The 2014 World Cup – a nearest neighbour analysis The 20th FIFA football World Cup took place in Brazil from 12 June to 13 July 2014. The national teams of 31 countries and Brazil played 64 matches in 12 stadiums across the country. Brazil, the largest country in both South America and Latin America is the world’s fifth largest country in terms of population and size. In 2010, the population of Brazil was 190,732,694, although this number has grown considerably since then. The average population density, in number of people per square kilometre was 23.28 in 2011, according to the World Bank. However, the distribution of people is very uneven in Brazil. World cup 2014 poster Image courtesy of http://www.copa2014.gov.br/en/noticia/2014-fifa-world-cup-ambassadors-unveil-officialposter under the Licença Creative Commons Atribuição 3.0 Brasil The stadiums are located in 12 state capitals and cover all the main regions of Brazil. Map adapted from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2014_FIFA_World_Cup_venues The Nearest Neighbour Analysis is a statistical tool for examining a geographical distribution of locations to determine whether the pattern to be considered is regular, random or clustered. © www.teachitgeography.co.uk 2014 23078 Page 1 of 7 The 2014 World Cup – a nearest neighbour analysis Regular Random Clustered The technique is best applied to a sample size of 30 or more locations – however, a Nearest Neighbour Analysis can be used to consider the locations of the 12 World Cup 2014 stadiums if a suitable warning as to the validity and interpretation of the result is given. Nearest Neighbour Analysis The Nearest Neighbour Analysis statistic is calculated from the formula: Rn = 2đ √ n A đ is the mean of the distance observed between each location and its nearest neighbour, n is the number of sampled locations – for this analysis, n = 12 and A is the area under consideration. Distances need to be measured accurately, as straight-line measurements in kilometres. The area must also be measured in square kilometres. Brazil occupies approximately half of South America, with a total area of 8,514,215 km2. This includes 8,456,510 km2 of land and 55,455 km2 of water. © www.teachitgeography.co.uk 2014 23078 Page 2 of 7 The 2014 World Cup – a nearest neighbour analysis Student tasks Using the map of the World Cup 2014 stadiums and Google Earth, complete the table below to calculate the nearest neighbour analysis value. From stadium To nearest stadium Distance (km) Belo Horizonte Rio de Janeiro 346 Brasília Belo Horizonte 614 Cuiabá Curitiba Fortaleza Manaus Natal Porto Alegre Recife Rio de Janeiro Salvador São Paulo Total distance Mean distance Rn = 2đ √ n A The Nearest Neighbour Analysis will always generate a result between 0 and 2.15. Values of 2.15 indicate a regular pattern of the distribution, values close to a value of one indicate a random distribution and values of zero indicate a clustered distribution. What does the calculated value tell you about the distribution of stadiums for the 2014 World Cup in Brazil? © www.teachitgeography.co.uk 2014 23078 Page 3 of 7 The 2014 World Cup – a nearest neighbour analysis Extension task Calculate the Nearest Neighbour Analysis value using the distribution of the World Cup 2014 teams’ training camps. Team City Team City Algeria Sorocaba Greece Aracaju Argentina Vespasiano Honduras Porto Feliz Australia Vitória Iran Guarulhos Belgium Mogi das Cruzes Italy Mangaratiba Bosnia and Herzegovina Guarujá Ivory Coast Águas de Lindoia Brazil Teresópolis Japan Itu Cameroon Vitória Mexico Santos Chile Belo Horizonte Netherlands Rio de Janeiro Colombia Cotia Nigeria Campinas Costa Rica Santos Portugal Campinas Croatia Mata de São João Russia Itu Ecuador Viamão South Korea Foz do Iguaçu England Rio de Janeiro Spain Curitiba France Ribeirão Preto Switzerland Porto Seguro Germany Santa Cruz Cabrália United States São Paulo Ghana Maceió Uruguay Sete Lagoas © www.teachitgeography.co.uk 2014 23078 Page 4 of 7 The 2014 World Cup – a nearest neighbour analysis From training camp To nearest training camp Águas de Lindoia Ivory Coast Aracaju Greece Belo Horizonte Chile Campinas Nigeria Campinas Portugal Cotia Colombia Curitiba Spain Foz do Iguaçu South Korea Guarujá Bosnia and Herzegovina Guarulhos Iran Itu Japan Itu Russia Maceió Ghana Mangaratiba Italy Mata de São João Croatia Mogi das Cruzes Belgium Porto Feliz Honduras Porto Seguro Switzerland Ribeirão Preto France Rio de Janeiro England Rio de Janeiro Netherlands Santa Cruz Cabrália Germany Santos Costa Rica Santos Mexico © www.teachitgeography.co.uk 2014 23078 Distance (km) Page 5 of 7 The 2014 World Cup – a nearest neighbour analysis São Paulo United States Sete Lagoas Uruguay Sorocaba Algeria Teresópolis Brazil Vespasiano Argentina Viamão Ecuador Vitória Australia Vitória Cameroon Total distance Mean distance N = 32 Area = 8,456,510 km2 Rn = 2đ √ n A What does the calculated value tell you about the distribution of training camps for the teams of the 2014 World Cup in Brazil? Why do you think this is? © www.teachitgeography.co.uk 2014 23078 Page 6 of 7 The 2014 World Cup – a nearest neighbour analysis Suggested answer Using Google Earth to measure the distances between the stadiums: From stadium Rn = 2đ √ To nearest stadium Distance (km) Belo Horizonte Rio de Janeiro 346 Brasília Belo Horizonte 614 Cuiabá Brasília 882 Curitiba São Paulo 354 Fortaleza Natal 430 Manaus Cuiabá 1453 Natal Recife 244 Porto Alegre Cuiabá 546 Recife Natal 244 Rio de Janeiro Belo Horizonte 346 Salvador Recife 661 São Paulo Cuiabá 354 Total distance 6474 Mean distance 539.5 n A Rn = 1079 √ Rn = 1079 x 0.001191228 = 1.29 (to 2dp) 12 = 1079√0.00000141902 8,456,510 This value suggests a random distribution for the 12 stadiums. © www.teachitgeography.co.uk 2014 23078 Page 7 of 7

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