PEREGRINE HORDEN Is Professor of Medieval History at Royal Holloway, University of London, and an Extraordinary Research Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford. His recent publications include Hospitals and Healing from Antiquity to the Later Middle Ages (Ashgate, 2008), and (co-ed. with Elisabeth Hsu), The Body in Balance: Humoral Medicines in Practice (Berghahan, 2013), and he is writing The First Hospitals, a world history of its subject. He also studies environmental history, is co-author (with Nicholas Purcell), of The Corrupting Sea (Wiley-Blackwell, 2000), and is at work on its sequel, Liquid Continents. He co-edited, with Sharon Kinoshita, A Companion to Mediterranean History (Wiley-Blackwell, 2014). ABSTRACT | THE FIRST HOSPITALS – A HEALTHY ENVIRONMENT? Hospitals for the sick and needy that are recognizable forerunners of those familiar from modern times did not begin in the 1790s as Foucault thought. They began in the fourth century, the period known as Late Antiquity, around 1,400 years earlier. Charitable in intent – as were most European hospitals for centuries to come – some of them had doctors in attendance. Others, lacking doctors, none the less provided therapy: the therapy of religion, of an appropriate interior space, of external amenities, of a beneficial soundscape. My lecture will explore these various potential sources of healing – medicine without doctors, as well as with them – and will ask what lessons or inspirations they might offer to hospital designers now and in the future.