH111in i. H:1h;1111a~. i\ pril ! 1·13. I <>11J. Ma.:millan C'mnpan) . \;!!\\
York. l%4.1Ul'\C'LASSIFll·D1
41
SEGRET
- ,· *' .• ~
SECRET
15. Cummings. W. C. and P. 0. Thompson. Underwater Sounds from the Blue WhaJe.
Balaeuoptera musculus (U). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 50(4): I 193-1 198. 1Q7 J.
16. Backus. R. and W. E. Schevill. Pllyseter Clicks (U). /11 Whales, Dolphins. and Porpoises.
edited by K. S. Norris. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeks, 1966.
17. Watkins, W. A. Acoustic Behavior of Sperm Whales (U). Oceanus (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution), 20(2): 50-58. 1977.
18.
Busnel. R. G. and A. Dziedzic. Acoustic Signals of the Pilot Whak Globicepllalu melaena
and of the porpoisesDe/pltimis de/pit is andP/wcoe11aplwcoe11a ( U). /11 Whales, Dolphins.
Porpoises, edited by K. S. Norris. University of California Press. Berkeley and Los
Angeles. 1966.
19. Fish, J. F. and C. W. Turi. Acoustic Source Levels of Four Species of Small Whaks.
NUC TP 547. 14 p •. December 1976. (UNCLASSIFIED>
20.
Sd~evill. W. E. and W. A. Watkins. Whale and Porpoise Voices. A Phonograph Record.
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. 24 p. phonograph disk, 1962.
21.
Schevill. W. E. and W. A. Watkins. Sound Structure and Directionality in OrC'i1111s
(Killer \\'.hale) <U). Zoologica. 51(6): 76-76, 1966.
22.
KOQyman. uupublished recording of killer whale sounds in Antarctic.
of Oceanography.
s~:ripps
Institution
23. Schevill. W. E. and B. Lawrence. Underwater Listening to the White Porpoise Welplli11apterus leucas) (U). Science. 109(2824): 143-144. 1949.
24.
Evans. W. E. and J. H. Prescott. Observations of the Sound Production Capabilities of
the Bottlenosc Porpoise: A study of Whistles and Clicks ( U). Zoologka. 47: 121-128.
1962.
25. Cummings and Thompson. unpublished recording of Pacific White-Sided Porpoise.
(UNCLASSIFIED)
26. Schevill. W. E. and W. A. Watkin~. Underwater Calls of lepto11yc/101es (Weddell Seal I
(U). Zoologica. 50( I): 45-46. 1965.
27. Ray. C.. W. A. Watkins. and J. J. Burns. The Underwater Song of Erig11atlws <Beare.led
Seal) (U). Zoologi<:a. 54(2): 79-8J. 1969.
28.
Schevill. W. E.. W. A. Watkins. anc.I C. Ray. Underwater Sounds of Pinnipec.ls (Li).
Science. 141(3575): 50-53. 1963.
29. Watkins. W. A. and C. Ray. Underwater Sounc.ls from Ribbon Seal. Plwca ( flistrioplmcu)
fasciata (U). Fishery Bulletin. 75<2): 450-453. 1977.
42
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30. Sd1L1stl·r111:1n. R. J .. R. c;.:r,try. and J. Sd11110ok. Undcrwall'r Sound l'rodul"lion by
Caplil'l' California Sl·a Lions. /.c1/11ph11x ni/i.fiimic1il11.,· ( U I. Zoologka. 52: 21-24. I 1l1> 7.
3 I. Cummings. \V, C'. l'rojl·l·l COM 130: l'ro1m·ss Ro:porl for l:isl·:d Yo:ar I IJ7J ( U l. Nal'al
t!11do:rs1::1 C'l'llll'r TN 1009.
~2
pp. I lJ?J.-t!il.C'IU:TJ
32. C11111111in1?s. W. C'. 1 rogn:s~ l\knm. l1 mj.:,·1 C'Ol\IHO. 28 lkl·o:111bo:r l'l7J I U). l'al'al
U1ak•N':1 (\·1111:r Ml·mo to I>. c;. lloffm:m. NSlllPS l'MS 3024. 17 pp.
1
( C'Of>' Fl I)) Xl"L't LI
l'n!!i11wr~.
J3.
Urkk. R. J. l'rindpk·s o!'Umk·rll':ll..-r Sound for
J42 pp. 1%7. <UNCLASSIFILDI
J.~.
Johnson. R. A. anll 1\. W. Dihdk:1. A11:1ly~is and
Nl!C TP 5.l.l. Jc, pp. JlJ7C1. (('O~Jl"ll)l.~fflAU
35.
lkll. T. c;. :111d c;. C'. C'onnally. Jr. 1:uturo: Rl·quirl•nt..-nts for c;l'lll'r;il Nois..- and Tonal
Sysll•ms 1c;~ATSl IUl. NUS(' TR 411 l.l. X4 pp. l'l73. l!il.C"RLTI
311.
Markh. M. NU(' l\ll llHHamlu111. Sl·r 4013/W('C.SI 1/75. Ro:porl of A,·1ivi1y l>11ri:1g
To:mporiiry Additio1wl Duly <UL 15 pp. ! 1l7'i. 1Sl:Cltt:Tl
J7.
Cummill!!S. W. C'.. 1\'. T. l.0::1pky. Ci. B. h1rquh;ir. C. L. Brown. Jr .. W. I\. hil•dl.
"· L. Brooks. Bio:1rnu~1k l·:rrl'l'ls Oil l\';11':11 Opl'l":ltions: Rl'JlOrl or St:1tus and l{.:,·0111llll'ndations I U I. N:1val Undl'rsl·a Co:ntl·r Tl' 407 ..rn llJ>. J IJ74. 1CONl"1DnfF1AU
l\k(;r:1w·l litl. S;in halll'i"·o.
~
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Synth~si~
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